I. Background to the RevolutionA. Medieval Scientists relied uponAristotle for their scientific knowledge.i. Changes from 1400-1500 scientists toadopt new views and methods.B. Renaissance humanists discoveredworks of Ptolemy, Archimedes, andPlato.i. They learned that many ancient thinkersdisagreed with Aristotle.
C. Technical problems, spurred amovement towards observation andmeasurement.i. Telescope and microscope madefresh observations and discoveriespossible.D. Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newtonand others—developed new theoriesthat became the foundation of theScientific Revolution.
II. A Revolution in AstronomyA. Medieval philosophers constructed ageocentric model of the universecalled the Ptolemaic system.B. Copernicus published “On theRevolutions of the Heavenly Spheres”i. He believed his heliocentric system wasmore accurate than Ptolemy’s.ii. Copernicus believed that the planetsmoved around the sun.
C. Johannes Kepler’s observations confirmedthat the Sun was at the center of theuniverse.i. Kepler tracked the elliptical orbits of the planets.ii. Ptolemy had insisted that the orbits werecircular.D. Isaac Newton published his views ofuniversal law of gravitation.i. He believed that the universe is attracted toevery other object by a force called gravity.ii. Explains why planets travel in an ellipticalpattern.iii. This theory will be the world view until Einstein’stheory of relativity.
III. Breakthroughs in Medicine andChemistryA. Medicine at this time was dominatedby the Greek physician Galen.i. His views on anatomy were often wrongbecause he used animals, not people, fordissection.
B. Andreas Vesalius—New anatomy.i. He presented an accurate view of theindividual organs and general structure ofthe human body.ii. He believed that there were two kinds ofblood.C. Robert Boyle- Developed Boyle’s Lawi. The volume of a gas varies with thepressure exerted on it.
IV. Women and the origins of ModernScienceA. Margaret Cavendish— in her book“Observations upon experimentalphilosophy” she criticized the belief thathumans, through science, were themasters of nature.B. Maria Winkelmann a famous astronomerdiscovered a comet.i. She was denied job as assistant astronomerbecause of her gender.
V. Descartes and ReasonA. Rene Descartes asserts that he canrationally be sure of only one thing—his own existence.i. He asserted he would accept only thosethings his reason said were true.B. Descartes believed “I think, thereforeI am”C. Descartes Father of modernrationalism.i. This system is based on the idea thatreason is the chief source of knowledge.
VI. The Scientific MethodA. During Scientific Revolution, peoplewere concerned about how they couldbest understand the physicaluniverse.i. Created the scientific method.ii. Francis Bacon was most responsible forthis method.B. Bacon believed in using inductivereasoning, or making generalizationsfrom observations to test hypotheses.