OGT: Buckle Down Lesson 2The Industrial Revolution
James Watt1. Invented an improved steam engine. a. The engine used fuels such as wood and coal to heat water, which expands when it becomes steam.2. The First use of Watt’s machine was to lift coal out of mines.
Effects of the Steam Engine1. New Process developed to make stronger iron.2. Railroad Engine and Steamship.3. Made Cottage Industry obsolete. a. These jobs could now be done faster and more efficiently by machines.4. City populations will grow.
Britain Leading the Industrial Revolution1. Enclosure Movement- “common lands” were closed for herding and gathering firewood. a. Forced many families to move to the cities to look for a job.2. Resources also helped Britain industrialize. a. Coal Fields were plentiful in England.3. Factories were built near rivers and canals, as well as on the seacoast.
The Modern City1. Before Industrial Revolution most major cities were between 20,000 and 60,000.2. The town near rivers, coal fields, and iron mines grew up 15x larger by the 1800s. a. Liverpool: 35,000 in 1760 to 550,000 in 1881. b. Birmingham: 30,000 to 400,000. c. Manchester 45,000 to 400,000.
City Conditions1. Workers lived close together in crowded slums. There was no proper water supply or sewage system. Disease and crime were rampant.2. Electricity, water and sewage systems, and public transportation made life in the city safer, cleaner, and more convenient.
Working Conditions1. Wages were very low because of the huge supply of willing workers.2. Days were long, more than 12 hours.3. No job security.4. Union were formed to fight for the rights of the workers.
Spread of Industrialization1. The Revolution will spread to the rest of Europe. a. By 1830 Belgium, France, Germany, and Spain were experiencing the growth of industrialization.2. Urbanization and improved transportation and communication transformed the ways in which people lived and worked.
Spread of Industrialization Cont.3. By 1914 Industrialization had spread to much of the rest of the world.4. India, Japan, and China, emerged due to the new transcontinental railroads. a. Berlin-Baghdad Railroad- Expanded the German economy through trade with the Ottoman Empire. b. Trans-Siberian R.R.- Moscow-Vladivostok, longest rail line in the world.
Canals1. Suez Canal- Opened in 1869 and linked the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.2. Panama Canal- Completed in 1914, joined the Atlantic and Pacific shipping routes in C. Amercia. a. Both canals significantly shortened supply ship trips.