Eurothirtyyearswar

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  • Eurothirtyyearswar

    1. 1. 30 Years War A change in lifestyle
    2. 2. Peace of Augsburg Between HRE Ferdinand I and the Schmalkaldic League “Cuius regio, eius religio” 1555: Only between Catholics and Lutherans!
    3. 3. Germany in trouble • France, Spain, Sweden and Denmark all wanted to exert more control over various parts of Germany. • Catholics wanted to stop the flow of territories converting to various forms of Protestantism.
    4. 4. Bohemia in crisis Ferdinand of Styria - and his advisors in transit
    5. 5. Ferd’s replacement Frederick of the Palatinate and his ultimate defeat, 1620
    6. 6. War: Phase Two • First Phase: Bohemian phase, from 1618-1620. Catholic victory. • Ferdinand II now HRE as well! • Second Phase: Danish Phase, from 1625-1629
    7. 7. Christian IV of Denmark Duke of Holstein and vassal of HRE
    8. 8. Crushed by Empire General Wallenstein’s army beat Danes at Battle of Lutter, 1626
    9. 9. Edict of Restitution 1629 • Ferdinand II takes back all rights granted by Peace of Augsburg. • Reconvert Protestants
    10. 10. Gustavus Adolphus King of Sweden, Leader of Protestant cause
    11. 11. Soldiers • Both sides fought with armies larger than 100,000 men and with tens of thousands of mercenaries. • Gustavus Adolphus is known to have had between 20,000 to 30,000 Scottish mercenaries alone! • Destroyed cities and killed 20-30% of the German population either directly or through starvation and disease.
    12. 12. Subsidized by France Cardinal Richelieu, concerned about Hapsburg power, and his king, Louis XIII
    13. 13. Gus dies at Lutzen, 1632 Wallenstein assassinated in 1634! Phase ends 1635 with another Protestant defeat!
    14. 14. France declares war! • vs. Spain in 1635 • vs. HRE in 1636 • were invaded and lose territory right away! • Richelieu dies 1642! • King Louis dies 1643!
    15. 15. Cardinal Mazarin Anne of Austria and Louis XIV http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/co
    16. 16. Rocroi - Spanish defeat! First time in a century that a Spanish army was defeated on the battlefield. Destroyed their perceived invincibility. Last major battle of the war.
    17. 17. Peace of Westphalia 1648 • Freedom of religion even for Calvinists! • Sweden and France as the big winners. • Dutch, Swiss and Northern Italian cities proclaimed free. • Prussia became bigger, HRE weaker. • Spanish military power broken. • Germany divided for the next 225 years.

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