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Chapter 11 section 2
 

Chapter 11 section 2

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11.2

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    Chapter 11 section 2 Chapter 11 section 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 11 Section 2 Radical Revolution and Reaction
    • I. The move to Radicalism a. Sans-culottes sought revenge on those who had aided the king and resisted the popular will. i. Led by Georges Danton ii. 1,000s of people were arrested and killed. b. Most radical leader was Jean-Paul Marat. i. Believed that the poor had the right to take whatever they needed from the rich (even by force).
    • ““The Death of Marat”The Death of Marat” by Jacques Louis David,by Jacques Louis David, 17931793
    • The Assassination of MaratThe Assassination of Marat by Charlotteby Charlotte CordayCorday Paul JacquesPaul Jacques AimeeAimee Baudry, 19Baudry, 19cc [A Romantic[A Romantic View]View]
    • c. National Convention of 1792 i. End monarch and est. the French Republic. ii. Fate of the king was split 1. Urban Mountain wanted the king beheaded. 2. Girondins wanted to keep the king alive. a. King is beheaded.
    • d. The execution of the king outrages other European Monarchies. i. Spain, Portugal, Britain, and other monarchies formed a loose coalition to invade France. ii. France responded by establishing the Committee of Public Safety. 1. First leader George Danton, 2nd Maximilien Robespierre, he Believed in the social contract.
    • II. The Reign of Terror a. Revolutionary courts executed 40,000 people who opposed the sans- culottes. b. Armies were sent to subdue rebellious cities. Lyon was made an example and some 1,880 citizens were killed. c. Clergy and nobles made up 15% of the Terror’s victims. The rest were from the other classes.
    • VendeeVendee Revolt,Revolt, 17931793 Drowning the Traitors! 100,000 will Die!Drowning the Traitors! 100,000 will Die! VendeeVendee Symbol:Symbol: For God &For God & the King!the King!
    • d. The National Convention developed a dechristianization policy. i. Saint was removed from street names and churches were closed. ii. Notre Dame was dedicated “temple of reason.” iii. New calendar was adopted. Starting with Sept. 22, 1792. 1. Each week had 10 days with the 10th day, a day of rest. iv. Ineffective because France was too Catholic to be dechristianized.
    • The New Republican CalendarThe New Republican Calendar New Name Meaning Time Period Vendemaire Vintage September 22 – October 21 Brumaire Fog October 22 – November 20 Frimaire Frost November 21 – December 20 Nivose Snow December 21 – January 19 Pluviose Rain January 20 – February 18 Ventose Wind February 19 – March 20 Germinal Budding March 21 – April 19 Floreal Flowers April 20 – May 19 Prairial Meadow May 20 – June 18 Messidor Harvest June 19 – July 18 Thermidor Heat July 19 – August 17 Fructidor Fruit August 18 – September 21
    • The “Temple of Reason”The “Temple of Reason”
    • III. A Nation in Arms a. Committee of Public Safety called a universal mobilization in 1793. i. The next year France had an army of 1,169,000. ii. Pushed the countries invading France out of the country and conquered the Austrian Netherlands.
    • b. French Revolutionary army changed the nature of warfare. i. Changed to a more people’s war. c. Robespierre was obsessed with ridding France of its domestic enemies. i. He believed that was the only way the Republic of Virtue could exist. ii. National Convention executed Robespierre. c. Following Robespierre’s death the Terror ended, and the radicals lost power.
    • The Festival of Supreme BeingThe Festival of Supreme Being A new secular holidayA new secular holiday
    • The Arrest of Robespierre
    • IV. The Directory a. National Convention created a new constitution reflecting the desire for stability. i. Established a legislative assembly with two chambers. 1. Council of 500. 2. Council of Elders. b. The Directory was elected by the Council of Elders from a list presented by the Council of 500. i. This was a time of government corruption.
    • c. The Directory faced political enemies from both royalists and radicals. i. It could not solve the countries economic problems. d. The Directory relied on the military to stay in power. i. Coup d’etat- or a sudden overthrow of the government. 1. Led to Napoleon Bonaparte taking power.