Chapter 13 Section 1 Objectives; 1. Describe how new sources of energy and consumer products transformed the standard of living for all social classes in many European countries. 2. Summarize how working-class leaders used Marx’s ideas to form socialist parties.
I. The Second Industrial Revolution a. Material growth from the Second Industrial Revolution. i. Steel, chemicals, electricity, and oil were the new industrial frontiers.
b. Between 1870-1914 steel replaced iron. i. New methods for shaping steel make it possible to build lighter, smaller, and faster machines, engines, railroads, and more. ii. 1913 G.B., France, Belgium, and Germany were producing 32 million tons of steel a year.
c. Electricity was quite valuable because it was convertible into heat, light, or motion. i. Hydroelectric power stations and coal-fired steam generating plants allowed houses and factories to have a single, common power source.
d. Electricity gave birth to many inventions. i. Light bulb- Thomas Edison and Joseph Swan. ii. Telephone- Alexander Graham Bell. iii. Radio waves- Guglielmo Marconi
e. By 1880s streetcars and subways powered by electricity appeared in Europe. i. Electricity also changed the factory. 1. Factories never had to stop production.f. Internal-combustion engine provided a new power source for transportation. i. Ocean liners, airplanes, and the automobile.
g. Increased sales of manufactured goods caused industrial production to grow. i. Wages will increase. ii. Reduced Transportation costs caused prices to fall. iii. Department stores put consumer goods up for sale.
h. Some European countries did not benefit from the Second Industrial Revolution. i. Spain, Portugal, Russia, Austria- Hungary, and Balkans provided the industrialized nations with food and raw materials. ii. Europe dominated the world economy by 1900.
II. Organizing the Working Classes a. Industrial workers formed socialist political parties and unions to improve working conditions. b. 1848 Marx published The Communist Manifesto. i. They were appalled by industrial working conditions and blamed capitalism. ii. They proposed a new social system. iii. One form of Marxist socialism was called communism. c. Marx believed world history was a history of class struggle between the oppressing owners and the oppressed workers.
d. Marx believed the two classes were hostile to the other (bourgeoisie and proletariat). i. He predicted this conflict would result in a revolution and create a dictatorship. 1. This would create a society without classes and conflict.
e. Working class leaders formed parties based on Marx’s ideas. i. German Social Democratic Party (SPD). ii. SPD delegates worked to pass laws for improving conditions of the working class.
f. Socialist parties emerged in other European states. i. In 1889 various socialist leaders formed the Second International, an association of socialist groups dedicated to fighting worldwide capitalism.
ii. Marxist parties divided over their goals, however. Pure Marxists looked to overthrow capitalism violently.iii.Other Marxists, called revisionists, rejected this revolutionary program and argued to work with other parties for reforms.
g. Trade unions also worked for evolutionary, not revolutionary, change. i. In G.B. in the 1870s unions won the right to strike. ii. Workers used the strike to achieve other reforms.
h. By 1900 two million workers were in British trade unions. i. By 1914 there were four million, and trade unions had made great progress in many European countries toward improving conditions for the workers.