Name : Jaseem Ahmed Bhutto
Semester : 1st Semester
Department : Computer Science
Real World + Virtual Layer = Augmented Reality
What is Augmented Reality
Difference b/w Virtual & Augmented Reality
History of Augmented Reality
Augmented Reality System
Head mounted display
Tracking & Orientation
Mobile Computing System
How Augmented Reality Works
Applications of Augmented Reality
Example of Augmented Reality
Limitations of Augmented Reality
Future of Augmented Reality
Advantages of Augmented Reality
Disadvantages of Augmented Reality
What is Augmented Reality?
Augmented Reality is a field of computer
research which deals with combination of
reality with the computer generated
Augmented reality is a combination of a real
life scene from a person, and a virtual scene
from a computer that augments the scene
with additional information .
Augmented reality will take something that
you look at in real time and give you all the
information of the of the building you're
viewing or the business in the building and
their history/deals/numbers etc.
Augmented reality is a live, direct or indirect,
view of a physical, real-world environment
whose elements are augmented by computer
- generated sensory input such as sound,
video, graphics or GPS data. E.g : sports
scores on TV during a match.
Augmented-reality displays will
graphics onto the real world.
Virtual reality replaces the real world with
the user enters an entirely immersive world
and cut off from real world.
Everything around the user is fabricated by
the system. This may display inside a blank
room, headset, or other device that allows
the user to feel present in the virtual
VR might work better for video games and
social networking in a virtual environment,
such as Second Life, or even PlayStation
Here the Head Mounted Displays (HMD) &
input devices block out all the external
world from the viewer and present a view
that is under the complete control of the
Virtual Reality vs. Augmented Reality
Augmented reality enhances real life
with Artificial images and adds
graphics, sounds & smell to the
natural world, as it exists.
The user can interact with the real
world, and at the same time can see,
both the real and virtual world.
User is not cut off from the reality.
AR uses device such as a Smartphone
or wearable device - Which contains
software, sensors, a compass and
small digital projectors which display
images onto real world objects.
These phones have GPRS which
obtains information about a
particular geographical location
which can be overlaid with tags etc.
Images, videos etc can be imposed
onto this location.
History of Augmented Reality
1962: Morton Heilig, a cinematographer, creates a motorcycle simulator
called Sensorama with visuals, sound, vibration, and smell.
• 1966: Ivan Sutherland invents the head-mounted display suggesting it was a window
into a virtual world.
• 1975: Myron Krueger creates Video place that allows users to interact with virtual
objects for the first time.
• 1990 : Literally , Professor Tom Caudell coined the term “augmented reality” .
• 1994: Milgrim defines a continuum of real to virtual reality environments. AR is
placed as a mixed reality on the continuum spectrum.
In 2002, Steven Feiner became leading pioneer of augmented reality, and author of
the first paper on the subject.
2005: Horizon Report: Profile Augmented Reality as New technology trend to watch.
The Report predicts that AR technology will emerge more fully within 4-5 years.
2005: Camera system developed that can analyze physical environments in real time
and relate positions between objects and environments. This work has become the
basis for AR systems to integrate reality with virtual objects.
2014: A multiple new innovations and examples of AR now exist across a multitude of
Augmented Reality System
Characteristics of Augmented Reality:
• it combines real and virtual World.
• it is interactive in real time
• it is registered in 3D.
Hardware needed for Augmented Reality
• Tracking (e.g. GPS,)
• Input Devices (e.g. Camera)
• Sensors (e.g. accelerometer)
• Processer (e.g. CPU)
Just as Monitors, Head mounted display
will enable us to view graphics and text
created by Augmented reality systems.
HMD lets the user see the real world,
with virtual objects superimposed by
optical or video technologies.
A typical HMD has either one or two
small displays with lenses and semi-
transparent mirrors embedded in a
helmet, eye-glasses (also known as data
glasses) or visor. The display units are
miniaturized and may include CRT, LED
There are two basic types of HMDs :
1. Video See Through.
2. Optical See Through.
Video See Through Displays They block out the wearer's surrounding environment, using small video cameras
attached to the outside of the goggles to capture images. On the inside of the display,
the video image is played in real-time and the graphics are superimposed on the
Video from these cameras is combined with the graphic images created by the scene
generator, blending the real and virtual. The result is sent to the monitors in front of
the user's eyes in the closed-view HMD.
One problem with the use of video cameras is that there is more lag, meaning that
there is a delay in image-adjustment when the viewer moves his or her head.
In Video See Through, if Power is Cut off, User is effectively Blind.
Optical See Through Display Optical see-through HMDs work by placing optical combiners in front of the user's
eyes. These combiners are partially transmissive, so that the user can look directly
through them to see the real world.
The combiners are also partially reflective, so that the user sees virtual images
bounced off the combiners from head mounted monitors.
they only let in some of the light from the real world, so that they can reflect some of
the light from the monitors into the user's eyes.
When power is removed, the user still has direct view of real world.
Optical see through is not fully realized yet. It is supposed to consist of ordinary
looking pair of glasses that will have light source on the side to project images onto the
Tracking & Orientation System
The biggest challenge facing developers of augmented reality is the need to
know where the user is located in reference to his or her surroundings.
There's also the additional problem of tracking the movement of users' eyes and
AR System needs to know two things
1.Where the user is located
In order to to track user’s location
with respect to the surroundings,
we have Global Positioning System
In order to to track user’s movements,
we have currently accelerometers in
AR Systems & Handheld Devices.
Like Digital Compass in Iphone &
2.Where he is looking
Mobile Computing Power
For augmented reality systems to work,
mobile computers are a good option.
Mobile computing can be accomplished
with help of wearable computers
A wearable computer is a battery powered
computer system worn on the user’s
body(belt, backpack etc).
It is designed for mobile & predominantly
hand free operations often incorporating
head mounted display & speech input.
One of the most basic problems in AR.
Objects in the real and virtual worlds have to be properly aligned
with respect to each other.
Some applications demand accurate registration., e.g., virtual
surgery where error can be fatal!!
AR requires much more accurate registration than VR. Even tiny
offsets in the real and virtual images is usually easy to detect.
Errors are difficult to control. Static errors are not a big-issue, but
dynamic errors for devices like the HMD is a major source of
HOW AUGMENTED REALITY ACTUALLY WORKS?
The webcam connected to computer is capturing video in the traditional manner .
When user holds the “marker” in front of the webcam it sees the marker, captures the
information / pattern encoded in it and sends this information to the computer.
The computer recognises the information and overlays the marker with an image. To
the viewer it appears as though the image has materialised by magic.
The computer can track the size and movement of the image. This means if user
moves the marker closer to the webcam the image will get bigger. If user tilts the
marker to the left, the image will tilt to the left.
This process is similar to sports telecasts seen on television, such as swimming
events, where a line is dynamically added across the lanes to indicate the virtual
position of the current record holder as a race proceeds.
Augmented Reality in Military In combat, AR can serve as a networked
communication system that renders useful
battlefield data onto a soldier's goggles in real
From the soldier's viewpoint, people and various
objects can be marked with special indicators to
warn of potential dangers.
Virtual maps and 360° view camera imaging can
also be rendered to aid a soldier's navigation and
battlefield perspective, and this can be
transmitted to military leaders at a remote
Augmented-reality system could provide troops
with vital information about their
surroundings, such as showing where
entrances are on the opposite end of a
building, somewhat like X-ray vision.
Augmented reality displays could also highlight
troop movements, and give soldiers the ability
to move to where the enemy can't see them.
A.R in Medical
Medical AR applications will allow for more
advanced pre-operative imaging studies, letting
doctors and surgeons examine a holographic
view of patients’ internal anatomy compiled
from CT, MRI, and ultrasound data.
After a surgical procedure has been planned, AR
systems can use streaming input data to create
virtual superimposed images in real-time.
Markers can be attached to a
particular object that a person is
working on, and the
augmented-reality system can
draw graphics on top of it, the
system only has to know where
the user is in reference to the
object that he or she is looking
A.R in Maintenance & Repair
One application area that is currently being
explored involves mechanical maintenance and
In this scenario a mechanic is assisted by an AR
system while examining and repairing a complex
The system may present a variety of information
to the mechanic. Annotations may identify the
name of parts, describe their function, or present
other important information like maintenance or
AR may lead the mechanic through a specific task
by highlighting parts that must be sequentially
removed and showing the path of extraction.
The system also provide safety information. Parts
that are hot or electrified can be highlighted to
constantly remind the mechanic of the danger of
Screenshot from the movie
“Who Framed Roger
Rabbit?” blending the real
character and background
with computer generated
Applications : Entertainment
Screenshot from the movie
“Iron Man 2” Using the
Augmented Reality for
navigation & Recognition.
Augmented reality applications
can complement a standard
curriculum. Text, graphics, video
and audio can be superimposed
into a student’s real time
Textbooks, flashcards and other
educational reading material
can contain embedded
“markers” that, when scanned
by an AR device, produce
supplementary information to
the student rendered in a
Augmented Reality in Education
Augmented Reality in Games
Because of augmented reality
development of video game is like
projecting in the real world giving a
real experience of gaming.
For example-Total immersion
company designs a software that uses
augmented reality in base ball cards
to display the related video on screen .
When user move these cards in field
of view of camera ,the 3D figure will
perform the concerned actions.
Augmented reality can breathe a little
life into your sports trading cards.
Augmented Reality In Navigation
AR can augment the effectiveness of
Information can be displayed on an
automobile's windshield indicating
destination directions and meter,
weather, terrain, road conditions and
traffic information as well as alerts to
potential hazards in their path.
• A user displays the augmented reality app Yelp’s Monocle, which combines the
phone’s camera view with tiny tags indicating the names, distances and user
ratings of nearby bars, restaurants and more.
• It particularly gives review and rating of the business point, where the user
points his camera.
Wikitude is a mobile
augmented reality software
which is developed by the
Austrian company. It was first
published in October 2008
It displays information about the
users' surroundings, nearby
landmarks, and other points of
interest by overlaying
information on the real-time
camera view of a smart-phone
including Image Recognition
and 3D Modelling.
Wikitude was the first publicly
available application that used
a location-based approach to
Layar is a Dutch company based, founded in
2009. it has created a mobile browser that
allows user to :
• Explore a new city with helpful tips to discover even
See videos play on top of advertising in magazines or
Watch as food packaging comes alive with links to
Instantly buy items straight from your phone just by
scanning your favorite magazine or catalog
Share an interesting article that you read immediately
with your friends via social media.
Play Games in Real Time Environment
AUGMENTED ID It gives the user an ability to
identify someone by looking at
them through the camera of the
Facial Recognition + Social
Networking = Augmented ID.
Recognizer uses subject’s facial
features as a 3-D model, and
matches them to others stored in a
A full match will bring up Subject’s
profile from networking sites like
Twitter, Face book, Skype, Yahoo,
You Tube, and other popular sites
where Subject is registered, and
where strangers are permitted , to
GOOGLE GLASS. Google Glass is a wearable computer with an optical head-mounted display (OHMD).
Developed by Google with the mission of producing a mass-market ubiquitous computer.
Google Glass displays information in a smart phone-like hands-free format, that can
interact with the Internet via natural language voice commands.
It has Touch Pad, Camera & Display. They can take photos and record 720p HD Video.
Many developers and companies have built applications for Glass, including news
apps, facial recognition, exercise, photo manipulation, translation, and sharing to social
networks, such as Face book and Twitter.
Concerns have also been raised on operating motor vehicles while wearing the device. it
was reported that driving while wearing Google Glass is likely to be banned in the UK.
Concerns have been raised by various sources regarding the intrusion of privacy,
& etiquette ðics of using device in public & recording people without their permission.
Limitations of Augmented Reality
Tracking and orientation might not be accurate.
Still very young and unrefined
The size of Augmented Reality(AR) systems is yet another problem . It is very
large, researchers are working to make it smaller.
People may not want to rely on their cell phones, which have small screens on
which to superimpose information. For that reason, wearable devices like Sixth
Sense or augmented-reality capable contact lenses and glasses will provide
users with more convenient, expansive views of the world around them.
Some of augmented reality’s limitations include rendering digital data into
meaningful graphics and scaling it to fit the perspective of the visual field.
Augmented reality is also still simply computer technology, lacking the human
touch of a knowledgeable friend or tour guide.
FUTURE OF AUGMENTED REALITY
Replacement of cell phones: eye dialing, insertion of information directly into
Examples might be a virtual wall clock, a to-do list for the day docked by your bed for
you to look at first thing in the morning, etc.
Next generation of smart phones will be able to handle augmented reality to a much
greater extent due to improved batteries, compasses, graphics chips and processors.
The line between virtual and physical begins to blur as augmented technology grows.
Greater access to information based on AR will mean greater awareness of
Desire for increased AR technology in the field of medicine, as well as other fields.
The future of augmented reality is clearly bright, even as it already has found its way
into our cell phones and video game systems. Real time data will be streamed to us
about everything we see, smell, hear and touch. We will be able to interact with this
data in order to make more informed decisions.
And the list goes on as your imagination….
Advantages of Augmented Reality
Some advantages to augmented reality include :
Advances in technology,
Reducing the line between the real world and virtual world.
Less dangerous Surgeries & Operations.
Military Trainings which could be less expensive.
Rapid augmentation in tourism.
Making things memorable and eye-catching.
Sensory-oriented digital ads are inexpensive and the personal
experience to be had through augmented reality.
All these advantages paint augmented reality as the next best thing.
Disadvantages of Augmented Reality
Some big disadvantages of augmented reality that could outweigh the
advantages are :
• The lack of privacy.
• People missing out on important moments.
• Production is expensive.
• Difficult to maintain Augmented Reality Systems.
• Low Performance Level.
• Information overload and augmenting without permission.
• The use of facial recognition technology, combined with geo-location and
• Militants can also use this technology likewise Military is using.
• Augmented reality is leading to an era of no privacy, where criminals could
simply point their phone at victims and learn anything they need to know about
All of these disadvantages can turn to serious issues that should not have to be of
concern. Society already has a problem with texting and driving and adding the
ability to do more than just texting will only cause more of distraction.
To add information and meaning to a real object or place. Unlike
virtual reality, augmented reality does not create a simulation of
reality, but it augments the reality or mix the Virtual with Real.
Augmented reality will further blur the line between what's real
and what's computer-generated by enhancing what we see, hear,
feel and smell.
The goal is to make a system that will be so efficient that the user
will not be able to tell the difference between the real world and
the virtual augmentation.
It has possibilities beyond our imagination and perception. It will
have huge applications in almost every field.