Managing Peace and Security Regional and International Conflict
Mindmap• Hand up in your groups on Week 4• You may use blank A4/A3 paper and decorate it or use computer software to enhance it• 20m (15m – content / initiative, 5m - creative / aesthetic appeal)• Will be used in assessment
Chapter at a Glance• What were the causes and consequences of the conflict between Iraq and Kuwait?• How was the conflict between Iraq and Kuwait resolved?• How can transnational terrorism be managed?
What was the historical relationship like between Iraq and Kuwait?• Both were once ruled under the Ottoman Empire and were also British colonies• Iraq refused to recognize Kuwait’s independence in 1961, claiming that Kuwait was historically part of Iraq• In addition to claiming sovereignty, Iraq had also sent troops to claim the country in 1961
What was the historical relationship like between Iraq and Kuwait?• Iraq gave up its claim in 1963 under pressure from its Arab neighbours and after receiving a large sum of money from Kuwait• However, both countries did co-operate when Kuwait loaned Iraq US$14 billion to fight the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s as it feared that the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran would lead to a rise in fundamentalism in the region
1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran• The widespread 1978-79 uprising which saw the overthrow of the Shah of Iran by Islamic fundamentalist Ayatollah Khomeini and his supporters• The secular (non-religious) monarchy of the Shah was dismantled and replaced by the Islamic Republic of Iran
1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran• The new republic rejected modern Western influences and instead followed strict Shia Islamic teachings• Countries in the region were afraid that Iran would encourage similar uprisings as well
The 1980-88 Iran-Iraq War• The main aim of the war was to gain control of the Shatt al-Arab waterway to give Iraq direct shipping access to the Persian gulf• Due to the revolution in Iran, Iraq gained widespread support from the USA and the other Arab nations in the war against Iran
What Worsened theRelationship between Iraq and Kuwait
Worsening Iraqi-Kuwaiti Relations4.1 Economic problems in Iraq4.2 Oil production4.3 Dispute over territory
Worsening Iraqi-Kuwaiti Relations4.1 Economic problems in Iraq• Due to the war with Iran, Iraq: – Lost many lives – Had a ruined economy – Owed US$80 billion in debts – Needed US$230 billion to reconstruct the war-torn country
Worsening Iraqi-Kuwaiti Relations4.2 Oil Production• Iraq hoped to earn more revenue from the sale of oil to pay off its debts and reconstruct the country … However … – Oil prices were falling because Kuwait and the UAE ignored OPEC quotas and over produced oil, causing oil prices to fall from US$18 to US$7 a barrel – Iraq would lose US$1 billion in oil sales each time the price dropped by US$1
Worsening Iraqi-Kuwaiti Relations4.2 Oil Production – Iraq felt that the UAE and Kuwait were waging an economic war as 90% of Iraq’s revenue came from the sale of oil – With reference to Fig 1.4 on Pg 7, you can see that within the space of a month, the loss of revenue was taking its toll on Iraq
Worsening Iraqi-Kuwaiti Relations4.3 Dispute over Territory• Poorly-defined borders inherited from the time of the British continued to cause tension between the two countries … – Rumaila Oilfield • In 1990, Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing oil from the Iraqi side of the oilfield by using slant drilling technology and demanded that the Kuwaitis stop using the oilfield completely and pay compensation • Kuwait refused
Worsening Iraqi-Kuwaiti Relations4.3 Dispute over Territory• Poorly-defined borders inherited from the time of the British continued to cause tension between the two countries … – Bubiyan and Warbah Islands • Iraq is land-locked and its only port, Umm- Qasr, is shallow, so big ships cannot dock there • This prevents Iraq from transporting oil in large quantities to other places • Umm-Qasr was also destroyed during the Iran- Iraq war
Worsening Iraqi-Kuwaiti Relations4.3 Dispute over Territory• Poorly-defined borders inherited from the time of the British continued to cause tension between the two countries … – Bubiyan and Warbah Islands • Iraq did not accept Kuwaiti ownership of the islands and tried to take them by force in the ’60s and ’70s but failed • In 1978, Iraq tried to lease the islands but was rejected by Kuwait
Worsening Iraqi-Kuwaiti Relations4.3 Dispute over Territory• Poorly-defined borders inherited from the time of the British continued to cause tension between the two countries … – Bubiyan and Warbah Islands • Kuwait also inherited the Bubiyan and Warbah islands from the British • As they were strategically located off Umm Qasr, Kuwait had the potential to block off Iraqi access to the Persian Gulf which would affect oil transportation via the sea
Attempts to Resolve the Iraqi- Kuwait Problem5.1 Mediation by the Arab League – Iraq complained about Kuwait’s alleged oil theft from Rumaila – Iraq also used the Arab League as a platform to say that Kuwait and other Arab nations should write off or cancel Iraq debts – Kuwait and the UAE eventually gave in to the pressure from the Arab League to produce oil at OPEC quotas – However, Iraq alleged that Kuwait would not adhere to the agreement
Attempts to Resolve the Iraqi- Kuwait Problem5.1 Mediation by the Arab League – The AL also organised a dialogue between Iraq and Kuwait to discuss territorial issues and Iraq stressed that they would continue to be committed towards the peace process
Attempts to Resolve the Iraqi- Kuwait Problem5.2 Were the attempts successful? – Initially, things went well because Iraq gained concessions from the Arab states and Kuwait – OPEC agreed to raise oil prices and Iraq seemed to be moving on the path of recovery – Kuwait also agreed to write off Iraq’s wartime debts and provide another US$500 million loan – However, on 1 August 1990 Iraq WALKED OUT when Kuwait refused to give in to any territorial demands – On 2 August 1990, Iraq INVADED Kuwait
Events Leading to the Invasion of Kuwait Refer to Page 11 and 12 of the textbook for a timeline of the events MOVEMENT TOWARDS INVASION WAS A SAUDI BORDERSUCCESS FOR IRAQ KUWAIT FALLS 12 HOURS INTO INVASION
Why did Iraq Invade Kuwait?6.1 Invasion of Kuwait was a surprise to all – Iraqi position: • Claimed it invaded Kuwait at the request of revolutionaries who wanted Kuwait to be free from the ruling government • Threatened to make the Gulf a graveyard for those who thought of stopping them
Why did Iraq Invade Kuwait?6.2 Saddam Hussein’s Leadership – Sunni Muslim – Saw himself as a great leader of the Arab world – Saw Kuwait’s actions as defiance and a personal attack – Afraid of a major Shi’a uprising – War had drained the country and Saddam feared a possible uprising on his leadership and rule by the people or by the military
Why did Iraq Invade Kuwait?6.3 Misreading the Position of the US Saddam had met with the American – ambassador to discuss Iraqi-Kuwaiti problems Saddam misread the meeting and believed – the US would be sympathetic and not go to Kuwait’s aid However, it was a wrong inference … – Saddam did not pay attention to SBQ!!!
What were the reactions of the Invasion?7.1 Fear of Iraqi Dominance – Worry, fear and anxiety – With Kuwait, Iraq controlled 20% of the world’s oil production – Fears for the Saudi Arabian kingdom due to the ease of the Kuwaiti invasion and the relative inexperience of the Saudi troops – Access to such great amounts of oil would force up the price of oil and have a negative impact on the world’s economy
What were the reactions of the Invasion?7.2 The ‘Arab Solution’ – The Arab nations were not keen to have a western response to the crisis as they feared a return of western imperialism – The action taken by the Arab League was to vote to condemn Iraqi actions and to call upon Iraq to leave Kuwait – The vote was passed but 8 member states voted NO – The AL could not deal effectively with the crisis because it was not united over how to deal with the crisis
What were the reactions of the Invasion?7.3 The American Response – The Saudis invited the Americans to help defend the Saudi kingdom against the Iraqi Army – Operation Desert Shield: Britain, France, Arab League troops sent to defend Saudi Arabia – Also backed by a 30-strong coalition of troops, money and military equipment – George Bush Senior (1st Bush) felt it was important to prevent the lion’s share of oil from falling into Iraqi hands
What were the reactions of the Invasion?7.4 The International Response – US condemned Iraqi actions and led the coalition troops to defend Saudi Arabia – UN Security Council passed a resolution ordering the immediate withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait and committing the two nations to negotiations to resolve their conflict – Kuwaiti and Iraqi funds worldwide were frozen – Economic and military sanctions placed on Iraq – Damaging because 90% of Iraqi goods came from overseas
Was the use of force the only way to get Iraq out of Kuwait?8.1 Ir aq’s Response to Diplomatic Attempts – Initially, Saddam was responsive to diplomatic attempts but only agreed to pull out on his own terms and conditions – However, when his actions were condemned by the AL, he became more defiant – Saddam was also unhappy about the US troop-build-up in Saudi Arabia – Saddam declared Kuwait as part of Iraq and refused to withdraw
Was the use of force the only way to get Iraq out of Kuwait?8.1 Ir aq’s Response to Diplomatic Attempts – In response to the increasing number of new coalition troops, Saddam took Westerners in Iraq and Kuwait hostage – Hostages used as human shields – Saddam insisted that all coalition troops withdraw from the Middle East – Women and children were eventually released and the rest of the hostages were released a few months later
Was the use of force the only way to get Iraq out of Kuwait?8.1 Ir aq’s Response to Diplomatic Attempts – Saddam only agreed to withdraw if sanctions against Iraq were removed – Iraq gained full control of the Rumaila oilfield – Guaranteed access to the Gulf – UN deadline 15 January 1991 to withdraw from Kuwait – Other attempts to use diplomacy failed
Was the use of force the only way to get Iraq out of Kuwait?8.3 Outbreak of War – Operation Desert Storm began – 1 month later, Kuwait was liberated – Command and control capability of Iraq was destroyed – Strategic Iraqi targets and the Iraqi airforce was also destroyed – The war ended on 28 February 1991 with a ceasefire
What was the Impact of the Conflict?9.1 Impact on Kuwait – More than 1,000 Kuwaitis killed and thousands of others tortured during the Iraqi occupation – Kuwaitis were forced to flee their homes which were then occupied by Iraqis – Museums, hospitals, shops and homes were looted by Iraqi soldiers – Retreating Iraqi troops set fire to 650 oil wells in Kuwait at the cost of US$25 billion
What was the Impact of the Conflict?9.2 Impact on Iraq – Destruction of Iraqi Military Capability • Coalition forces had destroyed 1/3 of : – An undisputed military power in the Middle East – A force of 1,000,000 feared soldiers • Coalition forces used state-of-the-art weaponry (e.g. Tomahawk cruise missiles, Stealth planes) • As a result, the coalition forces gained air supremacy by destroying the Iraqi airforce and carrying out sustained bombing campaigns against Iraqi troops
What was the Impact of the Conflict?9.2 Impact on Iraq – Destruction of Iraqi Military Capability • The heavy losses during the bombing campaign caused a huge loss of morale among the Iraqi troops who surrendered in the thousands • The Highway of Death – Fleeing Iraqi tanks, armored vehicles, trucks and troops were bombed by coalition war planes
What was the Impact of the Conflict?9.2 Impact on Iraq – Political Instability in Iraq • As part of Desert Storm, coalition leaders encouraged dissatisfied groups in Iraq to rise up against their leader • One such group, the Kurds, had been fighting for a separate homeland • The Kurds rose up against Saddam as they thought he was in decline and believed that the coalition forces would help them • However, the Kurds were not helped and Saddam dealt harshly with them • Millions of Kurds were forced to flee their homeland in Iraq
What was the Impact of the Conflict?9.2 Impact on Iraq – Political Instability in Iraq • The coalition leaders faced increased criticism for abandoning the Kurds • The UN also passed a resolution that condemned Iraq’s handling of the Kurdish issue • The resolution also allowed for foreign intervention in Iraq’s internal affairs • Peacekeepers were sent to northern Iraq to provide safe areas for the Kurds
What was the Impact of the Conflict?9.2 Impact on Iraq – Suffering of Iraqis • Coalition bombing raids destroyed a large part of Iraqi infrastructure and lives • Daily life was disrupted • Electricity was disrupted and diseases spread because water purification and sewage treatment facilities could not operate
What was the Impact of the Conflict?9.3 Regional & International Impact – Environmental Catastrophe • Upon retreat, the Iraqis set fire to Kuwaiti oil fields and dumped 11 million barrels of oil into the Persian Gulf • Environmental catastrophe • Cost of clearing the oil slick and putting out the fires was very high
What was the Impact of the Conflict?9.3 Regional & International Impact – Displacement of Foreign Workers • 2 million foreign workers from Bangladesh, India, Egypt, the Philippines and Palestine were stranded when the conflict broke out • Sudden loss of income meant difficulties or their families back home.
Success of the UN in maintaining international stability and peace• Maintaining international stability and peace : – One of the UN’s main aims• The Gulf War: – Shows the UN’s capabilities in GATHERING RESOURCES to deter aggression – BUT shows it is LESS SUCCESSFUL in bringing PEACE AND SECURITY to troubled areas in the world
Success of the UN in maintaining international stability and peace• Involvement and Support of the 5 Permanent Members of the UN Security Council: – Cold War had ended so Russia and China did not vote against the USA – Strong interest in the oil supply from the Middle East
Success of the UN in maintaininginternational stability and peace• UN involvement in the Gulf War gave it legitimacy• Allowed US to assume the lead role in providing troops and aid• Strategic interests of the US and other wealthy nations resulted in support for UN efforts in Iraq• Iraq-Kuwait conflict was a bilateral conflict that carried the potential to affect regional and international world players
Success of the UN in maintaining international stability and peace• Iraq-Kuwaiti conflict: – Oil prices rose 15% within the first few days of conflict – If the price of oil had increased further, economic repercussions would have been disastrous
What is Transnational Terrorism?• What is TERRORISM? – Acts designed to strike fear in the people and weaken the government – Aims of most terrorist organisations (e.g. LTTE, IRA) are nationalistic in nature and are to some extent localised in a particular country – However … a new form of Terrorism has come forth … TRANSNATIONAL TERRORISM …
What is Transnational Terrorism?• What is TRANSNATIONAL TERRORISM? – The unlawful use of force or indiscriminate violence by internationally-linked groups against persons and properties in many different parts of the world – Transnational terrorist groups usually have international membership, they target the international community to make global or regional impact – Madrid Train bombings, September 11
Madrid Train Bombings• In Madrid, Spain on 11 March 2004 ten explosions, packed into 13 rucksacks and detonated by cell phones, occured on four commuter trains at the height of rush hour killing 191 civilians and injuring over 1,800. Police also carried out a controlled demolition of 3 other explosive devices. The first group suspected of involvement was the Basque ETA, however investigations later focused on the Islamic extremist Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group (GICM). It was the deadliest attack on European civilians since the Lockerbie bombing of 1988. To date more than 70 men have been arrested in the bombing.
Madrid Train Bombings• On April 3rd in an attempt to arrest two of the prime suspects Mohammed Oulad Akcha and Rachid Oulad Akcha, brothers; Spanish police raided a flat in the Madrid suburb of Leganes. Before the men could be arrested the two brothers and five other men set off an explosion in the apartment killing themselves and one police officer. One of the dead was Serhane ben Abdelmajid Fakhet, "The Tunisian," who police claim was the ringleader of the bombings.
Is Terrorism a New Phenomenon?• NO – It has been around but used to be carried out by state agents or non- state organisations • 1987 bombing of a Korean Air Lines jet by North Korean agents • 1988 bombing of a Pan Am jet over Lockerbie, Scotland by Libyan agents • 1995 Sarin Gas attacks in Tokyo by the Aum Shinrikyo cult • Khalistan movement in India which assassinated PM Indira Gandhi
The bombing of a Korean Air Lines Boeing 707 fromBaghdad to Seoul on Nov. 29, 1987 alarmed the world.The investigative body announced that it was Kim Il-sung,then North Korean leader, who gave the order to kill 93Koreans, two foreigners and 20 aircrew in the air ofBurma.Kim Hyun-hui, then a 27-year-old woman, and anotherNorth Korean agent allegedly planted time bombs on theKorean Air flight. The United Nations Security Council helda meeting to censure the terrorist attack soon after. Kimlater married a former National Intelligence Service agentand is living anonymously in South Korea.
Pan Am Flight 103 was Pan American World Airways third dailyscheduled transatlantic flight from LondonsHeathrow International Airport to New YorksJohn F. Kennedy International Airport. On Wednesday December 21,1988, the aircraft flying this route—a Boeing 747-121 named ClipperMaid of the Seas—was destroyed by a bomb. The remains landed inand around the town of Lockerbie in southern Scotland.In the subsequent investigation of the crash, forensic expertsdetermined that about 1 lb (450 g) of plastic explosive had beendetonated in the airplanes forward cargo hold, triggering asequence of events that led to the rapid destruction of the aircraft.Winds of 100 knots (190 km/h) scattered victims and debris along a130 km (80 mile) corridor over an area of 845 square miles(2189 km²).The death toll was 270 people from 21 countries, including 11people in Lockerbie.
What was the significance of the September 11 attacks?• 4 commercial American airliners were hijacked and crashed into 4 sites around the USA (2 – NYC, 1 – Washington, 1 – Pennsylvania)• 3,000 people were killed as compared to a 1978 fatality of 477 people• No one had seen such mass killing and no one could envision the use of hijacked airliners in this fashion• Two 110 storey buildings, icons of NYC collapsed, covering NYC in dust for months• Brought America to a standstill and had a deep economic and psychological impact on the world
What is Al-Qaeda?• Al-Qaeda (The Base) – Set up in 1989 by Osama Bin Laden – Made up of Arab volunteers and ex- mujahideen who fought the Soviets in Afghanistan in the 1980s
What is Al-Qaeda?• Al-Qaeda (The Base) – Fell out with the Saudi Royal Family when it rejected Al-Qaeda’s offer to regain Kuwait through Osama Bin Laden’s militants – Osama Bin Laden was also unhappy with the fact that US troops were stationed in Saudi Arabia – In retaliation, he carried out anti-state activities and was expelled from Saudi Arabia – His focus shifted to carrying out campaigns against the Saudi government, the US and its allies
What is Al-Qaeda?• Al-Qaeda (The Base) – Wants to rid Muslim countries of Western (US) influence and establish a global Islamic caliphate (Islamic govt. of political unity and leadership in the Muslim world) based on extremist misinterpretations of Islamic concepts – Wants to achieve this using terrorism
Why is Al-Qaeda Significant?• Many recent terrorist attacks are traced to it• It is the epitome of transnational terrorism: – Multi-national membership – Uses globalisation as a tool (e.g. Internet, International banking) – Attacks are designed to inflict maximum casualties
Why is Al-Qaeda Significant?• Many recent terrorist attacks are traced to it• It is the epitome of transnational terrorism: – Multi-national membership – Uses globalisation as a tool (e.g. Internet, International banking) – Attacks are designed to inflict maximum casualties
Why is Al-Qaeda Significant?• In response to September 11, the US launched “Operation Enduring Freedom” to Afghanistan in 2001 to get rid of Al-Qaeda and capture Osama Bin Laden• The Afghan Taliban regime refused to co-operate and US and coalition troops attacked terrorist training camps and warriors
Why is Al-Qaeda Significant?• Despite having suffered losses in numbers and leaders, Al-Qaeda proved it was still capable of carrying out terrorist attacks through many other groups by: – Sharing expertise – Transfer of resources – Discussing strategy – Joint operations
AL-ITTIHAD-AL-ISLAMI Somalia JA’MAT AL-TAWIHIDLASHKAR-E-TOUI WAL JIHAD Pakistan IRAQ ABU SAYAFF PhilippinesISLAMIC ARMY OF ADEN Yemen ARMED ISLAMIC GROUPJEMAAH ISLAMIYAH Algeria ISLAMIC MOVEMENTIndonesia, Singapore OF UZBEKISTANMalaysia, Philippines Uzbekistan Australia
Bali bombings• At 23:05 on 12 October 2002, a suicide bomber inside the nightclub Paddys Pub detonated a bomb in his backpack, causing many patrons, with or without injuries, to immediately flee into the street. Fifteen seconds later, a second and much more powerful car bomb hidden inside a white Mitsubishi van, was detonated by another suicide bomber outside the Sari Club, located opposite Paddys Pub. The van was also rigged for detonation by remote control in case the second bomber had a sudden change of heart. Damage to the densely populated residential and commercial district was immense, destroying neighbouring buildings and shattering windows several blocks away. The car bomb explosion left a one meter deep crater
Impact of TerrorismEconomic Political Social• Loss of life and • Tightening of • Knee-jerkproperty from Sept border security and reactions to crises11 cost insurance immigration • Extremist rhetoriccompanies US$40 clearance and sensitivebillion • Counter-terrorism political• Loss of business legislation that developments overfor the airline infringe on peopleindustry had to be individual freedom • Preparing‘cured’ through and personal Singaporeans to behuge government privacy psychologicallybail-outs and socially resilient
Impact of TerrorismEconomic Social• Loss of income • Causes suspicion and tension amongfor Balinese different ethnic and religious groupsfollowing the Bali • Causes paranoia and fearbombings as • Resulted in the Communitytourist levels fell by Engagement Programme as a long-50% term effort to ensure social cohension• Government and harmony even in the face of crisisspending on and to put in place response planssecurity has alsoincreased (e.g.security personnel,security exercises)
Police MRT Unit• Plans to set up the unit was publicly announced by Minister for Home Affairs Wong Kan Seng during the annual Police Workplan seminar in April 2005. Officers began operational patrols on the Mass Rapid Transit network from 15 August 2005 amid much media attention, particularly in the wake of the 7 July 2005 London bombings in which Jean Charles de Menezes was killed by Metropolitan Police Service officers in a controversial shoot-to-kill policy adopted there. This issue was also brought up in Parliament on the same day, in which Wong clarified that no such policy is adopted here, although officers are trained to kill if considered necessary as is the standard procedure for the rest of the regular forceassengers at the front of the top deck are believed to have survived, as did those on the front of the lower deck including the driver, but those at the top and lower rear of the bus took the brunt of the explosion.
Police MRT Unit• The PMU draws its manpower from the regular as well as the NSF resources, with the build of officers amongst the selection criteria. Taller and well-built officers are chosen to project a tougher presence. Officers are trained to conduct policing work in confined and crowded spaces, and are familiarised with the MRT systems operations. In 2007, the unit began to include Volunteer Special Constabulary officers in its ranks.• Each PMU officer is armed with a handgun and T-baton, as is the case for regular officers.
Exercise Northstar V• Exercise Northstar V is part of the counter- terrorism effort in Singapore, aiming to test the readiness, effectiveness and coordination of the relevant agencies in responding to civil emergency, in particular a large scale multi- location terrorist attack. The exercise also aimed to raise the psychological preparedness of the public in the event of a terrorist attack.• The exercise is prompted by the recent terrorist attacks on public transport in other countries, namely the London bombings on 7 July 2005 and the Madrid train bombings on 11 March 2004, which raise security concerns in public infrastructure. Singapore was the target of the foiled plan by Jemaah Islamiyah to bomb embassies and other installations.
Exercise Northstar V• The scenario of the exercise is similar to the London bombings with near- simultaneous bomb blasts in the trains and a bus. Earlier, officers from the Singapore Police Force were sent to London to study the British responses to the bombings.• The public were pre-warned that the exercise would be held during a weekend in January 2006 and the participating agencies were given as many as six months to prepare. However, the exact date, time and locations of the exercise were not disclosed until 15 minutes before the drill commenced.
Are We Prepared? Although Singapore is fortunate enough to have been spared thehorrors faced London, NY, Madrid and Bali, we must not slacken in our defenceYES. WE ARE PREPARED … ONCE WE COME TOGETHER IN TOTAL DEFENCE… OUR SAFETY IS OUR RESPONSIBILITY OUR NEGLIGENCE IS OUR CONSEQUENCE
Can Transnational Terrorism be Managed?• Points to take note when evaluating: – Transnational terrorism is a global threat which requires EVERYONE’S efforts – No one country can defeat terrorism on it’s own
Can Transnational Terrorism be Managed?• ASEAN’s Efforts to Manage Terrorism: – Terrorism viewed as a major threat and challenge to peace and security in the region – Terrorism impedes progress and prosperity – ASEAN pledges its support to cooperate against transnational terrorists through joint-police / armed forces and intelligence measures
Can Transnational Terrorism be Managed?• ASEAN’s Efforts to Manage Terrorism: – The Capture of Fathur Rohman Al-Ghozi • Jemaah Islamiyah bomb-maker • Involved in the bombing on a LRT train in the Philippines • Lead character in the plot to bomb targets in western Singapore • Was in possession of explosives intended for use in Singapore – Based on information provided by Singapore, the Philippines was able to apprehend Fathur, who was killed in a shoot-out with police
Can Transnational Terrorism be Managed?• International Efforts to Combat Terrorism: – UN Resolutions • Freeze financial assets of terrorists and their supporters • Deny terrorists travel and safe haven • Prevent terrorist recruitment and weapons supply • Co-operate on information sharing and criminal persecution – UN Counter Terrorism Committee • to monitor member countries’ adherence to the resolutions • to strengthen the counter-terrorism capacity of UN member states • provide technical assistance to countries who need help in implementing the resolutions
Can Transnational Terrorism be Managed?• Successful or Not Successful? – Successful: • US$200 million of terrorist funding seized • 4,000 terrorist suspects arrested through shared information – Not Successful: • Ability of terrorists to escape security restrictions • Ability to recruit and influence people to join their cause (via Internet)
Can Transnational Terrorism be Managed?• Nurturing an Environment that Censures (Condemns) Terrorism: – Society must be firm in denying terrorists and their warped ideas to have space in society – Society must be firm and actively reject terrorism with ONE VOICE