Peace of Augsburg
Between HRE Ferdinand I and the Schmalkaldic League “Cuius regio, eius religio”
1555: Only between Catholics and Lutherans!
Germany in trouble
• France, Spain, Sweden and Denmark all
wanted to exert more control over
various parts of Germany.
• Catholics wanted to stop the ﬂow of
territories converting to various forms
Bohemia in crisis
Ferdinand of Styria - and his advisors in transit
Frederick of the Palatinate and his ultimate
War: Phase Two
• First Phase: Bohemian phase, from
1618-1620. Catholic victory.
• Ferdinand II now HRE as well!
• Second Phase: Danish Phase, from
Christian IV of Denmark
Duke of Holstein and vassal of HRE
Crushed by Empire
General Wallenstein’s army beat Danes at Battle of Lutter,
Edict of Restitution 1629
• Ferdinand II takes back all rights granted
by Peace of Augsburg.
• Reconvert Protestants
King of Sweden, Leader of Protestant cause
• Both sides fought with armies larger than 100,000
men and with tens of thousands of mercenaries.
• Gustavus Adolphus is known to have had between
20,000 to 30,000 Scottish mercenaries alone!
• Destroyed cities and killed 20-30% of the German
population either directly or through starvation
Subsidized by France
Cardinal Richelieu, concerned about Hapsburg power,
and his king, Louis XIII
Gus dies at Lutzen, 1632
Wallenstein assassinated in 1634!
Phase ends 1635 with
France declares war!
• vs. Spain in 1635
• vs. HRE in 1636
• were invaded and lose territory right
• Richelieu dies 1642!
• King Louis dies 1643!
Anne of Austria and Louis XIV
Rocroi - Spanish defeat!
First time in a century that a Spanish
army was defeated on the battleﬁeld.
Destroyed their perceived
Last major battle of the war.
Peace of Westphalia 1648
• Freedom of religion
even for Calvinists!
• Sweden and France
as the big winners.
• Dutch, Swiss and
• Prussia became
bigger, HRE weaker.
• Spanish military
• Germany divided for
the next 225 years.