Changing Singular Nouns to Plural Nouns Most of the time, + s Ex: girl= girls, boy= boys, cane=canes Sometimes, we +es if the noun ends with –s,-ss,-x,-ch,-sh Ex: beach= beaches, box=boxes Dish=dishes, boss=bosses
Sometimes, if the noun ends with: 1. Consonant + y then remove y and +ies Ex: city = cities, baby = babies 2. Vowel + y then just add –s Ex: Boy= boys, key= keys 3. If with –f/fe, then + ves Ex: Wife = wives, knife=knives
POSSESSIVE NOUNS To show owners, just put ‘s Ex: Jasline’s car, Jason’s wives. Singular owner, then ‘s Ex: A boy’s room, A cat’s bones. Many owners, then s’ Ex: many boys’ bags, many doctors’ patients.
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS Indefinite pronouns are words which replace nouns and you do not know WHO. Ex: someone is waiting outside. You know a person is outside but you do not know who… OTHER EXAMPLES OF INDEFINITE PRONOUNS Singular: another, anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, little, much, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, other, somebody, someone, something
REMEMBER: Singular indefinite pronouns take singular verbs or singular personal pronouns. Correct: Each of the members has one vote. (The subject, each, is singular. Use has.) Someone is following me! Someone ARE following me! THIS IS WRONG!!! After single indefinite pronoun, 100% use SINGULAR VERBS
ADJECTIVES WORDS THAT DESCRIBE A NOUN OR PRONOUN: An angry dog, a frozen man, an excited cat, a messy room, a hot day.
ADVERBS An adverbgives us more information on VERBS. ~ normally, adverbs have –lybehind it… An adverb tells us the manner/way, time, place or answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how often“ an ACTION happens. Ex: She finished her homework quickly. (How did she finish her homework? ~quickly(adverb)
Ex: Adverb of Manner. HOW ACTION IS DONE… His mother screamed angrily at him after looking at his result . The doctor checked the pregnant lady carefully
Adverb of time. WHEN?? Includes: early, never, now, often, soon, then, today, tomorrow He spoke cheerfully to his dad on the phone this morning. Adverb of place. WHERE??? include; abroad, anywhere, here, outside, somewhere, there, underground, upstairs ... The lecturer was held there.
Adverbs of degree - answer the question How much? USE TO MODIFY ADJECTIVES includes:almost, entirely, little, much, rather, very, too I am too tired to play tennis tonight. Adverbs of frequency - answer the question How often? Includes: always, never, usually, frequently, sometimes, occasionally She alwaysgoes for classes alone.