Human beings are members of social groups with
shared and unique sets of behaviors and attitudes.
Language and religion are two very important aspects of
I. Defining Culture
1. Knowledge, attitudes, behaviors shared
over generations is culture.
2. Society is a group that shares geographic
region, identity, culture.
3. An ethnic group shares
language, customs, common heritage.
II.Culture Change and Exchange
Innovation is creating something new with existing
Example: weaving baskets from reeds to solve storage problem.
Spread of ideas, inventions, patterns of behavior called
Cultural hearth—site of innovation; origin of cultural
Example: Nile River civilizations in Africa.
Acculturation—society changes because it accepts
Movement: A satellite dish
brings the outside world to a
Mongolian family living in this
traditional house called a yurt.
How does this
A.Importance of Language
1. Enables people within a culture to communicate.
2. Reflects all aspects of culture.
B.Language and Identity
1. Language helps establish cultural identity, unity.
2. Language can also divide people, cause conflict.
1. Between 3,000 and 6,500 languages spoken
2. Similar languages belong to same language family.
3. Dialect—a version of a language, like Southern
1. Language can spread via trade routes, migration.
Movement: Which language family has spread to every
Region: Which language families are spoken in the United
Religion—belief in supernatural power that
made, maintains universe.
Monotheistic faiths believe in one god.
Belief in many gods called polytheistic.
Animistic, or traditional, faiths believe in divine
forces of nature.
B.Spread of Religion
Religion spreads through diffusion and conversion.
Conversion—some religions try to recruit others to
Monotheistic; evolved 3,200 years ago; holy book called
Evolved from Judaism; based on teachings of Jesus
Largest religion—2 billion followers worldwide.
Monotheistic; based on teachings of Prophet
Followers, called Muslims, worship God, called Allah.
Holy book called the Qur’an.
1. Polytheistic; evolved in India around 5,000 years
2. Hindu caste system has fixed social classes, specific
1. Offshoot of Hinduism; evolved around 563 B.C. in
2. Founder Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha, or
3. Rejects Hindu castes; seeks enlightened spiritual
state, or nirvana.
F. Other Asian Practices
1. Include Confucianism, Taoism, Shinto.
Region: On which continents are there
large areas of Traditional Religion?
Region: What percentage of the world's
population practices Hinduism, and where
are its followers found?
V.Creative Cultural Expressions
A.Creative Cultural Expressions
1. All cultures express themselves creatively.
2. Performing arts include
music, dance, theater, film.
3. Architecture, painting, sculpture, textiles
are forms of visual arts.
4. Oral and written literature include
poems, folk tales, stories.
Human-Environment Interaction: This
Peruvian bone flute dates back to
sometime before 700 A.D. Bone flutes
are among the oldest of all musical
In what way does this instrument