Ch 18 Sexual Coercion / Human Sexuality 441


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Focuses on different types of sexual assault, rapist characteristics, sexual assault victims adjustment, rape prevention

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  • incest is legal in France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Belgium, Portugal, Turkey, Japan, Argentina, Sweden and Brazil.
  • More common for penetration to occur in brother-sister incest (71%) than in father-daughter incest (35%)
  • Ch 18 Sexual Coercion / Human Sexuality 441

    1. 1. Chapter 18: Sexual Coercion Perla Moran Araceli Guzman Andrew Benton Sharon Friedman Marissa Cameras Sally Narimousa Lizbeth Ochoa Jasmine Duenas David Banda-Meza
    2. 2. Sexual Assault • Any sexual activity that involves the use of force or threat of force • Involve motives of dominance or control over an individual • Various types of sexual assault Jasmine Duenas
    3. 3. Rape • A type of sexual assault that usually involves sexual intercourse. • Sexual activity that takes place without consent. • In history, the only rapes that were punished were those that we’re committed against virgins. Sally Narimousa
    4. 4. Forcible Rape • Sex with a nonconsenting person by the use of force or the threat of force. • Threat of physical force, involving a gun or knife. • Most cases of rape involve some form of implied forcible action. • Traditionally a man could not be convicted of raping his wife, now we have laws that will prosecute them. Sally Narimousa
    5. 5. Statutory Rape • Statutory rape is defined as any sexual activity with any person under the legal age of consent, even if the person cooperates; unless they are married. • Each state has its own terms as to how to define statutory rape, that is to say that different states also use different terms such as sexual assault and sexual abuse to identify prohibited sexual activity. Since each state defines statutory rape differently, has different degrees of punishment depending on the sexual act, and age and age difference between the offender and the victim. • The age of consent varies by state, ranging from ages 14 to 18, in most states the age of consent is age 16. Some states will carry out the penalty for the violations depending on the age of the offender. The tougher penalties are reserved for older offenders receiving harsher penalties. California, uses harsher penalties for statutory rape offenders who are 21 years old and older. David Banda-Meza
    6. 6. Statutory Rape Penalties • Anyone who engages in an act of unlawful sexual intercourse with a person under age 18 and the actor is not more than three years older or three years younger, is guilty of a misdemeanor • Up to one year in county jail • Anyone who engages in an act of unlawful sexual intercourse with a person under age 18 who is more than three years younger than the actor is guilty of either a misdemeanor or a felony • Up to one year in county jail or by imprisonment in the state prison (period unspecified) • Any person 21 years of age or older who engages in an act of unlawful sexual intercourse with a minor who is under 16 years of age is guilty of either a misdemeanor or a felony • Up to one year in a county jail or by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or four years David Banda-Meza
    7. 7. Stranger Rape • Rape committed by an assailant who is not previously known to the person attacked. • The stranger rapist often selects targets who seem vulnerable. • • • • Women who live alone. Women who are older. Women who are retarded. Women who are asleep or intoxicated. Andrew Benton
    8. 8. Acquaintance Rape: Rape by an acquaintance of the victim • • • Women are most likely to be raped by men they know, than by strangers. Acquaintance rapes are less likely than stranger rapes to be reported to the police because rape survivors may not perceive sexual assaults by acquaintances as rapes. Despite public awareness, many still think of rapists as strangers lurking in the shadows. Sharon Friedman
    9. 9. Date Rape • A form of acquaintance rape • May involve drugs or alcohol • 10% to 20% of women report being forced into sexual intercourse by dates • Date rapist may believe that acceptance of a date indicates willingness to have sexual relations Lizbeth Ochoa
    10. 10. Pedophilia • A paraphilia that is defined by sexual attraction to children • Exclusively males, however some women have been reported to be pedophiles. Lizbeth Ochoa
    11. 11. Incest • Marriage or sexual relations between people who are related by blood or consanguineous • It is a crime and punishable by law, but some societies permit it. • Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by recessive or deleterious traits. Marissa Cameras
    12. 12. Incest Continued… • Different types of incest • Parent-child incest • Father- daughter • Mother-daughter • Brother -sister incest • Brother usually initiates sexual activity • Two most common are father-daughter and brother-sister Marissa Cameras
    13. 13. Sexual Harassment • Deliberate or repeated unsolicited verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature that is considered to be unwelcome by the recipient. • 99% of harassers are men. • Can occur in the workplace or on campus Marissa Cameras
    14. 14. Myths of Sexual Harassment • Sexual harassment is rare • The seriousness of sexual harassment has been exaggerated • Many women make up and report stories of sexual harassment to get back at their employers or others who have angered them. • Women who are sexually harassed generally provoke harassment by the way they look, dress, and behave. • If you ignore harassment, it will go away. Marissa Cameras
    15. 15. Gang Rape Occurs when a group of people participate in the rape of a single victim.  Involves at least two or more violators. It may become more aggressive as the offending gang member takes their turn. Araceli Guzman
    16. 16. Male to Male Rape Refers to a sexual violation of a man by another man usually through forced anal intercourse. Defined as a penetrative sexual act in which the victim is unable or unwilling to give uncoerced consent.  NOT true that men who rape other men are gay most are heterosexual. Araceli Guzman
    17. 17. Partner Rape • is defined as sexual acts committed without a person's consent and/or against a person's will when the perpetrator is the individual's current partner (married or not), previous partner, or cohabitator. • Partner Rape is probably more common than date rape because a sexual relationship is already established Perla Moran
    18. 18. Partner Rape Continued… • Motive for partner rape vary. • Sex is a motive but some see sex as a way to dominate their partner. • Partner Rape has been largely unreported and unrecognized as rape by survivors. • Survivors of Partner Rape have similar experiences as survivors of stranger rape (depression, anxiety, fear, and sexual dysfunction) Perla Moran
    19. 19. Rape by Women • Rape by women is rare • When it does happen the woman is helping and assisting men who are attacking other women. • Woman Rape may occur in gang rape, where the woman lures another woman to a safe place where the rape will take place. Or the woman may hold the other woman down while she is being attacked. Perla Moran
    20. 20. Rape by Women Continued… • Some men have been raped by women. • Sarrel and Masters reported 11 cases of women who assaulted men. • Including a 37 year old man who was forced to have sex with 2 women at gunpoint. • In another case a 27 year old man fell asleep in his hotel room with a woman he met at a bar then he awakened to find himself tied down, gagged, and blindfolded then forced to have sex with 4 different women. They threatened to castrate him if he did not preform to their satisfaction. Perla Moran
    21. 21. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) • A type of stress reaction brought on by a traumatic event -Flashbacks -Disturbing dreams -Emotional numbing -Nervousness Jasmine Duenas
    22. 22. Rapist: Who Are They? • No single type of rapist - Rapists vary in their psychological characteristics, family backgrounds, mental health, and criminal background • Most rapist don’t show deep psychological disturbance, instead have anti-social personality disorder which enables them to violate their victims without guilt, shame, anxiety, or empathy • For some rapists, violence and sexual arousal are tied together thus seek to combine sex and violence to enhance their sexual arousal Jasmine Duenas
    23. 23. Adjustment of Rape Survivors • Many survivors are in crisis in the days and weeks following the rape • Experience: -Depression -Insomnia -Crying frequently -Eating problems -Headaches -Mood changes -Anxiety Andrew Benton
    24. 24. Continued… • Can become withdrawn and mistrustful • Can experience feeling of guilt or shame for the assault • Disturbances in sexual functioning are common • Often report a lack of sexual desire, fear of sex, and difficulty becoming aroused Andrew Benton
    25. 25. Treatment of Rape Survivors • Helps to foster long term adjustment • Crisis intervention provides support and information for coping with trauma • Psychotherapy, involving group or individual approaches, can help cope with emotional consequences such as, self-blame, improve selfesteem, maintain loving relationships Sharon Friedman
    26. 26. Rape Prevention • Requires massive changes in cultural attitudes and socialization process • Educational intervention may reduce sexual assault incidences • Colleges and universities offer coeducational sexual assault prevention programs • People can take precautions to lower their risk David Banda-Meza