Chapter 11 Section 3Chapter 11 Section 3
The Rise and FallThe Rise and Fall
I. The Rise of Napoleon
a. Born in 1769 on the island of Corsica.
i. Went to military school in France on
ii. Became lieutenant in the French army.
b. At the age of 24, Napoleon became
brigadier general by the Committee of
c. Napoleon’s combination of
intelligence, charm, wit, and
decisiveness allowed him to win the
support of his troops and other
d. Napoleon took part in the coup d’etat
that overthrew the directory.
i. He held absolute power as the
first consul of the new government
called the consulate.
ii. In 1802 Napoleon made himself
consul for life, and in 1804 he
crowned himself Emperor
II. Napoleon’s Domestic Policies
a. Napoleon made peace with the
Church to restore stability to France.
i. 1801 he made an agreement that
recognized Catholicism as the religion of
b. Napoleon’s most famous domestic
achievement was unifying French
i. Most important part was the Civil Code.
1. It recognized equality before the law.
c. Napoleon’s code made it harder for
couples to divorce.
i. Husbands controlled their property,
women were considered minors in
lawsuits, and their testimony was
considered less reliable than that of
d. Napoleon opened careers in
government positions up to all
individuals based on their abilities.
e. Napoleon created a new aristocracy
based on merit in the state service.
i. He created 3,263 nobles.
ii. More than half were military officers
from the middle class.
e. Napoleon did however destroy some
i. He shut down 60 of France’s 73
ii. Insisting that police read people’s mail.
g. Anne-Louis-Germaine de Stael was
one of the most prominent writers of
this period who had a powerful
i. At first she supported Napoleon but
then clashed with him and denounced
him as a tyrant.
ii. Napoleon banned her books and
III. Napoleon’s Empire
a. Napoleon signed a peace treaty with
the nations warring with France after
the execution of Louis XVI.
i. A year later the war was renewed.
b. From 1805-1807, Napoleon’s Army
defeated the Austrians, Russian, and
c. Napoleon now could create a new world
i. His Grand Empire had three parts.
1. The French Empire
2. Dependent states- kingdoms that
Napoleon’s relatives ruled, including
Spain, Holland, Italy.
3. Allied states- States Napoleon defeated
and forced to join him in war against
IV. The European Response
a. The survival of Great Britain and the
force of nationalism are the two main
causes of the quick collapse of
b. Britain survived primarily because of
its sea power.
c. A crushing defeat against the British
fleet ended Napoleon’s dream of
d. Napoleon tried to use the
Continental System to defeat
i. Intended to stop British goods from
reaching the continental markets.
ii. Allied states resented being told they
could not buy British goods, this
strategy failed to be effective.
d. Nationalism is the cultural identity of
people based on common
language, religion, and national
V. The Fall of Napoleon
a. Napoleon’s fall began with his
invasion of Russia.
i. Russia refused to remain in
b. In 1812 the Grand Army entered
i. Russians would not fight, but kept
1. The Russians burned their own villages
to keep supplies from the French.
ii. After two months Napoleon issued
1. Only 40,000 men arrived back in
c. Other European nations rose up to
attack the crippled French army.
i. Paris was captured in 1814 and
Napoleon was exiled to the island of
ii. Louis XVIII restored the Bourbon
c. The king will have little support.
i. Napoleon escaped.
1. Troops allow Napoleon to enter Paris.
e. Napoleon will be defeated by the
British and Prussian army at
i. Napoleon’s power will end and he will
be exiled to St. Helena.