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  1. 1. Europe
  2. 2. *Covers 4 million sq miles. *2nd smallest Countinent in the world. Borders *In the east the Ural Mts. and Ural River, the Caspian and Red Seas. *To the south, the Mediterranean Sea separates it from Africa.
  3. 3. *Countries can be divided into three groups. *Western Europe *Eastern Europe *Countries the emerged from the break- up of the Soviet Union.
  4. 4. *During the last 500 years, *Exerted influence on the rest of the world through colonialism *W. European countries were colonial powers and their languages have become international. *The colonial powers promoted European migration to America, Australia, and New Zealand.
  5. 5. I. Physical Features A. The mountain chain that stretches between the Alps in France and the Carpathians in Romania is a prominent feature in Europe. 1. They are 10,000 to 15,000 ft. B. Old worn-down mountains in Scandinavia and northern Britain. C. The Matterhorn in Switzerland.
  6. 6. D.There are extensive plains in Central and Eastern Europe and France. E.Europe is well watered by a large number of rivers. 1. The Volga, the Danube, the Rhone, and the Rhine. i. Many of these rivers are navigable far inland and are interconnected in places by canals.
  7. 7. II. Climate and Vegetation A. Much of Europe can be described as humid temperate, there are however significant climate differences exist within its borders. 1. The climates of Western Europe are moderate by the Atlantic Ocean, which is warmed by the waters of the Gulf Stream. 2. In contrast, the winter temperatures in continental Russia are below freezing.
  8. 8. B.The northernmost parts of Europe are treeless, with very cold winters and mild summers. 1. Further south is the taiga, with broad-leaf deciduous and needle-leaf coniferous trees covering large tracts of land, particularly in Russia. B.Cool, humid temperate climates stretch along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean between Northern Spain and Norway, including Iceland. 1. This area is characterized by mixed forests, but most of the original trees have been cleared. 2. Some forests, like the Black Forest, have been harmed by acid rain.
  9. 9. D.Further inland, Central and Eastern Europe experience more extreme temperature ranges. 1. Semiarid belt in the south, and forests are found in the wetter and higher areas. 2. The drier regions with less reliable rainfall, such as the Ukraine and SW Russia, are characterized by extensive steppes of short grasses. D.The southern Mediterranean belt experiences hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. 1. Forests and scrub cover large areas.
  10. 10. III.Population A.The population of Europe in 2005 including Russia totaled 731 million. 1. The relatively high standards of living in most European nations are reflected in life expectancies. a. 70.5 years for males. b. 78.8 years for females. 2. Population number are stable, with a near zero growth rate. 3. The Russian Federation alone has 144 million people. a. 59 years for males. b. 72.6 years for females.
  11. 11. B.There has been significant urbanization in Europe since the 19th century. 1. This accelerated following the second World War. a. 73.3% of the population lives in cities and towns. i. 83.5% in Northern Europe. ii. 66.1% in Southern Europe. b. Russian Federation in 73.3%
  12. 12. IV.Agriculture A.Europe has a well-developed agricultural economy based on a wide range of food and animal products. 1. Farming is more advanced in Western Europe. a. Technology and organization, than in the former Communists countries of Eastern Europe, which experimented with collectivized agriculture for several decades. 2. Farm size varies considerably, but pressure to create larger farm unites is changing the agricultural landscape.
  13. 13. B. Within Europe’s cool, humid zone, mixed farming is common. 1. Wheat, barley, and rye are the main grains, and sheep and cattle the main livestock. 2. Dairy farming is important in some of the cool countries such as the Netherlands and Denmark. 3. Apples and pears are significant fruits.
  14. 14. C. Southern Europe, with its warm, dry summers and mild winters, is suited to growing grapes citrus fruits, and olives. 1. Irrigation is extensively used in parts of the Mediterranean areas for growing rice. C. There is extensive fishing in the Atlantic Ocean and in both the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
  15. 15. V. Industrialization A. Europe was the first part of the world to become industrialized. 1. Through scientific innovation and extensive use of technology, remains one of the world’s most developed regions. 2. Britain and France benefited from raw materials supplies by their colonies. a. Colonies in turn provided markets for manufactured goods. B. European manufacturing ranges from the process of agricultural raw material to manufacturing of basic industrial items such as steel, petroleum refining, chemicals, fertilizers and cement. 1. Also examples; cars, ships, aircrafts, electronic goods.
  16. 16. C. Most European industries import most of the minerals they require. 1. There are some significant mineral deposits in the region. a. Coal, petroleum, and iron ore. 2. The Russian Federation exports natural gas by pipeline to several European countries. a. They are also a major producer of gold.
  17. 17. D. Considerable damage was done to industry and infrastructure during both world wars. 1. Western Europe prospered, with large-scale restructuring and industrialization, while communist Eastern Europe lagged behind. a. These nations are now joining the market economy, but it will take time for them to catch up. b. Some countries will require foreign aid to help restructure their economy.
  18. 18. E. Industrialization and urbanization have taken their toll on the environment. 1. Air pollution, acid rain, and river-water pollution are common. 2. Global warming is considered to be one of the most important ecological issues. 3. The Mediterranean, Black and Baltic Seas have been badly affected by the discharge of waste products.
  19. 19. VI.Languages A. Europe has a large number of languages, most of them belong to the three major Indo-European language family groups; 1. Latin-based or Romance languages a. Spanish, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Romanian. 2. Germanic a. English, German, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian. 3. Slavic a. Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, and Bulgarian. 4. Other languages include a. Greek, Albanian and Turkish.
  20. 20. VII.Boundary disputes and Wars A. Both the first and second world wars began as boundary disputes between European countries. B. The “iron curtain” of the Soviet Union during the cold war resulted in political and ideological dividing the continent. C. Currently most of the boundaries are accepted. Except these issues. 1. Yugoslavian ethnic wars. 2. Division of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 3. Division of Cyprus into Greek and Turkish areas. 4. Spain’s claim to British held Gibraltar.