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Chapter 11 section 3

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11.3

11.3

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  • 1. Chapter 11 Section 3Chapter 11 Section 3 The Rise and FallThe Rise and Fall OfOf NapoleonNapoleon
  • 2. I. The Rise of Napoleon a. Born in 1769 on the island of Corsica. i. Went to military school in France on scholarship. ii. Became lieutenant in the French army.
  • 3. b. At the age of 24, Napoleon became brigadier general by the Committee of Public Safety. c. Napoleon’s combination of intelligence, charm, wit, and decisiveness allowed him to win the support of his troops and other people.
  • 4. d. Napoleon took part in the coup d’etat that overthrew the directory. i. He held absolute power as the first consul of the new government called the consulate. ii. In 1802 Napoleon made himself consul for life, and in 1804 he crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I.
  • 5. II. Napoleon’s Domestic Policies a. Napoleon made peace with the Church to restore stability to France. i. 1801 he made an agreement that recognized Catholicism as the religion of France. b. Napoleon’s most famous domestic achievement was unifying French laws. i. Most important part was the Civil Code. 1. It recognized equality before the law.
  • 6. c. Napoleon’s code made it harder for couples to divorce. i. Husbands controlled their property, women were considered minors in lawsuits, and their testimony was considered less reliable than that of men. d. Napoleon opened careers in government positions up to all individuals based on their abilities.
  • 7. e. Napoleon created a new aristocracy based on merit in the state service. i. He created 3,263 nobles. ii. More than half were military officers from the middle class. e. Napoleon did however destroy some revolutionary ideas. i. He shut down 60 of France’s 73 Newspapers. ii. Insisting that police read people’s mail.
  • 8. g. Anne-Louis-Germaine de Stael was one of the most prominent writers of this period who had a powerful salon. i. At first she supported Napoleon but then clashed with him and denounced him as a tyrant. ii. Napoleon banned her books and exiled her.
  • 9. III. Napoleon’s Empire a. Napoleon signed a peace treaty with the nations warring with France after the execution of Louis XVI. i. A year later the war was renewed. b. From 1805-1807, Napoleon’s Army defeated the Austrians, Russian, and Prussian armies.
  • 10. c. Napoleon now could create a new world order. i. His Grand Empire had three parts. 1. The French Empire 2. Dependent states- kingdoms that Napoleon’s relatives ruled, including Spain, Holland, Italy. 3. Allied states- States Napoleon defeated and forced to join him in war against Britain.
  • 11. IV. The European Response a. The survival of Great Britain and the force of nationalism are the two main causes of the quick collapse of Napoleon’s empire. b. Britain survived primarily because of its sea power. c. A crushing defeat against the British fleet ended Napoleon’s dream of invading.
  • 12. d. Napoleon tried to use the Continental System to defeat Britain. i. Intended to stop British goods from reaching the continental markets. ii. Allied states resented being told they could not buy British goods, this strategy failed to be effective. d. Nationalism is the cultural identity of people based on common language, religion, and national symbols.
  • 13. V. The Fall of Napoleon a. Napoleon’s fall began with his invasion of Russia. i. Russia refused to remain in Continental System.
  • 14. b. In 1812 the Grand Army entered Russia. i. Russians would not fight, but kept retreating. 1. The Russians burned their own villages to keep supplies from the French. ii. After two months Napoleon issued “Great Retreat” 1. Only 40,000 men arrived back in Poland.
  • 15. -10*C = 14*F -20*C = -4*F -30*C = -22*F
  • 16. c. Other European nations rose up to attack the crippled French army. i. Paris was captured in 1814 and Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba. ii. Louis XVIII restored the Bourbon monarchy. c. The king will have little support. i. Napoleon escaped. 1. Troops allow Napoleon to enter Paris.
  • 17. e. Napoleon will be defeated by the British and Prussian army at Waterloo. i. Napoleon’s power will end and he will be exiled to St. Helena.