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Interactive technologies for early childhood: Harmful or helpful
 

Interactive technologies for early childhood: Harmful or helpful

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High neural plasticity, the need for rich experiences, and secure attachments to caregivers are some of the characteristics of children in early childhood. Can technologies help healthy development in ...

High neural plasticity, the need for rich experiences, and secure attachments to caregivers are some of the characteristics of children in early childhood. Can technologies help healthy development in early childhood? What harm can they do? More than 20 years of experience with technology developed by the likes of Sesame Workshop can help us answer these questions.

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    Interactive technologies for early childhood: Harmful or helpful Interactive technologies for early childhood: Harmful or helpful Presentation Transcript

    • Interactive Technologies for Early Childhood: Harmful or Helpful? Interaction Design and Children 2014 Tutorial – Tuesday, June 17, 2014 Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • Introduc)on   •  Early Learning and Development (ages 0 – 2) •  Preschool Children’s Well-being and Technology •  Takeaways and Guides For Development Outline of today’s tutorial •  Introduction Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  @jasoncyip •  Learning sciences, child- computer interaction, and STEM education •  Postdoctoral fellowship Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop •  Assistant Professor (Jan 2015) University of Washington – Seattle: Information School for Digital Youth Brief  Introduc)on   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • Sesame Street is the MOST researched show in the history of television when it comes to media and learning. In S. M. Fisch & R.T. Truglio (Eds.), "G" is for "Growing": Thirty Years of Research on Sesame Street (pp. 97-114). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Research  and  Sesame  Street   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • Acknowledgments   Michael Levine, Ph.D. Joan Ganz Cooney Center Ellen Wartella, Ph.D. Alexis Lauricella, Ph.D. Northwestern University SAGE Handbook on Early Childhood Research (in 2015) Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • The  Scary  Issues     Should we be scared of technology for early childhood, especially at below the age of 2? Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • “Television and other entertainment media should be avoided for infants and children under age 2. A child's brain develops rapidly during these first years, and young children learn best by interacting with people, not screens.” American Academy of Pediatrics
    • We know infants and toddlers have a tough time learning from screen media without frequent repetition and social interaction.
    • Children below age 2 learn better from real world demonstrations than from screen media. This is called the “video deficit”. Anderson & Pempek, 2005 Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • Video deficit •  Young infants have developing eyesight and immature visual abilities. •  Babies need close viewing distance to learn Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • Video deficit •  Viewing screen media is not like perceiving a window into a new world. Courage and Howe (2010) •  Moreover, babies do not notice the subtle cues, transitions, and wipes in television. Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Infants from 12- to 30- month-olds learn significantly better from a one- to three-step imitation task when the infant views the demonstration performance live by an adult as compared to screen. Barr & Hayne, 1999; Hayne, Hebert, & Somcock, 2003 Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Toddlers are better able to find hidden objects when information about their hiding places is provided by a live adult as compared to when it is given on screen. Schmitt & Anderson, 2002; Deocampo & Hudson, 2005; Schmidt, Crawley-Davis, & Anderson, 2007; Troseth & DeLoache, 1998; Troseth, 2003 Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Infants and toddlers learn language skills better from a live experience than from a video or televised presentation. Richert, Robber, Fender, & Wartella, 2010, Kuhl, Tsao, & Liu, 2003; Nagles & Kako, 1993 Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Infants may view characters on a screen differently than they view people in live interactions. Richert et al., 2010 Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)     Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Some evidence does exist that the video deficit can be ameliorated or eliminated when repetition is used. Barr, Muentener, Garcia, Fujimoto, & Chavez, 2007; Troseth, 2003; Zack, Barr, Gerhardstein, Dickerson, & Meltzoff, 2010 Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)     Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Considerable research has examined the positive role of parent-interaction and scaffolding on television program (or screen media). Barr, Zack, Garcia, & Muentener, 2008; Lemish & Rice, 1986 Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  When parents treat on-screen images as something with relevant information for the child and identified this relevant information by asking on-topic questions or labeling, infants were more likely to interact with the video. Barr, Zack et al., 2008 Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Word learning from a DVD was improved when parents interacted with their children during the viewing by directing the child’s attention to the DVD and repeating the words from the DVD. Barr & Wyss, 2008 Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • What about brain development? •  For example, the brain grows to about 70% of its adult size by age 1 and 80% by age 2. Dekaban, 1978; Knickmeyer et al, 2008 •  During the early life of babies, newborns do not simply experience new stimuli passively, but actively shape their surrounding environments. Kandel et al, 2000 Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  “Television and other entertainment media should be avoided for infants and children under age 2. A child's brain develops rapidly during these first years, and young children learn best by interacting with people, not screens.” American Academy of Pediatrics
    • •  However, neuroscience is still an emerging field in the context of early childhood education. Frey & Fisher, 2010 •  An emerging argument is often presented in the literature is that it is not the technology that is influence brain development in young children, but the changing nature of face-to-face positive interactions. Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  A current review on brain development, screen media, and infancy determined babies have a difficult time processing and learning from visual stimuli from digital media. Wartella, Richert, and Robb (2010) Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Children’s brain development may be more affected by how much direct interaction they have with caring adults. •  It may be the case that digital media disturbs the interaction between parents and child interactions that are beneficial to young children’s growth. Plowman & McPake, 2013 Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  What about brain development and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? •  Currently, there is no reliable evidence to demonstrate that viewing video causes attention problems. Courage & Setliff, 2010; Schmidt, Rich, Rifas-Shiman, Oken, & Taveras, 2009 Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Instead, it  may be that children exhibiting hyperactivity and problematic attention tend to either gravitate towards digital media or parents use digital media as a way to calm hyperactive children down. Wartella, Richert, and Robb (2010) Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Television viewing during infancy (ages 0 – 3) does not appear to be linked to language or visual motor skills. Schmidt et al. (2009) •  More than likely, babies (12 – 18 months) learn very little from infant media. DeLoache et al. (2010) Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Screen media effects on learning are more dependent on content that resembles infants and toddlers’ real life experience, repeated exposure, and a competent co-viewer that supports conversation and language learning. Linebarger & Vaala (2010)  Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • ‘‘What are the mechanisms through which media interact with physical maturation, cognitive constraints, and environment (both physical and social) to influence cognitive development?” (p. 125). Early  Learning  (ages  0  –  2)   Wartella, Richert, and Robb (2010) Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Kids are everywhere… are using TV/TV accessories 78% are using Mobile/Tablet devices 56% are using Computers 44% are using Gaming Devices 42% Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • What are the possible harmful effects of media and interactive technologies for children ages 3 – 5? Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • Physical Health and Interactive Technologies •  Obesity and nutrition •  Musculoskeletal development •  Vision •  Sleep Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Obesity is on the rise, not just in the Western world, but the entire world. Children are not immune. World Health Organization (2014)     Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Interactive technologies are only part of problem Byun, Dowda, and Pate (2011) –  Exposure to food advertisements and poor diet Institutes of Medicine (2006) –  Changing school cultures Fernandes & Strum (2010) –  Globalization Phillips (2006) –  Children’s sleep patterns Cappuccio et al. (2008) –  And many others! Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  In response to the obesity crisis, developers have promoted new children’s technologies for motion and movement. Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • Musculoskeletal Development •  Straker, Abbott, Collins, and Campbell (2014) conducted a review of the literature on digital games and children’s health. •  They concluded that new digital games have more innovative controllers such as body motion (e.g., Kinect), gestures (e.g., WiiMote controller), and repetitive motions which may impact young children’s musculoskeletal health. Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Awkward and sustained postures during e-game play can contribute to the risk of developing musculoskeletal injury. •  Sustained repetitive activity has been associated with injury to children. Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  High acceleration and high-force (e.g., motion sports games, dance games) can increase the risk of injury, especially to those who are not used to such movements. •  Mobility is now changing children’s issues with pain. For example, laptops and poor sitting positions contributes to pain in children. Harris and Straker, 2000; Sommerich et al. 2007 Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Coupled with young children’s dynamic body development (e.g., growth spurts), understanding the impact of newer ICT and children’s musculoskeletal development becomes difficult to assess. Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Although much research has examined ergonomic and musculoskeletal issues in children with desktops and laptops, little research has examined newer mobile technologies (e.g., smartphones, tablet) with respect to younger children (ages 3 – 8). Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • Vision problems •  Vision is also dependent on a numerous array of factors that make is hard to isolate if screen media is a problem: –  Genetics –  Diet –  Environmental factors (e.g., amount of light present) –  Exposure time indoors and outdoors –  Types of activities Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   e.g., Kerr and Tappin (2002); Tan et al. (2000) Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • Sleep problems •  We know that media and technologies can disturb sleep in young children. •  Vandewater et al. (2007) found that one-fifth of children ages 0 – 2 and more than one-third of 3- to 6-year-olds have a television in their bedroom, which may increase problems with sleep. Anderson & Evans, 2001; Owens et al., 1999 Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  A study of 19,299 Chinese children (5 – 11) found that the presence of a computer in the bedroom predicted bedtime resistance and sleep anxiety. Li et al. (2007) •  Grandisar and Short’s (2013) extensive reviews note many studies in adolescents and sleep disturbance through ICT, but not as many with young children. Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Smartphones and cell phones are quite commonplace now, but it is actually difficult to assess how these mobile devices affect young children’s sleep patterns. Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Video games have actually predicted difficulty in sleep for young children. •  Adam, Snell, and Pendry (2007) found in a study of 2,454 children between the ages of 5 – 19 years that each hour spent playing video games resulted in 10 minutes loss of sleep in children ages 5 – 12, mainly due to later bedtimes. Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Digital media content and when digital media is accessed may play a role in the disruption of sleep. •  Garrison, Liekweg, and Christakis (2011) showed in a randomized control trial of children ages 3 – 5 that violent content on media and evening use of technology was associated with poorer sleep patterns. Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • So what’s the positive outcomes for early childhood with regards to interactive technologies? Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Plowman,  McPake,  Stephen,  Suggate,   and  Reese  (2012)  observed  that  before   children  even  begin  schooling,  they   could  acquire  four  areas  of  learning   from  exposure  to  digital  media.     Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  First, young children can gain knowledge of the world through information seeking behaviors. •  Second, children develop operational skills and competence of how to use the digital media and technologies, such as the motor skills necessary to use a mouse. Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Third, children develop dispositions to learn through exploring, sustaining attention, following instructions, and problem-solving. •  Finally, in the home, children begin to understand the role of technology in everyday life, including social and cultural purposes. Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Decades of research with preschool-aged children have demonstrated that watching educational media at home is positively associated with preschoolers’ development of literacy, mathematics, science, and prosocial behavior. Comstock & Scharrer, 2007; Fisch, 2004; Friedrich & Stein, 1973; Anderson et al., 2000 Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Empirical evidence indicates that preschoolers actively watch television and that television viewing in the preschool years can be positively associated with academic and cognitive outcomes. Anderson et al. (2000); Anderson & Lorch (1983); Ball & Bogatz (1970); Zill, Davies, & Daly, (1994) Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Parents and teachers have generally viewed computers more positively in terms of educational potential, largely because they feel that computers are something their children will have to learn to use as working adults. Rideout & Hamel (2006) Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Research largely supports that interactive media, primarily computers, can have positive impacts on learning. Jackson, von Eye, Biocca, Barbatsis, Zhao, & Fitzgerald, 2006 Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Studies of preschoolers’ learning from computers found positive impacts on multiple learning skills including: –  social and emotional development, language; –  literacy skills; and –  cognition and general knowledge See review from Children Now (2007) Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  As with television programs, the content is essential. •  Computers are most effective when preschoolers use age-appropriate software. •  Conversely, Haugland (1992) demonstrated when content is not developmentally appropriate for the audience; creativity can be diminished with use. Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Evidence suggests that carefully designed media may encourage the development of positive emotional and social skills such as kindness, sharing, helping, cooperation, and tolerance. Bogatz & Ball, 1971; Calvert & Kotler, 2003; Cole et al., 2003; Friedrich & Stein, 1975; Sprafkin, Liebert, & Poulos, 1975; Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  In particular, co-viewing and joint media engagement which parents indicate as being one of the most important ways children learn from parents with digital media. Takeuchi & Stevens, 2011 Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Co-viewing is defined as the presence and behavior of competent others (e.g., parents, siblings, caregivers) with children while viewing screen media. Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Co-viewing is no longer situated in just television, but impacts many aspects of digital practice. •  Kucirkova, Messer, Sheehy, and Flewitt (2013) observed in a case study of a mother-daughter (33 months) interaction the role that personal iPad™ stories play. Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  The  child  shared  her   personal  story  with  her   mother.     •  They  communicated   through  combina)ons   of  embodied  modes  all   while  the  iPad™   mediated  and  shaped   the  interac)on.     Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  However, co-viewing without active engagement and scaffolding is not helpful. Ostrov, Gentile, & Mullins, 2012; Warren, 2003 •  The quality of co-viewing is not only shaped by the factors of the home (e.g., parents, technology, child), but other external factors. •  For instance, family conflict is negatively related to educational media usage Vandewater & Bickham (2004) Preschoolers  (ages  3  –  5)   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • So is technology helpful or harmful for early children’s learning and development? Take  aways   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop It depends.!
    • •  In the same way that there is no single effect of “eating food”, there is no single effect with “engaging in technology”. •  Dichotomous classifications such as “helpful” or “harmful” ignore the multidimensional complexity of human interaction with technology. •  Much of the research on technology for younger children is correlational in nature, but we cannot infer causation. Take  aways   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  For babies and toddlers, they can learn through screen media, but only when there is very close personal co-viewing, repetition, and age appropriate and engaging content. •  However, screen media for babies could also cause unintentional disruptions to necessary and vital social interactions. Take  aways   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  For preschoolers, they can learn from screen media. –  Some learning can be direct, other learning will be unanticipated. •  Build and design with the following in mind. –  Peer and intergenerational social co-viewing that includes talking, reading, and multiple roles –  Age-appropriate content and scaffolding Take  aways   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  The Workshop’s guide for designing touch and tablet experiences •  Helps developers to think about what works and what hasn’t for touch experiences. •  www.sesameworkshop.org Resources  for  Design   Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Design guidelines for promoting coviewing and joint media engagement. •  Analysis of interactions and how to design for learning for joint media engagement. Resources  for  Design   www.joanganzcooneycenter.org Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame WorkshopJoan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop
    • •  Question for discussion: •  How does the multidimensional complexity of technology usage in early childhood affect us in our design of children’s technologies @jasoncyip