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Chapter 11 section 1

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11.1

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  • 1. Chapter 11 Section 1 The French Revolution Begins
  • 2. I. Background to the Revolution a. The French Revolution and Beginning of the U.S. both occurred in 1789. b. Causes of the French Revolution. i. French society was based on inequality. c. France was divided into three estates.
  • 3. d. Three estates i. First Estate- clergy 1. 130,000 people. 2. Exempt from France’s chief tax. i. Second Estate- Nobility. – 350,000 people. 1. Held many of the leading positions in the state. 2. They wanted to increase their power.
  • 4. iii. Third Estate- commoners. 1. 98% of the population. 2. Relics of feudalism. 3. Economically hurt by the rise of prices of goods. e. Bourgeoisie or middle class- Owned about 25% of the land. i. Upset about the privileges given to the nobles.
  • 5. Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate Division in France:Division in France: The three EstatesThe three Estates
  • 6. f. Aristocrats and members of the middle class were drawn to the political ideas of the enlightenment. i. Opposition of these elites to the existing order led them to drastic action against the monarchy. f. The immediate cause of the French Revolution was the near collapse of the government’s finances. i. The French economy suffered a series of crises for 50 years. ii. 1/3 of the population was considered poor. iii. The poor lived in absolute squalor.
  • 7. h. The French gov’t continued to spend lavishly on wars and court luxuries. i. Marie Antoinette, was especially known for her extravagance. II. From Estates-General to National Assembly a. Each order of French society had representatives in the Estates-General. i. To fix the economic situation the Third Estate wanted to set up a constitutional gov’t that would eliminate tax exemptions.
  • 8. Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Number of RepresentativesThe Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote byin the Estates General: Vote by Head!Head! 300 300 600
  • 9. Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Suggested Voting Pattern:The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by EstatesVoting by Estates 1 1 1 Louis XIV insisted thatLouis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of thethe ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.three orders be conserved in its entirety.
  • 10. b. Tennis court oath- Agreement that the National Assembly would continue to meet until they finished drafting a constitution. c. Commoners stormed and dismantled the Bastille. i. The royal armory and prison in Paris. ii. The kings authority collapsed. iii. Local revolutions broke out throughout France.
  • 11. ““The Tennis Court Oath”The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis Davidby Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789June 20, 1789
  • 12. d. Peasant rebellions became known as the Great Fear. i. Panic hit France in 1789 because of a fear of invasion from foreign troops in support of the monarchy. ii. People in the countryside formed militias.
  • 13. III.Destruction of the Old Regime a. National Assembly’s first act was to destroy the relics of feudalism or aristocratic privileges. b. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen- proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men. i. Ended exemptions from taxation. ii. Adopted freedom of speech and press.
  • 14. The Declaration of theThe Declaration of the Rights of Man and of theRights of Man and of the CitizenCitizen August 26,August 26, 17891789 V Liberty!Liberty! V Property!Property! V Resistance toResistance to oppression!oppression! V Thomas JeffersonThomas Jefferson was in Paris at thiswas in Paris at this time.time.
  • 15. c. Did “all citizens” include women? Deputies said that it did if women stayed out of politics. i. Olympe de Gouges didn’t accept the exclusion of women. 1. Wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen.
  • 16. d. Louis XVI stayed at Versailles and refused to accept the laws of the National Assembly. e. A delegation of these women met with Louis XVI and told him how their children were starving. i. They forced the king to accept new decrees. d. The Assembly adopted its Constitution in 1791. i. It set up a limited monarch with a king and a Legislative Assembly with the power to make laws. ii. Men over 25 and paid taxes could vote.
  • 17. March of the Women,March of the Women, October 5-6, 1789October 5-6, 1789 We want the baker, the baker’s wifeWe want the baker, the baker’s wife and the baker’s boy!and the baker’s boy! A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian womenA spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread.for bread.
  • 18. g. By 1791 the old order was destroyed. i. Lower classes were hurt by the economic hard times. ii. King tried to flee unsuccessfully from France. g. Austria offered to help Louis regain his power. i. Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria. ii. France lost battles with Austria, distrust began to hit France.
  • 19. i. War defeats and economic shortages led to new political demonstrations. i. Radicals organized mob attacks on the royal palace. 1. They captured the king and demanded the end of the monarchy. i. Sans-culottes- ordinary people without fancy clothes.