T H E E A R T H
I N S I D E A N D O U T
CHAPTER 2 SECTION 1
A. The earth is the only
habitable planet in the sun’s
B. The drifting of the continents
shaped the world we live in
C. Continental Puzzle
1. The seven continents on earth fit together
like a jigsaw puzzle.
2. Continents—landmasses above water on
3. Francis Bacon (1620) first to suggest 7
continents were once one.
II. The Solar System
A. The Earth’s Neighborhood
1. Earth is third planet in the solar system of
2. Sun is medium-sized star at edge of the
Milky Way galaxy.
3. The solar system includes:
a. sun and nine known planets.
b. comets—icy spheres orbiting the sun.
c. asteroids—large chunks of rocky
material orbiting the sun.
III.The Structure of the Earth
A. Matters of Size
1. Circumference of the earth: about
2. Diameter of the earth: about 7,900
B. Inside the Earth
1. The core is the center of the earth; made
up of iron, nickel.
2. Outer core is liquid; inner core is solid.
3. The mantle surrounds the core:
a. has several layers.
b. contains most of Earth’s mass.
C. Inside the Earth
1. Magma—molten rock that forms in the mantle.
2. Crust—thin layer of rock at Earth’s surface.
D. On and Above the Earth
1. Atmosphere is the layer of gasses surrounding the
a. contains oxygen.
b. protects Earth from radiation, space debris.
c. is the medium for weather and climate.
E. On and Above the Earth
1. Lithosphere—solid rock portion of Earth’s
surface, forms ocean floor.
2. Hydrosphere—water elements on Earth
including atmospheric water.
3. Biosphere—atmosphere, lithosphere,
a. Plants and animals live within biosphere.
F. Continental Drift
1. Continental Drift—1912 hypothesis of
2. Earth once one supercontinent; Wegener
calls it Pangaea, “all earth.”
3. Pangaea splits into many plates that
slowly drift apart.