I. The New Imperialism a. In the 1800s European nations began a new push of imperialism- the extension of a nation’s power over other lands. i. Mother countries wanted direct control over the territories. b. This new push will be focused on Asia, Africa, and Latin America. i. This area was seen as a valuable source of raw materials for industrial production.
c. European nations also acquired colonies to gain an advantage over European rivals looking for colonies and world power. i. Having the colonies was a source of national prestige.d. Imperialism was tied to social Darwinism. i. Many believed it was their right as a stronger country. ii. Other believed it was their moral or religious duty to “civilize” Asian, African, and Latin American nations. 1. This meant to Christianize them.
II. Colonial Takeover in Southeast Asia a. By 1900 almost all of Southeast Asia was under Western rule. b. Great Britain led the way in 19th century imperial colonialism. i. Britain founded Singapore. ii. Singapore soon became a major port for China.
c. During the next decade Britain moved deeper into Southeast Asia. i. Took control of Burma. ii. Great Britain wanted Burma to protect its possessions in India and to have a land route to S. China.
d. France was alarmed by the British expansion into Southeast Asia. i. They started to show interest in Vietnam. ii. In 1857 Vietnamese was forced to accept French protection. iii. By 1884 the French controlled Vietnam and made it a protectorate. i. Protectorate- A political unit that depends on another government for its protection. iv. In the 1880s France extended protection into Cambodia, Laos, Annam, and Tonkin.
e. During the last quarter of the 19th century, both France and Britain tried to make Thailand a colony. i. Two rulers prevented the takeover; King Mongkut, King Chulalongkorn. ii. 1856 France and G.B. agreed to keep Thailand an independent buffer state between their possessions.
f. U.S. Navy under Dewey defeated the Spanish in Manila Bay, Philippines. i. McKinley believed it was his moral duty to civilize other parts of the world. ii. Colonizing the Philippines would also prevent other countries from gaining control over the area.
III. Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia a. The chief goal of the Western powers in their colonies was to exploit the natural resources and open up markets for Western manufactured goods. b. Indirect rule- allowed local rulers and political elites to remain in power. c. Direct rule- Officials from the mother country were put in charge of taxes, law and order, and other governmental matters. i. Britain’s approach in Burma.
d. France used both Direct and indirect rule in Indochina.e. Western powers justified their conquests by arguing they brought civilization and development. i. These same people feared the indigenous peoples gaining political rights. The natives might want full participation in the government or independence.
f. Colonial powers did not want their colonists to develop their own industries. i. Parent countries stressed exporting raw materials.g. Colonial rule did bring benefits to Southeast Asia. i. It began a modern economic system and improved infrastructure. ii. Expanded exports developed an entrepreneurial class in rural areas.
IV. Resistance to Colonial Rule a. Initial resistance to colonial rule came from the ruling classes. i. Sometimes resistance to Western rule took the form of peasant revolts. 1. Peasants often were driven off land to make way for plantation agriculture.
b. Early resistance movements were overcome by Western powers. i. At the beginning of the 20th century, a new kind of resistance based on the force of nationalism emerged.c. The new leaders were part of the new urban middle class. i. They were; merchants, clerks, students, and professionals that were educated in Western Schools, spoke Western Languages, and knew Western customs.
d. At first the resistance movements organized to protect religious traditions and traditional cultural customs.e. By 1930 these resistance movements began to demand national independence.