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    self directed learning self directed learning Document Transcript

    • SEMINAR ON SELF DIRECTED LEARNING, MICRO TEACHINGSUBMITTED TO: Mrs. Agnes Monica, Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Saveetha University.SUBMITTED BY: Mrs. Shanthi S.N. MSc Nursing Ist Year, Saveetha University.
    • INTRODUCTION Learning is a multifarious job, which the child starts soon after the birth and continuethroughout the life till death. In nursing education, optimum learning situations have to be provided. Inquiry anddiscovery are needed. The learning situations should develop potentials in a student nurse andenable the students to achieve the goals and influence their behavior in positive directions.DEFINITION Learning is any relatively permanent change for modification of behavior that results as aresult of practice or experience - Murthi & Gates It is an episode in which a motivated individual attempts to adopt behavior so as tosucceed in a situation which he perceived as requiring action to attain a goal. - PresseyLearning experience is a mental or physical reaction to seeing, hearing or doing the things to belearnt and gains meaning an understanding useful in solving new problems.OBJECTIVES OF LEARNING EXPERIENCE The sources which influence the selection of learning experience and the experiencesselected in and of themselves determine in some degree the way in which the curriculumarranged or organized. In educational programme, the teacher should make an effort to provide appropriateexperiences both in hospital and community health field, to the learner so that the changes inbehavior of the learner takes place in the right direction as outlined in the objectives of theprogramme.1. IMPARTING THE KNOWLEDGE: Knowledge, which has imparted in a way so as to facilitate effective learning on the partof the pupil. a) PREPARATION: A child has to be prepared to receive new knowledge. b) PRESENTATION: A teacher has to select a subject matter according to the needs, abilities and mental level of the pupils has to be arranged in a logical sequence.
    • c) COMPARISON OF ASSOCIATION: The facts or ideas presented should be compared or associated with one another. It enhances the process of assimilation and sharpens the mental facilities of children involves high mental process. d) GENERALISATION: When mind has comprehended a new place of knowledge and compared it with the old, arrive at a general idea underlying various ideas and formulating some loss of principles especially in an inductive lesson. It develops an independent thinking. e) APPLICATION: When a rule, formula or principle has been evolved, it should be tested and verified by applying it to a new situation.2. THE ACQUISITION OF SKILLS: Skills include a wide range of activities like capabilities, physical habits etc. • Preparation • Presentation • Statement and formulation of rules • Practice-demonstration and return demonstration. • Correction and application3. DEVELOPMENT OF AESTHETIC SENSE OR TASTE: It aims at the aesthetic development in the learners provide them with emotionalexperience and stability in them. The teacher provides conducive environment for the success ofan appreciation.4. MOTIVATION:Motivation is the vital aspect in mastering the student as well as in teachers and administrators sothat the teaching will be effective and results fruitful learning.CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCE Learning experience should be consistent with the educational philosophy of the schoolor college and lead to the fulfillment of proximate aims or objectives. Learning experience should be varied and flexible enough, keeping in mind the learner’sability and background to undergo desired change of behavior and not going beyond theirparticular stages of developmentPRINCIPLES TO BE FOLLOWED IN SELECTING LEARNING EXPERIENCES • Purposes of objectives in view.
    • • Learning activities related to life situation where the students are expected to practice after being qualified. • Integration of learning experience between theory and practice. • Identified task and their expected jobs. • Focus of selecting activities should be:-  Needs and demands of learners, community, national and the world population  Community oriented and hospital oriented  Levels of prevention.  Nursing care practices at all three levels of health care  Values in nursing. • Development of students’ logical and analytical thinking.PRINCIPLES TO BE FOLLOWED WHILE PROVIDING LEARNING EXPERIENCE Proceed from  known to unknown  Easy to difficult.  Simple to complex.  Concrete to abstract.  Particular to general.  Analysis to synthesis.  Whole to parts.  Empirical to rationale  Psychological to logical.  Actual to representative.VARIABLES IN LEARNING PROCESS The Learner:- He is the centre of teaching learning process. Physiological factors:- Age, maturation, sex, and fatigue.
    •  Psychological factors: Mental set, motivation, readiness of the individual to learn. Self effort attitude towards learning, cooperative mindedness  Provide sufficient opportunity to practice or self activity, the kind of behavior implied in in the objective so that the transfer of knowledge, remembered and skill acquired and desirable attitude become habitual.  Learning experience should provide for the development of independent thinking & study, decision making, good judgment, intellectual resourcefulness, self-discipline and sound integrity of purpose as well as the masters of many different kinds of knowledge & skill.  Learning experience should be adapted to the needs and concern of the student so that the learners obtain the satisfaction from behavior in the manner implied to the objective.  Learning experiences are arranged in a manner that provides continuity, sequential development, logical manner, correlation and integration of theory and practice and clinical experience which will facilitate effective learning.  Learning experience is consistent with the aims of democratic society.  Learning experience has to involve all the sense in the learning process to achieve maximum learning.  By learning experience maximize the responsibilities of the learner. Utilize the media in organizing the learning experience.  Create interest and desire for more learning.  Improvise the suitable materials when situation arises to meet both need of the client.  Provide learning experience which will deepen the broader understanding and increased skill on students.COMPONENTS OF LEARNING
    • The learning material:- the content should be according to the mental level of thetrainees. They should be presented in a language that could be understood. The preparation andpresentation of learning material is of great importance to both to instructor and to the trainee. The Learning methods:- comprehensive learning is better than part learning. Modes of learning:- • Self evaluation • Periodical revision • Repetition • Trial and error • Energy spending towards learning • Using successful method in learning • Maturity and age. The methods of instruction:-  It affects the learning process  It includes the instructional objectives, trainee and the trainer activities, active participation of learner.  Remedial instruction helps backward trainees.
    •  For intelligent, gifted children more intellectual and difficult skills should be provided to exploit their abilities and enhance their learning which benefits to both individual and society. Environment:  Provision of conducive environment of learning is essential i.e. in school campus, outside, and hostels  Facilities have to be provided to learn and practice.  Develop and create a healthy congenital environment which can also provide good qualities and character in the trainees. This helps them later in their life to become good craftsman and better citizens.  Psychological factors:- In teaching learning process both the teacher and trainee should have cordial relationship is needed which provides security and comfort to the learner and aids in increase in attention. It helps for improving self expression, self assertion and satisfaction Instructional media for learning:-  Text books, supplementary & reference books.  Journals, magazines.  Newspapers, documents and clippings.  Programmed materials.  Motion picture films, TV programs.  Radio programs (Tape –St).  A.V Aids  Multimedia kits. SELF DIRECTED LEARNINGINTRODUCTION One major evidence of the teachers competence in her ability to bring about learning. Theteacher who understands the essential elements of the learning process and conditions which help
    • to facilitate learning will be better able to plan and provide learning opportunities that will helpstudents to attain the desired educational goals. Self activity as the basic principle of learning is universal in its application. An individualcan learn only through her own reactions to situations. There can be no learning where there hasbeen no self activity. This principle of self activity may be stated simply: A student learnsthrough her own activities.DEFINITION Self directed learning (SDL) views learners as responsible owners and managers of theirown learning process. Self directed learning integrates self management (Management ofcontext, including the social setting, resources and action) with self monitoring (the processwhereby the learners monitor, evaluate and regulate their cognitive learning strategies). -Bolhuis, 1996 & Garrison, 1997. In self directed learning, control gradually shifts from teachers to learners. Learnersexercise a great deal of independence in setting learning goals and deciding what is worthwhilelearning as well as how to approach the learning task within a given framework. -Lyman, 1997 & Morrow, Sharkey & Firestone, 1993. The spectrum refers to degrees of self directed learning ranging from entirely teacherdirected learning to SDL as defined. The spectrum the following stages or degrees of movementtowards SDL.INCIDENTAL SELF DIRECTED LEARNING: The occational introduction of SDL activities into courses or programs threat areotherwise teacher- directed (eg:= Individual projects, stations or brief introduction of any formsod SDL on the spectrum).TEACHING STUDENTS TO THINK INDEPENDENTLY: Courses or programs that emphasize the personal pursuit of meaning through exploration,inquiry, problem solving and creativity (e.g.:- debates, case studies, investigations, trials,dramatizations, field work).
    • SELF MANAGED LEARINNG: Courses or programs presented through learning guides that students completeindependently.SELF PLANNED LEARNING: Courses or programs in which students pursue course outcomes through activities theydesign themselves.SELF DIRECTED LEARNING: Courses or programs, in which students choose the outcomes, design their own activitiesand pursue them in their own way.USING THE SPECTRUM From the above, select activities and approaches for their own course or programs, or toselect the program they wish to introduce. As stages in graduate approach to SDL in their course that moves them and their studentsstep by step from SDL to SDL. As a guide to school program designed lead to students year by year to greater selfintroduction with senior year an SDL year, possibly featuring passages. Significant challengesbased upon the walk about concept. There are many ways to access knowledge, i. News papers, magazines and journals, ii. Televisions, movies and videos. iii. Conversations, lectures and courses. iv. Direct experience, Sensory response v. Observation, research and experiment. vi. Action, changing courses and reflection. vii. Analysis, logic and reasoning.
    • viii. Intuition, insight, imagination and creativity. ix. Figuring things out, solving problems and generating alternatives. x. Writing, drawing, acting and building. xi. On the job improvement, working in a team, or travelling to new places for new purposes.THE 4 TIERS OF SELF DIRECTED LEARNING • Tier I. Learning by Preparing: Exploring interests, extending knowledge, creating ideas, envisioning possibilities. • Tier II. Learning by Doing: Conducting activities, developing skills, overcoming obstacles, achieving goals. • Tier III. Learning by Reflecting on Doing: recording project history, analyzing the process employed, reflecting on personal performance, assessing success. • Tier IV. Learning by Moving Forward: Celebrating success. Considering “Where am I now?” Imagining possible futures. Selecting personal and process features to develop. Moving forward.TELL YOUR PROJECT STORY Every activity is an experiment. Scientists carefully record what happens during anexperiment. Authors record the human nature revealed in events. Consider your work anexperiment, and then examine it as both a scientist and a humanist would. But just getting it down isn’t the real importance. Something else is going on that youreally want to take advantage of: you are learning a lot from the experience. In SDLespecially it is important to mine the experience for all that you can learn from it.WRITE ABOUT YOURSELF We have been talking about the work and the process, now it’s time to talk about you.We can discover a lot about ourselves just by watching what we say, do, and feel. Theseaspects are seldom more clearly revealed than when we are taking action to achieve apersonal goal. In motion we reveal ourselves.
    • Larger problems will be more difficult to solve, but recognition is an important firststep. With it you are on your way, and over time you can develop the solution required. Infact, you can start changing on your very next activity.DEALING WITH EXPECTATIONS, ATTITUDES AND PAST EVENTS Our expectations, perspectives, attitudes, and histories profoundly influence how wework. If we expect perfection, every slip will be painful. Review your actions on your project so far. Examine your actions, your thoughts,your memories, and especially your feelings. Then consider the influence they have had onyour results.SEEK INSIGHT AND CHANGE These inner struggles are complex issues. If you feel any discomfort about these orany other activities in the program, stop and simply move on to the next. Trust your owninstincts.BEYOND THE SLOWEST SHIP Be sure that you are always helping not hindering yourself. Self-sabotage should bethe first thing to go, and then any inhibiting thoughts, statements or images. We need to bethinking about strategies and tactics for success.LEARNING FROM EXPERIENCE FOR LIFE Life is rich in experiences, but we often learn little from them. In this activity,however, you have looked at your activity and yourself and drawn from those studies agreat deal of knowledge and understanding. This same approach can be applied to any lifeexperience.GUIDELINES FOR SELF DIRECTED LEARNING • Help the learner identify the starting point for a learning project and discern relevant modes of examination and reporting. • Encourage adult learners to view knowledge and truth as contextual, to see value frameworks as cultural constructs, and to appreciate that they can act on their world individually or collectively to transform it. • Create a partnership with the learner by negotiating a learning contract for goals, strategies, and evaluation criteria. • Be a manager of the learning experience rather than an information provider. • Help learners acquire the needs assessment techniques necessary to discover what objectives they should set.
    • • Encourage the setting of objectives that can be met in several ways and offer a variety of options for evidence of successful performance. • Provide examples of previously acceptable work. • Make sure that learners are aware of the objectives, learning strategies, resources, and evaluation criteria once they are decided upon. • Teach inquiry skills, decision making, personal development, and self-evaluation of work. • Act as advocates for educationally underserved populations to facilitate their access to resources. • Help match resources to the needs of learners. • Help learners locate resources. • Help learners develop positive attitudes and feelings of independence relative to learning. • Recognize learner personality types and learning styles. • Use techniques such as field experience and problem solving that take advantage of adults rich experience base. • Develop high-quality learning guides, including programmed learning kits. • Encourage critical thinking skills by incorporating such activities as seminars. • Create an atmosphere of openness and trust to promote better performance. • Help protect learners against manipulation by promoting a code of ethics. • Behave ethically, which includes not recommending a self-directed learning approach if it is not congruent with the learners needs.GUIDELINES FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTTIONS • Have the faculty meet regularly with panels of experts who can suggest curricula and evaluation criteria. • Conduct research on trends and learners interests. • Obtain the necessary tools to assess learners current performance and to evaluate their expected performance. • Provide opportunities for self-directed learners to reflect on what they are learning. • Recognize and reward learners when they have met their learning objectives. • Promote learning networks, study circles, and learning exchanges. • Provide staff training on self-directed learning and broaden the opportunities for its implementation.ADVANTAGES OF SELF DIRECTED LEARNING  Self-directed learning allows learners to be more effective learners and social beings  Self-directed learners are curious and willing to try new things.  They can view problems as challenges, desire change, and enjoy learning
    •  Self-directed learners are motivated and persistent, independent, self-disciplined, self-confident and goal-oriented.  self-directed learners demonstrate a greater awareness of their responsibility in making learning meaningful and monitoring themselves  Self-directed learning encourages students to develop their own rules and leadership patterns.DISADVANTAGES  Possible for frequent errors  Self directed learning is quite time consuming.  It needs an organized manner of planning; inquiring skills, decision making and self evaluation of work.ROLE OF TEACHERS IN SELF DIRECTED LEARNING  The teacher has to raise student awareness of their roles in learning  Learner participation in decision-making is another fundamental aspect of the SDL approach  Teachers could establish a thematic framework within which students are given choices  teachers who want to encourage SDL must free themselves from a preoccupation with tracking and correcting errors  To establish the habit of self-monitoring, teachers need to encourage learners to reflect on what they did and to revise attempted work  Since SDL stresses meaningful learning, a situated learning approach, in which teachers bring real-life problems into the classroom for learners to work on.  Finally, teachers need to model learning strategies such as predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing, so that students will develop the ability to use these strategies on their own. Teachers also need to allow individual learners to approach a task in different ways using different strategies
    • APPLICATION OF SELF DIRECTED LEARNING IN NURSING EDUCATION Individual projects:- A student undertake research projects individually by the guidance of the teacher, the projects are completed. The projects are where the students take up and in varied settings. Case studies:- Case study as a method of teaching probably has been used in the teaching of nursing more extensively and for longer time than any other method. The case study describes the life history of an individual or all of the factors which affect a situation. It tries to give as much breadth and depth of an individual in situation. The case analysis method: focuses on central which requires some decision or solution. It presents a concrete case for analysis and discussion by group of students under the leadership of the instructor. Sufficient information is presented to the students for them to make judgments on the problem or situation. The case incident method: is a modification of the case analysis method originated by “PAUL & FAITH PIGORS”. It focuses on the critical or crucial incident in a case or situation which requires immediate decision &action. It does not present any background information just pinpoints the incident which require solution. Debates in nursing Field work MICRO TEACHING A training procedure aimed at simplifying the complexities of the regular teachingprocess. The trainee engaged down teach situation scaled down in terms of class size, length oftime, teaching tasks and strategy, flexibility, instructional decision making.
    • DEFINITION: Micro teaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in class size and the class time. Thenumber of students is from 5-10 students& duration of period ranges from 5-20 mts. Microteaching is a teacher education technique which allows teacher to apply clearlydefined teaching skills to carefully prepared lessons in planned series of 5-10 minutes encounterswith a small group of real students often with an opportunity to observe the results on videotapeCHARECTERISTICS OF MICROTEACHING 1. Micro Element: Microteaching reduces the complexity of the teaching situation in terms of, a. Number of students to be taught of. b. Duration of lesson. c. Subject matter to be taught to enable the trainee to concentrate on particular teaching skill at a time. d. The number of instructional objectives and contents kept low. e. It reduces the teaching skill and size of the topic, it is focused on micro events. f. It is highly individualized training device to prepare the effectiveness of teachres and provides feedback for trainee’s performance g. Micro analysis of the teaching process consists of analyzing the …. Details of teaching. 2. Teaching skills and teaching strategies: i) Pre-instructional skills (a) These include uniting of instructional objectives. (b) Sequencing and organizing knowledge to be presented on order to achieve specific objectives. (c) Appropriate content. (d) Proper organization. (e) Selection of proper AV Aids. ii) Instructional Skills (a) Skills of introducing a lesson (b) Skills of explaining and illustrating. (c) Reinforcement.
    • (d) Probing question (e) Reinforcing pupil participation. (f) Diagnosing pupils’ difficulties. iii) Post-instructional Skills (a) Skills of writing test items. (b) Interpreting pupils’ performance in a test. (c) Planning remedial measures. It enables the trainees to develop these skills and perfect them in such a way as to masterthe teaching strategies. iv) Feedback Several reliable and authentic sources are used to provide feedback; oral feedbackis used to provide feedback. 3. Safe practice ground: Teaching is followed under simulated conditions with a small group, the trainee is on asafe practice ground. 4. The teaching models: The trainee gets many opportunities to study the desired pattern of behavior throughdemonstration given by the supervisor or a tape guide; the trainee can develop his own styles. 5. The Research Laboratory: According to Allen Rayan, the following areas of research seems to make the effectiveuse of the microteaching setting,  To optimize the procedures and sequences in microteaching situation.  Research in modeling and supervising.  Task analysis of teaching act.  Investigation of the relationship between teaching behavior and students’ performances.  Aptitude treatment interaction studies, to provide optimal training procedure for teachers with different abilities, interests and background.
    • OBJECTIVES  To enable the teacher trainees to learn and assimilate new teaching skills under controlled conditions.  To enable the teacher trainee to gain confidence in teaching and mastering a number of teaching skills on a small group of pupil.  To utilize the academic potential of teacher trainee foe providing much needed feedback.  To give the teacher trainees training in the component of skills of teaching at the pre service level.  To gain maximum advantage with little time, money and material.BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MICRO TEACHING Experiment:- feedback, re-teaching makes teaching perfect. Practice and drill:- teaching is a complex skill which needs constant drill and it affords practice in each small task or skill and thereby pupil – teacher gain mastering. Continuity:- microteaching is a continuous process. Teaching- feedback – re-teaching – feedback till perfection is attained. Microscopic supervision:- Supervisor has an observation schedule which he fills up while supervising and makes assessment at a rating scale. The supervisor sees through the lesson all important points, paying full attention at one point at a time.STRATEGY OF MICROTEACHING • Supervisor has to conduct orientation training for teacher trainees on each teaching skill by model presentation followed with discussion about presentation. • Supervisor has to prepare time schedule of microteaching for each teacher trainee. • Delivering of lesson under the controlled condition by the pupil teacher. • Supervision of lesson by the supervisor. • Videotapes of the lesson to be televised at closed circuit television. • Discussion about the presentation / feedback from pupil supervisor and supervisor in charge. • Preparation of the lesson after feedback.
    • • Re-teaching of the same lesson to another small group of students by the pupil teacher. • Again discussion with the supervisor and feedback.FIVE “R”S OF MICROTEACHING  Recording.  Reviewing.  Responding.  Refining.  Redoing.MICRO TEACHING CYCLEMICRO TEACHING FLOW CHART
    • PROCEDURES ADOPTED IN MICROTEACHING  Lecture method  Demonstration lesson  Diagnostic lesson  Micro lessons for procedureGENERAL TEACHING SKILLSStanford model: • Stimulus variation • Set conduction • Closure • Science.
    • • Non verbal clues • Reinforcement of student participation • Fluency in questioning • Probing questions • Divergent questions • Recognizing attending behavior • Illustrating and use of examples • Lecturing skills • Planned repetition move • Completeness of communicationPassi model: • Writing instructional objective • Introducing a lesson • Fluency and questioning • Probing questions • Explaining • Illustrate with examples • Stimulus variation • Science and non verbal clues • Reinforcement in learning • Increasing participation • Using a chalk board • Achieving closure • Recognizing attending behavior.APPARATUS NEEDED IN MICROTEACHING
    •  Microteaching can be conducted with or without closed circuit television  Video or camera with zoom lens  Video tape recorder  Two monitors  Recording tapes  Two clocks  Dozen lamps  100 yards of wire  Switch gearSTEPS IN MICROTEACHING • Defining the skill: A particular skill is defined to student teachers in terms of specific teaching behavior, objectives such behaviors aims at achieving • Demonstrating the lesson: The teacher educator can give a demonstration lesson using the particular skill. • Planning the lesson: The student teacher prepares a lesson plan based on the pre-decided model on a suitable topic relating to the particular skill which he proposes to practice. • Teaching the micro lesson: • Discussion on the lesson delivered: The lesson delivered by the trainee is followed by discussion to provide him feedback. Peers who participated in the lesson as learners, peers observes or the supervisor can provide the necessary feedback • Re-planning the lesson: In the light of the feedback and supervisor’s comments, the student teacher replans the same lesson or a different lesson in order to use the skill more effectively. • Re-teaching the lesson:
    • The revised lesson is re taught to a different but comparable group of pupils. • Re-Discussion of re-feedback: The lesson is again observed or audio taped or videotaped. Observations are noted. Feedback is again provided on the re-taught lesson • Repeating the cycle: The teach – re-teach cycle is repeated till the desired level of the skill is achieved.PHASES OF MICROTEACHING 1. Knowledge acquisition phase a. Observation of analysis b. Discussion if the demonstrated skill 2. Skill acquisition phase a. Pre preparation of micro lesson involving the skill b. Practicing the skill while teaching 3. Transfer phase a. Evaluating performance leading to feedback b. Re-plan, re-teach and transfer of skill to actual class teaching is macro session.ROLE OF TEACHER IN MICROTEACHING • Supervisor will help the teacher trainee to develop component skills ofteaching to both the theory underlying skills and the practical condition of the class room. • Provides continuous consultation and helps the teacher trainee skills learnt in the microteaching setting to the actual class room. • Demonstrates the teaching skill which has to be developed in the teacher trainee. • Prepares a special schedule of microteaching lesson to the practicing school should act as a role model for student trainees • Supervise the lesson and discuss with the pupil teacher in a group of other pupil teachers. • Evaluates the trainee’s class and fills the rating questionnaire schedule and gives feedback.ADVANTAGES
    • 1. Superior performance. 2. Increased control of practice. 3. Real teaching: the teacher and pupils work together in a practical situation. 4. Accomplishment of specific tasks: tasks are the practice of instructional skills, the practice of technique of teaching, the mastery of certain curricular activities materials or the demonstration of teaching method. 5. Effective in modifying teaching behavior. 6. Effective technique for transfer of general teaching competence to class room teaching 7. Facilitates the development of teaching skills eg: reinforcement, probing questions. 8. Provides many opportunities to trainee to study the desired pattern of behavior. 9. Provides safe practice ground. 10. The objectives of the micro teaching are specified in terms of behavioral outcomes. 11. Subsequent cycles of microteaching results in the critical analysis and improvement in the teaching skills.LIMITATIONS OF MICRO TEACHING 1. It is expensive to procure and to maintain video recording equipment just for micro teaching. 2. Limited to lecturing. 3. Conducted under controlled environment where different A.V Aids are provided. 4. Real life situation are quite different. 5. Time consuming. 6. Scope is narrow. 7. Requires more skill. 8. Difficulty in using analytic approach.COMPARISON BETWEEN TEADITIONAL AND MICRO TEACHINGTraditional teaching Micro teaching 1. Objectives are not specified in 1. Objectives are specified in behavioral behavioral terms. terms. 2. Class room consists of 50 to 100 2. Consists of 5 to 10 students students
    • 3. Teaching becomes complex and 3. Teaching is Relatively simple and non- threatening threatening 4. Feedback is not immediately provided 4. Immediate feedback is provided. 5. Schoolteacher practices whole complex 5. Student teacher practices only one skill teaching behavior. selected for practice 6. Time duration is 45 to 60 minutes 6. Time duration is 5 to 10 minutes 7. Role of supervisor – vague and is not 7. The role of supervisor is specific and helpful for improving skill well defined to improve teachingSELF DIRECTED LEARNING IN NURSING EDUCATION – REVIEW OFLITERATURE (FROM JOURNALS) 1. The concept of self directed learning is based on the principles of adult education and can take many different formats. 2. Self directed learning has many benefits. However, acquiring the necessary skills is depend on students’ preference and readiness for self directed learning and nurse educators’ implementation of the concept. 3. In implementing self directed learning, nurse educators become facilitators of learning and require ongoing staff development 4. Not all students are self directed and variety of teaching methods should be used in curricula. 5. Matured students may be more self directing than school – leavers. 6. There are many potential benefits, including increased confidence, autonomy, motivation and preparation for lifelong learning.CONCLUSION So far we have dealt with the method of teaching and learning i.e self directed learning.Brief discussion about Learning, learning experience, components of learning, and in selfdirected learning, definition, different spectrums, guidelines, role of teacher and its application innursing education are done. In micro teaching, definition, characteristics, objectives, strategies,steps, phases, role of supervisor are discussed and compared the traditional teaching withmicroteaching.BIBILIOGRAPHY i. K.P. Neeraja, “Textbook of Nursing Education”, 1st edition, 2005, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, pg no. 330-332.
    • ii. B. T. Basavanthappa, “Nursing Education”, 2nd edition, 2009, Jaypee Brothers, Medical Publishers, New Delhi, pg no. 513-515.iii. Loretta. E. Heidgerken, ”Teaching and Learning in School of Nursing Principles and Methods”, 3rd education konark Publishers, New Delhi, pg no. 128.iv. B. Sankaranarayanan, B. Sindhu, “Learning and Teaching Nursing”, 2nd Edition, 2008, Brainful Publishers, Kerala, pg no 62-65.JOURNAL REFERENCE i. Journal of advanced Nursing, 2003, July, pg no. 62-70, Self Directed Learning in Nursing Education: A Review of Literature.NET REFERENCE i. www.selfdirectedlearning.com ii. www.indiana.edu - self directed learningiii. www.ntlf.com – self directed learningiv. www.wikipedia.com – micro teaching v. www.fdc.fullerton.edu - self directed learning