*Covers 4 million sq miles.
smallest Countinent in the world.
*In the east the Ural Mts. and Ural River,
the Caspian and Red Seas.
*To the south, the Mediterranean Sea
separates it from Africa.
*Countries can be divided into three
*Countries the emerged from the break-
up of the Soviet Union.
*During the last 500 years,
*Exerted influence on the rest of the world
*W. European countries were colonial powers
and their languages have become
*The colonial powers promoted European
migration to America, Australia, and New
I. Physical Features
A. The mountain chain that stretches between the
Alps in France and the Carpathians in Romania is
a prominent feature in Europe.
1. They are 10,000 to 15,000 ft.
B. Old worn-down mountains in Scandinavia and
C. The Matterhorn in Switzerland.
D.There are extensive plains in Central and
Eastern Europe and France.
E.Europe is well watered by a large number
1. The Volga, the Danube, the Rhone, and the
i. Many of these rivers are navigable far inland and
are interconnected in places by canals.
II. Climate and Vegetation
A. Much of Europe can be
described as humid
temperate, there are
however significant climate
differences exist within its
1. The climates of Western
Europe are moderate by the
Atlantic Ocean, which is
warmed by the waters of the
2. In contrast, the winter
temperatures in continental
Russia are below freezing.
B.The northernmost parts of Europe are treeless,
with very cold winters and mild summers.
1. Further south is the taiga, with broad-leaf deciduous
and needle-leaf coniferous trees covering large
tracts of land, particularly in Russia.
B.Cool, humid temperate climates stretch along
the coast of the Atlantic Ocean between
Northern Spain and Norway, including Iceland.
1. This area is characterized by mixed forests, but
most of the original trees have been cleared.
2. Some forests, like the Black Forest, have been
harmed by acid rain.
D.Further inland, Central and Eastern Europe
experience more extreme temperature ranges.
1. Semiarid belt in the south, and forests are found in
the wetter and higher areas.
2. The drier regions with less reliable rainfall, such as
the Ukraine and SW Russia, are characterized by
extensive steppes of short grasses.
D.The southern Mediterranean belt experiences
hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters.
1. Forests and scrub cover large areas.
A.The population of Europe in 2005 including
Russia totaled 731 million.
1. The relatively high standards of living in most
European nations are reflected in life expectancies.
a. 70.5 years for males.
b. 78.8 years for females.
2. Population number are stable, with a near zero
3. The Russian Federation alone has 144 million
a. 59 years for males.
b. 72.6 years for females.
B.There has been significant urbanization
in Europe since the 19th
1. This accelerated following the second
a. 73.3% of the population lives in cities and
i. 83.5% in Northern Europe.
ii. 66.1% in Southern Europe.
b. Russian Federation in 73.3%
A.Europe has a well-developed agricultural
economy based on a wide range of food and
1. Farming is more advanced in Western Europe.
a. Technology and organization, than in the former
Communists countries of Eastern Europe, which
experimented with collectivized agriculture for several
2. Farm size varies considerably, but pressure to
create larger farm unites is changing the
B. Within Europe’s cool, humid zone, mixed farming is
1. Wheat, barley, and rye are the main grains, and sheep and cattle
the main livestock.
2. Dairy farming is important in some of the cool countries such as
the Netherlands and Denmark.
3. Apples and pears are significant fruits.
C. Southern Europe, with its warm, dry summers and mild
winters, is suited to growing grapes citrus fruits, and
1. Irrigation is extensively used in parts of the Mediterranean areas
for growing rice.
C. There is extensive fishing in the Atlantic Ocean and in
both the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
A. Europe was the first part of the world to become
1. Through scientific innovation and extensive use of technology,
remains one of the world’s most developed regions.
2. Britain and France benefited from raw materials supplies by their
a. Colonies in turn provided markets for manufactured goods.
B. European manufacturing ranges from the process of
agricultural raw material to manufacturing of basic industrial
items such as steel, petroleum refining, chemicals, fertilizers
1. Also examples; cars, ships, aircrafts, electronic goods.
C. Most European industries import most of the
minerals they require.
1. There are some significant mineral deposits in the
a. Coal, petroleum, and iron ore.
2. The Russian Federation exports natural gas by pipeline
to several European countries.
a. They are also a major producer of gold.
D. Considerable damage was done to industry and
infrastructure during both world wars.
1. Western Europe prospered, with large-scale restructuring and
industrialization, while communist Eastern Europe lagged
a. These nations are now joining the market economy, but it will take
time for them to catch up.
b. Some countries will require foreign aid to help restructure their
E. Industrialization and urbanization have taken their toll on the
1. Air pollution, acid rain, and river-water pollution are common.
2. Global warming is considered to be one of the most important
3. The Mediterranean, Black and Baltic Seas have been badly affected by
the discharge of waste products.
A. Europe has a large number of languages, most of them
belong to the three major Indo-European language family
1. Latin-based or Romance languages
a. Spanish, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Romanian.
a. English, German, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian.
a. Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, and
4. Other languages include
a. Greek, Albanian and Turkish.
VII.Boundary disputes and Wars
A. Both the first and second world wars began as boundary disputes
between European countries.
B. The “iron curtain” of the Soviet Union during the cold war resulted
in political and ideological dividing the continent.
C. Currently most of the boundaries are accepted. Except these issues.
1. Yugoslavian ethnic wars.
2. Division of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
3. Division of Cyprus into Greek and Turkish areas.
4. Spain’s claim to British held Gibraltar.