incest is legal in France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Belgium, Portugal, Turkey, Japan, Argentina, Sweden and Brazil.
More common for penetration to occur in brother-sister incest (71%) than in father-daughter incest (35%)
Ch 18 Sexual Coercion / Human Sexuality 441
• Any sexual activity that involves the use of force or threat of
• Involve motives of dominance or control over an individual
• Various types of sexual assault
• A type of sexual assault that usually involves
• Sexual activity that takes place without
• In history, the only rapes that were punished
were those that we’re committed against
• Sex with a nonconsenting
person by the use of force
or the threat of force.
• Threat of physical force,
involving a gun or knife.
• Most cases of rape involve
some form of implied
• Traditionally a man could
not be convicted of raping
his wife, now we have laws
that will prosecute them.
• Statutory rape is defined as any sexual activity with any person
under the legal age of consent, even if the person cooperates; unless
they are married.
• Each state has its own terms as to how to define statutory rape, that
is to say that different states also use different terms such as sexual
assault and sexual abuse to identify prohibited sexual activity. Since
each state defines statutory rape differently, has different degrees of
punishment depending on the sexual act, and age and age
difference between the offender and the victim.
• The age of consent varies by state, ranging from ages 14 to 18, in
most states the age of consent is age 16. Some states will carry out
the penalty for the violations depending on the age of the offender.
The tougher penalties are reserved for older offenders receiving
harsher penalties. California, uses harsher penalties for statutory
rape offenders who are 21 years old and older.
Statutory Rape Penalties
• Anyone who engages in an act of unlawful sexual
intercourse with a person under age 18 and the
actor is not more than three years older or three
years younger, is guilty of a misdemeanor
• Up to one year in county jail
• Anyone who engages in an act of unlawful sexual
intercourse with a person under age 18 who is
more than three years younger than the actor is
guilty of either a misdemeanor or a felony
• Up to one year in county jail or by
imprisonment in the state prison (period
• Any person 21 years of age or older who engages
in an act of unlawful sexual intercourse with a
minor who is under 16 years of age is guilty of
either a misdemeanor or a felony
• Up to one year in a county jail or by
imprisonment in the state prison for two,
three, or four years
• Rape committed by an assailant who is not previously known
to the person attacked.
• The stranger rapist often selects targets who seem vulnerable.
Women who live alone.
Women who are older.
Women who are retarded.
Women who are asleep or intoxicated.
Acquaintance Rape: Rape by an
acquaintance of the victim
Women are most likely to be
raped by men they know,
than by strangers.
Acquaintance rapes are less
likely than stranger rapes to
be reported to the police
because rape survivors may
not perceive sexual assaults
by acquaintances as rapes.
Despite public awareness,
many still think of rapists as
strangers lurking in the
• A form of acquaintance rape
• May involve drugs or alcohol
• 10% to 20% of women report being forced into
sexual intercourse by dates
• Date rapist may believe that acceptance of a date
indicates willingness to have sexual relations
• A paraphilia that is
defined by sexual
attraction to children
• Exclusively males,
women have been
reported to be
• Marriage or sexual relations
between people who are
related by blood or
• It is a crime and punishable by
law, but some societies
• Inbreeding results in
homozygosity, which can
increase the chances of
offspring being affected by
recessive or deleterious traits.
• Different types of
• Parent-child incest
• Father- daughter
• Brother -sister incest
• Brother usually initiates
• Two most common are
• Deliberate or repeated
comments, gestures, or
physical contact of a
sexual nature that is
considered to be
unwelcome by the
• 99% of harassers are
• Can occur in the
workplace or on campus
Myths of Sexual Harassment
• Sexual harassment is rare
• The seriousness of sexual harassment has been exaggerated
• Many women make up and report stories of sexual
harassment to get back at their employers or others who have
• Women who are sexually harassed generally provoke
harassment by the way they look, dress, and behave.
• If you ignore harassment, it will go away.
Occurs when a group
of people participate
in the rape of a single
Involves at least two
or more violators.
It may become more
aggressive as the
member takes their
Male to Male Rape
Refers to a sexual violation
of a man by another man
usually through forced anal
Defined as a penetrative
sexual act in which the
victim is unable or
unwilling to give uncoerced
NOT true that men who
rape other men are gay
most are heterosexual.
• is defined as sexual acts
committed without a
person's consent and/or
against a person's will
when the perpetrator is
the individual's current
partner (married or not),
previous partner, or cohabitator.
• Partner Rape is probably
more common than date
rape because a sexual
relationship is already
Partner Rape Continued…
• Motive for partner rape vary.
• Sex is a motive but some see sex as a way to dominate
• Partner Rape has been largely unreported and
unrecognized as rape by survivors.
• Survivors of Partner Rape have similar experiences as
survivors of stranger rape (depression, anxiety, fear, and
Rape by Women
• Rape by women is rare
• When it does happen the woman is helping and assisting men
who are attacking other women.
• Woman Rape may occur in gang rape, where the woman lures
another woman to a safe place where the rape will take place.
Or the woman may hold the other woman down while she is
Rape by Women Continued…
• Some men have been raped by
• Sarrel and Masters reported 11
cases of women who assaulted
• Including a 37 year old man who
was forced to have sex with 2
women at gunpoint.
• In another case a 27 year old
man fell asleep in his hotel room
with a woman he met at a bar
then he awakened to find himself
tied down, gagged, and
blindfolded then forced to have
sex with 4 different women. They
threatened to castrate him if he
did not preform to their
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
• A type of stress reaction brought on by a traumatic event
Rapist: Who Are They?
• No single type of rapist
- Rapists vary in their psychological characteristics,
family backgrounds, mental health, and criminal
• Most rapist don’t show deep psychological
disturbance, instead have anti-social personality
disorder which enables them to violate their victims
without guilt, shame, anxiety, or empathy
• For some rapists, violence and sexual arousal are
tied together thus seek to combine sex and violence
to enhance their sexual arousal
Adjustment of Rape Survivors
• Many survivors are in crisis in the days and weeks
following the rape
• Can become withdrawn and mistrustful
• Can experience feeling of guilt or shame for the
• Disturbances in sexual functioning are common
• Often report a lack of sexual desire, fear of sex, and
difficulty becoming aroused
Treatment of Rape Survivors
• Helps to foster long term adjustment
• Crisis intervention provides support and information
for coping with trauma
• Psychotherapy, involving group or individual
approaches, can help cope with emotional
consequences such as, self-blame, improve selfesteem, maintain loving relationships
• Requires massive changes in cultural attitudes and socialization
• Educational intervention may reduce sexual assault incidences
• Colleges and universities offer coeducational sexual assault
• People can take precautions to lower their risk