Chapter 11 Section 2
Radical Revolution and Reaction
I. The move to Radicalism
a. Sans-culottes sought revenge on
those who had aided the king and
resisted the popular will.
i. Led by Georges Danton
ii. 1,000s of people were arrested and
b. Most radical leader was Jean-Paul
i. Believed that the poor had the right to
take whatever they needed from the rich
(even by force).
““The Death of Marat”The Death of Marat”
by Jacques Louis David,by Jacques Louis David,
The Assassination of MaratThe Assassination of Marat
by Charlotteby Charlotte
Paul JacquesPaul Jacques
Baudry, 19Baudry, 19cc
[A Romantic[A Romantic
c. National Convention of 1792
i. End monarch and est. the
ii. Fate of the king was split
1. Urban Mountain wanted the king
2. Girondins wanted to keep the king
a. King is beheaded.
d. The execution of the king
outrages other European
i. Spain, Portugal, Britain, and other
monarchies formed a loose coalition
to invade France.
ii. France responded by establishing
the Committee of Public Safety.
1. First leader George Danton,
2nd Maximilien Robespierre, he
Believed in the social contract.
II. The Reign of Terror
a. Revolutionary courts executed 40,000
people who opposed the sans-
b. Armies were sent to subdue
rebellious cities. Lyon was made an
example and some 1,880 citizens
c. Clergy and nobles made up 15% of
the Terror’s victims. The rest were
from the other classes.
Drowning the Traitors! 100,000 will Die!Drowning the Traitors! 100,000 will Die!
For God &For God &
the King!the King!
d. The National Convention
developed a dechristianization
i. Saint was removed from street
names and churches were closed.
ii. Notre Dame was dedicated “temple
iii. New calendar was adopted.
Starting with Sept. 22, 1792.
1. Each week had 10 days with the 10th
day, a day of rest.
iv. Ineffective because France was too
Catholic to be dechristianized.
The New Republican CalendarThe New Republican Calendar
New Name Meaning Time Period
Vendemaire Vintage September 22 – October 21
Brumaire Fog October 22 – November 20
Frimaire Frost November 21 – December 20
Nivose Snow December 21 – January 19
Pluviose Rain January 20 – February 18
Ventose Wind February 19 – March 20
Germinal Budding March 21 – April 19
Floreal Flowers April 20 – May 19
Prairial Meadow May 20 – June 18
Messidor Harvest June 19 – July 18
Thermidor Heat July 19 – August 17
Fructidor Fruit August 18 – September 21
III. A Nation in Arms
a. Committee of Public Safety
called a universal mobilization
i. The next year France had an
army of 1,169,000.
ii. Pushed the countries invading
France out of the country and
conquered the Austrian
b. French Revolutionary army changed
the nature of warfare.
i. Changed to a more people’s war.
c. Robespierre was obsessed with
ridding France of its domestic
i. He believed that was the only way the
Republic of Virtue could exist.
ii. National Convention executed
c. Following Robespierre’s death the
Terror ended, and the radicals lost
The Festival of Supreme BeingThe Festival of Supreme Being
A new secular holidayA new secular holiday
IV. The Directory
a. National Convention created a new
constitution reflecting the desire for
i. Established a legislative assembly with
1. Council of 500.
2. Council of Elders.
b. The Directory was elected by the
Council of Elders from a list
presented by the Council of 500.
i. This was a time of government
c. The Directory faced political
enemies from both royalists and
i. It could not solve the countries
d. The Directory relied on the military
to stay in power.
i. Coup d’etat- or a sudden overthrow
of the government.
1. Led to Napoleon Bonaparte taking