Middle East

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Middle East

Middle East

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  • 1. {{ Regions of the WorldRegions of the World The Middle EastThe Middle East
  • 2. • The term Middle East applies to the belt of countriesThe term Middle East applies to the belt of countries in Southwest Asia that lies between Afghanistan andin Southwest Asia that lies between Afghanistan and Turkey.Turkey. • The Middle East is characterized byThe Middle East is characterized by  Its arid climate.Its arid climate.  Its petroleum richesIts petroleum riches  Prevalence of IslamPrevalence of Islam • The Middle East forms a strategic belt between theThe Middle East forms a strategic belt between the developing industrial countries of Asia and the long-developing industrial countries of Asia and the long- developed countries of Europe.developed countries of Europe.
  • 3. I.I. Physical FeaturesPhysical Features A.A. The collision of the Iranian and Arabian tectonic platesThe collision of the Iranian and Arabian tectonic plates with the Eurasian Plate resulted in the mountain rangeswith the Eurasian Plate resulted in the mountain ranges that run form Turkey to Iran.that run form Turkey to Iran. 1.1. The belt between Turkey and Iran is characterized byThe belt between Turkey and Iran is characterized by elongated mountain ranges such as the Zagros and Alborzelongated mountain ranges such as the Zagros and Alborz ranges in Iran and the Pontic and Taurus Mountains inranges in Iran and the Pontic and Taurus Mountains in Turkey.Turkey. a.a. This area is prone to earthquakes, of which there haveThis area is prone to earthquakes, of which there have been several in recent decades.been several in recent decades. B.B. In contrast to the geologically active Tertiary mountainIn contrast to the geologically active Tertiary mountain belt, the Arabian Plateau is part of an ancient andbelt, the Arabian Plateau is part of an ancient and geologically stable shield.geologically stable shield.
  • 4. II.II. Climate and VegetationClimate and Vegetation A.A. The Middle East is predominantly arid to semi-The Middle East is predominantly arid to semi- arid, except for the areas that adjoin thearid, except for the areas that adjoin the Mediterranean, Aegean, Black and CaspianMediterranean, Aegean, Black and Caspian Seas.Seas. 1.1. The region is characterized by high temperatures,The region is characterized by high temperatures, especially in the Arabian, Syrian and Iranianespecially in the Arabian, Syrian and Iranian deserts.deserts. 2.2. In contrast, winter temperatures close to freezingIn contrast, winter temperatures close to freezing point occur in the highlands and snow falls in somepoint occur in the highlands and snow falls in some of the higher mountainous areas.of the higher mountainous areas.
  • 5. TheThe Climate ofClimate of thethe MiddleMiddle EastEast
  • 6. Climate of the Middle EastClimate of the Middle East
  • 7. B.B. The region receives little annual rainfall,The region receives little annual rainfall, except for winter rain in the areasexcept for winter rain in the areas bordering the Mediterranean, and there isbordering the Mediterranean, and there is a serious shortage of fresh water in thea serious shortage of fresh water in the Gulf area.Gulf area. 1.1. Vegetation in this region is dominated byVegetation in this region is dominated by thorny scrubland.thorny scrubland. B.B. The Euphrates and Tigris are the largestThe Euphrates and Tigris are the largest rivers in the Middle East.rivers in the Middle East. 1.1. Several short rivers flow into theSeveral short rivers flow into the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas.Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas.
  • 8. Euphrates and Tigris RiversEuphrates and Tigris Rivers
  • 9. III.III. PopulationPopulation A.A. The population of the region is about 306 millionThe population of the region is about 306 million (2005).(2005). 1.1. Life expectancies have improved in recent years and nowLife expectancies have improved in recent years and now stand at;stand at; a.a. 67.5 years for males.67.5 years for males. b.b. 72 years for females.72 years for females. c.c. The population growth rate is moderate at, 1.8 percent.The population growth rate is moderate at, 1.8 percent. 2.2. In several countries, particularly in the Gulf States,In several countries, particularly in the Gulf States, petroleum has indirectly assisted the growth ofpetroleum has indirectly assisted the growth of urbanization as oil-generated revenues have been investedurbanization as oil-generated revenues have been invested in urban areas and projects.in urban areas and projects.
  • 10. IV.IV. AgricultureAgriculture A.A. Because of the arid climate, only a small part of theBecause of the arid climate, only a small part of the region can support agriculture.region can support agriculture. 1.1. The Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, with their plains andThe Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, with their plains and extensive irrigation, are significant agricultural areas, butextensive irrigation, are significant agricultural areas, but their rising salinity levels constitute a major problem.their rising salinity levels constitute a major problem. 2.2. The region has a great need for irrigation.The region has a great need for irrigation. a.a. Syria, for example, has built the Euphrates Dam toSyria, for example, has built the Euphrates Dam to irrigate the northeastern part of the country.irrigate the northeastern part of the country. b.b. Israel has also developed areas of intensive irrigation-Israel has also developed areas of intensive irrigation- based agriculture.based agriculture.
  • 11. B.B. Wheat, barley, and rice are the major cereals.Wheat, barley, and rice are the major cereals. 1.1. Important cash crops include tobacco, sugarcane, cotton,Important cash crops include tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, fruits and tea.fruits and tea. a.a. Date Palms are a common fruit and are cultivated inDate Palms are a common fruit and are cultivated in oasis areas.oasis areas. 2.2. Livestock mostly consists of camels, sheep , and goats;Livestock mostly consists of camels, sheep , and goats; a.a. Herds of goats have been blamed for stripping theHerds of goats have been blamed for stripping the ground bard of vegetation, which has resulted in soilground bard of vegetation, which has resulted in soil erosion and the acceleration of desertification in someerosion and the acceleration of desertification in some areas.areas. B.B. Agriculture based on growing olives, grapes, citrusAgriculture based on growing olives, grapes, citrus fruits and apples is found in the Mediterraneanfruits and apples is found in the Mediterranean coastal areas.coastal areas. C.C. Fishing is important in several places, including theFishing is important in several places, including the Black and Caspian Seas.Black and Caspian Seas.
  • 12. V.V. IndustrializationIndustrialization A.A. Petroleum reserves are the region’s most abundantPetroleum reserves are the region’s most abundant resources.resources. 1.1. Oil-rich Saudi Arabia, Iran , Iraq, Kuwait, and the UnitedOil-rich Saudi Arabia, Iran , Iraq, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates have economies predominantly based onArab Emirates have economies predominantly based on petroleum exports, which makes them vulnerable topetroleum exports, which makes them vulnerable to fluctuations in the price of petroleum.fluctuations in the price of petroleum. a.a. Petroleum prices escalated during the mid to latePetroleum prices escalated during the mid to late 1970s, but since then prices have fallen considerable.1970s, but since then prices have fallen considerable. 2.2. Oil wealth has facilitated the import of foodstuffs,Oil wealth has facilitated the import of foodstuffs, manufactured goods, and luxury items, and have been alsomanufactured goods, and luxury items, and have been also used for military purchases and development.used for military purchases and development.
  • 13. MiddleMiddle EasternEastern OilOil FieldsFields
  • 14. B.B. The hot, arid areas of the region are largelyThe hot, arid areas of the region are largely unsuited to the establishment of industries.unsuited to the establishment of industries. 1.1. The lack of fresh water is so severe in the GulfThe lack of fresh water is so severe in the Gulf region that desalinization plants have been set upregion that desalinization plants have been set up to produce potable water.to produce potable water. 2.2. Oil-based electricity is generated in the oil-richOil-based electricity is generated in the oil-rich countries, and coal-based electricity is widelycountries, and coal-based electricity is widely used in Turkey.used in Turkey. a.a. Hydroelectric power is produced in Syria andHydroelectric power is produced in Syria and Turkey.Turkey.
  • 15. C.C. Industries that use local materials, such asIndustries that use local materials, such as food processing, petroleum refining, andfood processing, petroleum refining, and petrochemical industries, have been developedpetrochemical industries, have been developed in some places.in some places. 1.1. Some light consumer based industries, includingSome light consumer based industries, including textiles, footwear, cigarettes, and paper, have alsotextiles, footwear, cigarettes, and paper, have also been established.been established. 2.2. The countries of the eastern Mediterranean areThe countries of the eastern Mediterranean are comparatively more industrialized than the rest ofcomparatively more industrialized than the rest of the region, but frequent conflicts with neighboringthe region, but frequent conflicts with neighboring countries in the area have hampered their ability tocountries in the area have hampered their ability to maintain production.maintain production.
  • 16. VI.VI. LanguagesLanguages A.A. Three language familiesThree language families 1.1. The Indo-European, Turkic, and Semitic – are found in the Middle East.The Indo-European, Turkic, and Semitic – are found in the Middle East. a.a. The Indo-European languages represented include Persian, Pashto,The Indo-European languages represented include Persian, Pashto, Kurdish, Armenian, and Baluchi. Turkish and Azerbaijani are TurkicKurdish, Armenian, and Baluchi. Turkish and Azerbaijani are Turkic languages, and Arabic and Hebrew are Semitic.languages, and Arabic and Hebrew are Semitic.
  • 17. VII.VII. Boundary disputes and WarsBoundary disputes and Wars A.A. The region has experienced several conflicts and warsThe region has experienced several conflicts and wars within the last fifty years.within the last fifty years. 1.1. The Israeli-Arab conflict has been the most prominent andThe Israeli-Arab conflict has been the most prominent and is yet to be resolved.is yet to be resolved. a.a. Lebanon was drawn into the conflict, which adverselyLebanon was drawn into the conflict, which adversely affected its economy.affected its economy. B.B. Iraq’s attempt to conquer the Arab-speaking region ofIraq’s attempt to conquer the Arab-speaking region of southwestern Iran lasted for years, and drained bothsouthwestern Iran lasted for years, and drained both Iraq and Iran of resources.Iraq and Iran of resources. 1.1. Iraq’s conquest of Kuwait, the subsequent Gulf War, theIraq’s conquest of Kuwait, the subsequent Gulf War, the ousting of Saddam Hussein and the attempt to install aousting of Saddam Hussein and the attempt to install a democratic regime in 2003-2004 mainly by the U.S. anddemocratic regime in 2003-2004 mainly by the U.S. and Great Britain have seriously affected Iraq’s economy.Great Britain have seriously affected Iraq’s economy.
  • 18. C.C. The Kurdish-speaking area, shared byThe Kurdish-speaking area, shared by Turkey, Iraq and Iran, has also beenTurkey, Iraq and Iran, has also been involved in armed conflict, in its attemptinvolved in armed conflict, in its attempt to secure independence.to secure independence. D.D. The Turkish conquest of the northern,The Turkish conquest of the northern, Turkish-speaking part of Cyprus hasTurkish-speaking part of Cyprus has strained relations between Greece andstrained relations between Greece and Turkey.Turkey.
  • 19. Map of The Middle EastMap of The Middle East