Eurothirtyyearswar
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Eurothirtyyearswar

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Eurothirtyyearswar Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 30 Years War A change in lifestyle
  • 2. Peace of Augsburg Between HRE Ferdinand I and the Schmalkaldic League “Cuius regio, eius religio” 1555: Only between Catholics and Lutherans!
  • 3. Germany in trouble • France, Spain, Sweden and Denmark all wanted to exert more control over various parts of Germany. • Catholics wanted to stop the flow of territories converting to various forms of Protestantism.
  • 4. Bohemia in crisis Ferdinand of Styria - and his advisors in transit
  • 5. Ferd’s replacement Frederick of the Palatinate and his ultimate defeat, 1620
  • 6. War: Phase Two • First Phase: Bohemian phase, from 1618-1620. Catholic victory. • Ferdinand II now HRE as well! • Second Phase: Danish Phase, from 1625-1629
  • 7. Christian IV of Denmark Duke of Holstein and vassal of HRE
  • 8. Crushed by Empire General Wallenstein’s army beat Danes at Battle of Lutter, 1626
  • 9. Edict of Restitution 1629 • Ferdinand II takes back all rights granted by Peace of Augsburg. • Reconvert Protestants
  • 10. Gustavus Adolphus King of Sweden, Leader of Protestant cause
  • 11. Soldiers • Both sides fought with armies larger than 100,000 men and with tens of thousands of mercenaries. • Gustavus Adolphus is known to have had between 20,000 to 30,000 Scottish mercenaries alone! • Destroyed cities and killed 20-30% of the German population either directly or through starvation and disease.
  • 12. Subsidized by France Cardinal Richelieu, concerned about Hapsburg power, and his king, Louis XIII
  • 13. Gus dies at Lutzen, 1632 Wallenstein assassinated in 1634! Phase ends 1635 with another Protestant defeat!
  • 14. France declares war! • vs. Spain in 1635 • vs. HRE in 1636 • were invaded and lose territory right away! • Richelieu dies 1642! • King Louis dies 1643!
  • 15. Cardinal Mazarin Anne of Austria and Louis XIV http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/co
  • 16. Rocroi - Spanish defeat! First time in a century that a Spanish army was defeated on the battlefield. Destroyed their perceived invincibility. Last major battle of the war.
  • 17. Peace of Westphalia 1648 • Freedom of religion even for Calvinists! • Sweden and France as the big winners. • Dutch, Swiss and Northern Italian cities proclaimed free. • Prussia became bigger, HRE weaker. • Spanish military power broken. • Germany divided for the next 225 years.