Chapter 10 Section 3The Impact of theEnlightenment
I. The Artsa. European monarchs created a newkind of architecturei. Rococo- Emphasized grace, charm, andgentle action.1. Antoine Watteau was the greatest Rococopainter.
b. Eighteenth century was a greatcentury for music.i. Bach- composer of Mass in B Minor.ii. Handel is best known for his religiouswork Messiah.iii. Joseph Haydn’s The Creation is one ofhis greatest works.iv. Mozart- Child prodigy, known forsymphonies, concerts, and operas.
c. The “novel” was developed inEurope in the eighteenth century.i. Henry Fielding wrote The History ofTom Jones, A Foundling.ii. His characters reflect real types ineighteenth-century England.
II. Enlightenment and EnlightenedAbsolutisma. Philosophers believed in the naturalrights for all people.i. Rulers at the time were expected toestablish and preserve these rights.b. Enlightened absolutism- monarchs ofthe time tried to govern by usingEnlightenment principles whileretaining royal power.
c. Frederick William I and Frederick II madePrussia a European Power.i. FW I doubled the size of his army.ii. Nobles were officers in the Prussian army.d. Frederick II (Frederick the Great) adoptedmany Enlightenment ideas.i. Abolished torture, granted limited freedomof speech, religious toleration.e. Austria Empress Maria Theresa centralizedher empire and strengthened the state’spower.
f. Theresa’s successor Joseph II abolishedthe death penalty.i. Recognized equality before the law andreligious toleration.ii. Joseph’s program largely failed.g. Catherine the Great 1762-1796 Russianqueen.i. She didn’t adopt Enlightenment ideasbecause she didn’t have the support ofthe Russian nobility.ii. Peasants revolted and Catherine was ableto expand the territory of Russia.
III. War of the Austrian Successiona. Maria Theresa in 1740 took the Austrianthrone.i. The Prussian king took advantage of a womanon the throne and invaded Austria.ii. FrancePrussia Britain Austriab. The war was fought in Europe, Far East,and North America.i. 1748 the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.ii. All territories but Silesia were returned totheir original owners.
IV.The Seven Years’ Wara. Two new rivalries (1756)i. France vs. Britain Colonial Empires.ii. Austria vs. Prussia Silesia.b. France allied with Austria and Russia.Britain and Prussia were allied.
c. Prussian army was able to defeat theFrench, Austrians, and Russians.i. Prussian army as a result was run downwith casualties.ii. Czar Peter III withdrawals troops.d. Stalemate led to peace in 1763. Treaty of Parisi. All territories returned.ii. Austria recognized Prussia’s control ofSilesia.
e. Great War for Empire Continuing warbetween G.B. and France.i. British persistence helped win the war in India.f. Greatest conflict of 7 Years WarNorthAmerica.g. British and French fought along the OhioRiver Valley.i. French tried to establish forts in Ohio RiverValley.ii. Native Americans allied with the French becausethey were involved with trading furs, notsettlers.
h. William Pitt focused the British navyagainst the weaker French army.i. British scored a series of land victories.France surrendered, Treaty of Paris 1763.i. Canada and all land east of the Mississippi toG.B.ii. Florida transferred from Spain to G.B.iii. France gave Spain the Louisiana territory.j. 1763 Britain was the world’s greatestcolonial power.