Connections: A World History Second Edition Chapter 8 The Romans Connect the Mediterranean World 752 B.C.E. – 284 C.E. Connections: A World History, Second Edition Edward H. Judge • John W. Langdon
Romulus and Remus
The Roman Empire
The Romans Connect the Mediterranean World, 753 B.C.E.–284 C.E.A. The Roman Republic to 133 B.C.E.B. Dissatisfaction with the RepublicC. The Birth of the Roman EmpireD. Roman Religion and the Rise of ChristianityE. From Golden Age to Disarray
The Roman Republic to 133 B.C.E.
The Roman Republic to 133 B.C.E.A. The Roman Republic and Its Foundation in Law 1. Foundation of the city of Rome 2. Etruscan rule 3. Founding of the Roman Republic
MAP 8.1 Italy in 600 B.C.E.
The Roman Republic to 133 B.C.E.A. The Roman Republic and Its Foundation in Law 4. Representative government 5. The Rule of Law 6. The Struggle of the Orders 7. Roman citizenship and the assimilation of conquered peoples
The Roman Republic to 133 B.C.E.B. The Punic Wars and Rome’s Mediterranean Domination 1. Roman military power 2. Conflict between Rome and Carthage 3. Legacy of the Punic Wars
FOUNDATION MAP 8.2 The Mediterranean World at the Time of the Roman Republic, 264–44 B.C.E.
The Roman Republic to 133 B.C.E.C. Changes in Society and Culture 1. Social stratification 2. Gender relations 3. Slavery
A contemporary mosaic shows female Roman students wearing togas.
Dissatisfaction with the Republic
Dissatisfaction with the RepublicA. Social Discontent and Decline in Popular Rule 1. Crisis in the countryside 2. Revolt of the Italian allies 3. Military dictatorship
Dissatisfaction with the RepublicB. Julius Caesar 1. Struggle for power 2. Assassination and civil war
Tombstone of a Roman soldier.
The Birth of the Roman Empire
The Birth of the Roman EmpireA. The Rise of Octavian 1. The Second Triumvirate 2. Antony and CleopatraB. From Republic to Empire 1. The consolidation of power 2. The Pax Romana
Caesar Augustus, Emperor of Rome.
The Birth of the Roman EmpireC. Greco-Roman Culture 1. Culture and stability 2. Culture and empire 3. Cultural contributions
Roman aqueduct, Segovia, Spain.
The Birth of the Roman EmpireD. Challenges to Augustus’s Work 1. The succession problem 2. Challenges to imperial rule
MAP 8.3 The Roman Empire, 138 C.E.
Roman Religion andthe Rise of Christianity
Roman Religion and the Rise of ChristianityA. Rome’s Polytheistic ReligionB. Jewish Resistance and Eastern Cults 1. Mutual mistrust 2. Forms of resistance
Excavations at Qumran, northwest of the Dead Sea, reveal how the Essenes lived around 150 B.C.E.
Roman Religion and the Rise of ChristianityB. Jewish Resistance and Eastern Cults 3. Jesus of Nazareth 4. Paul of Tarsus 5. Rome’s view of Christianity
St. Mamai of Georgia, a Christian martyred by theRomans, is shown with a cross in one hand while riding a lion, symbolizing his triumph over death and ignorance.
From Golden Age to Disarray
From Golden Age to DisarrayA. Commercial Connections 1. The Golden Age 2. The expansion and encouragement of trade
The Roman Coliseum.
MAP 8.4 Rome’s Economic Organization of the Mediterranean World, 180 C.E.
A modern photo of the Appian Way, part of thenetwork of Roman roads that facilitated travel and commerce throughout the Empire.
From Golden Age to DisarrayB. The Empire in Disarray 1. Crisis of leadership 2. Germanic migrations
Key Dates and DevelopmentsThe Roman Republic/The Roman Empire to 284 C.E.