Topiary: A Tool for Prototyping Location-Enhanced Applications, at UIST 2004
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Topiary: A Tool for Prototyping Location-Enhanced Applications, at UIST 2004

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A tool we created for rapidly prototyping location-enhanced apps. The key idea is to use a few basic abstractions at design time to support location features, and then to use a Wizard of Oz approach ...

A tool we created for rapidly prototyping location-enhanced apps. The key idea is to use a few basic abstractions at design time to support location features, and then to use a Wizard of Oz approach at run time to help with testing.

Location-enhanced applications use the location of people, places, and things to augment or streamline interaction. Location-enhanced applications are just starting to emerge in several different domains, and many people believe that this type of application will experience tremendous growth in the near future. However, it currently requires a high level of technical expertise to build location-enhanced applications, making it hard to iterate on designs. To address this problem we introduce Topiary, a tool for rapidly prototyping location-enhanced applications. Topiary lets designers create a map that models the location of people, places, and things; use this active map to demonstrate scenarios depicting location contexts; use these scenarios in creating storyboards that describe interaction sequences; and then run these storyboards on mobile devices, with a wizard updating the location of people and things on a separate device. We performed an informal evaluation with seven researchers and interface designers and found that they reacted positively to the concept.

Authors are Yang Li, Jason Hong, and James Landay

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Topiary: A Tool for Prototyping Location-Enhanced Applications, at UIST 2004 Topiary: A Tool for Prototyping Location-Enhanced Applications, at UIST 2004 Presentation Transcript

  • Topiary: A Tool forPrototyping Location-Enhanced Applications University of California, Berkeley Carnegie Mellon University Intel Research Seattle, DUB Group, University of Washington Yang Li Jason Hong James Landay
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 2 Location-Enhanced Applications • Provide useful services by leveraging knowledge about the location of people, places, & things – Examples: AT&T’s Find Friends service, Tour Guide AT&T Find Friends Ekahau
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 3 Problems Building Location-Enhanced Apps • Require a high level of technical expertise to build – Sensing technologies are complex – Location-to-place inference necessary to make useful • Hard to prototype, evaluate, & iterate on designs – Several toolkits for developers – No tools for interaction designers • Cannot be tested with end-users until built
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 4 Goal of Topiary • Lower the barrier to entry – For interaction designers • Speed up iterative design process – No application or infrastructure development required • Get early feedback from users – Make major changes when inexpensive Allow interaction designers to quickly prototype & test location- enhanced applications
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 5 Location Design Tasks & Challenges • Modeling location contexts – Enable exploration of a wider input space than keyboard & mouse – e.g., “when Alice enters the library”, “when Alice is near Bob” • Specifying location-enhanced behaviors – Interaction sequences integrating both explicit input (e.g., click) & implicit input (e.g., location contexts) – e.g., “Show the library map when Alice is in the library” • Testing a design in realistic situations – Settings often in the field & mobile with changing contextual input – e.g., “Give a user a PDA and let them walk across campus”
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 6 A QuickView of Topiary
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 8 Outline • Motivation • Active Map Workspace • Storyboard Workspace • Test Workspace • Evaluation • Conclusion & Future Work
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 9 ActiveMap Workspace Mo de ling Lo catio n co nte xts • Model a geographical area – Import a map image as background • Create entities on the map – People, places & things • Capture scenarios – Scenario producer tool captures scenarios describing contexts
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 10 ActiveMap Workspace Mo de ling Lo catio n co nte xts
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 11 ActiveMap Workspace Mo de ling Lo catio n Co nte xts Contexts Type Examples near / far Proximity Alice is near the library moves near / away Proximity Alice moves away from Bob in / out Presence Bob is in the parking lot enters / exits Presence Alice leaves her office ActiveMap workspace gives designers a visual language for specifying these contexts
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 12 Scenarios • Represent a collection of location contexts • Used as triggers & conditions for specifying location-enhanced interactions Scenario Alicemeets CarolintheParkingLot Contexts Alice is in the Parking Lo t Caro lis in the Parking Lo t Alice m o ve s ne ar Caro l
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 13 Capturing Scenarios
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 15 Abstracting Scenarios
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 16 Outline • Motivation • Active Map Workspace • Storyboard Workspace • Test Workspace • Evaluation • Conclusion & Future Work
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 17 Storyboard Workspace Lo catio n-Enhance d Inte ractio ns ActionsExplicit Input Location-enhanced interactions Scenarios conditions triggers Traditional UI Interactions
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 18 Storyboard Workspace Spe cifying Lo catio n-Enhance d Inte ractio ns • Similar to traditional storyboards – Pages & links (e.g., DENIM, SILK & DEMAIS) • Different from traditional storyboards – Explicit & implicit links • scenarios as co nditio ns for explicit links • scenarios as auto m atic trig g e rs for implicit links – Can incorporate context components
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 19 Storyboard Workspace Explicit & Im plicit Links
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 20 Storyboard Workspace Co nte xt Co m po ne nts 1. Display spatial & temporal information 2. Encapsulate common location-enhanced interactions 3. Enable continuous interactions Five context components: Active Map component Distance component Nearest Entities component Location component Temporal component
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 21 Storyboard Workspace Co nte xt Co m po ne nts
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 22 Storyboard Workspace Co nte xt Co m po ne nts – Active Map Co m po ne nt
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 23 Storyboard Workspace Co nte xt Co m po ne nts
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 24 Storyboard Workspace Co nte xt Co m po ne nts – Ne are st Entitie s Co m po ne nt
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 25 Outline • Motivation • Active Map Workspace • Storyboard Workspace • Test Workspace • Evaluation • Conclusion and Future Work
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 26 Test Workspace Te sting & Analyzing a De sig n End-userUI Wizard UI
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 27 Test Workspace Te sting & Analyzing a De sig n
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 29 Outline • Active Map Workspace • Storyboard Workspace • Test Workspace • Evaluation • Conclusion and Future Work
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 30 Evaluation #1 An info rm ale valuatio n o n an e arly im ple m e ntatio n • Settings – an IBM T20 ThinkPad with a 700MHz CPU, 512MB RAM, 14 inch display, & a Wacom Graphire tablet • Tasks – create a tour guide for either Berkeley or San Francisco • Participants – 2 ubicomp researchers, 3 professional UI designers, & 2 undergraduate students who took a UI design course • Results – Gave positive feedback & areas for improvement. Resulted in • Storyboard Analysis Window • Zooming to support large designs
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 31 Evaluation #2 O ur Expe rie nce – Applicatio ns we pro to type d using To piary • Riddle-based “Geo-caching” • Tour guide & nearest friend finder • Context-aware reminder • Searching for available meeting rooms • In/Out board • Thing finder • Car navigation • Conference Guide
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 32 Evaluation #3 O ur Expe rie nce – Fro m pro to type s to a re alapplicatio n Made four designs in three hours Made a new design in 1 hour Tested with three people in the field Built the real application in 2 weeks Tested with three people in the field Informal Prototyping of Tour Guide Informal prototypeThe real application Region of possible location Trajectory trail Path to target
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 33 Future Work • Modeling the ambiguity of sensor data • Enabling more kinds of contextual information • Improving the scalability of storyboards • Further evaluating Topiary – being used by students in both undergraduate & graduate courses at UW & CMU this term
  • July 15, 2013 UIST04 34 Conclusion Topiary is the first tool for interface designers to rapidly prototype location-enhanced applications – Demonstrate location contexts via an Active Map – Specify location-enhanced behaviors via enhanced storyboards – Test & analyze a design using either Wizard of Oz or sensor input
  • Topiary: A Tool forPrototyping Location-Enhanced Applications Download available at: http://dub.washington.edu/topiary