Chapter 12 Section 4 Objectives:1. Describe how romanticism emerged as a reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment at the end of the 18th century.2. Characterize the Industrial Revolution, which created a new interest in science and helped produce the realist movement.
I. Romanticism a. Intellectual movement that emerged in reaction to the Enlightenment. i. Romantics emphasized feelings and imagination as sources of knowing. b. Emotions were only known by the person experiencing them. c. Romanticism stressed individualism, the belief that each person is unique.
d. Romantics had influence in the following areas; i. Architecture- Houses of Parliament in London. ii. Novels- Frankenstein and works by Edger Allen Poe. iii. Poetry- Believed to be a direct expression of the soul.
e. Romantic artists had two basic beliefs; i. Reflect the artist’s inner soul. ii. Abandon classical reason for warmth and emotion.
II. A New Age of Science. a. The Industrial Revolution increased interest in scientific research. b. Discoveries that benefited all Europeans. i. Louis Pasteur- Germ Theory ii. Dmitry Mendeleyev- Classification of elements/ Atomic weights. iii. Michael Faraday- Use of electric current.
c. Edward Jenner- developed a vaccine for smallpox. i. This was a disease that killed infants and young children.
d. Charles Darwin’s origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection. i. Proposed the idea of organic evolutions. 1. Plants and animals develop through their struggle for existence. 2. Darwin believed this was natural selection. ii. Darwin believed that humans developed from animals.
III. Realism a. The belief that the world should be viewed realistically. b. Realism became a movement in the arts as well. c. Literary realists rejected romanticism. i. They wanted to depict actual characters from real life, not exotic, past heroes.
d. Charles Dickens wrote many successful novels that focused on the lower and middle classes in G.B.’s Industrial age.
e. Gustave Courbet was the most famous realist painter. i. He portrayed scenes of workers, peasants, and the wives of saloon keepers. ii. He would paint only what he could see.f. Many objected to his paintings as ugly and found his paintings of human misery scandalous.