Introduction <ul><li>A successful city cannot operate efficiently in isolation from its environment. It must balance social, economic and environmental needs. Poor urban planning and management can have grave results for the urban economy, the environment and society. A well-managed urban environment is a key to economic development and poverty alleviation. </li></ul>
OPEN SPACE AND VEGETATION PRESERVATION <ul><li>‘‘ Tree protection in land development should be a shared community responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Developers need to approach their projects with some environmental sensitivity. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Citizens need to understand the needs of developers. And local governments must be flexible, yet recognize and support the need for tree protection and replacement. If all three sectors cooperate, our cities can grow while remaining beautiful and environmentally healthy.’’ (Macie and Moll, 1989). </li></ul>
Introduction An increase in the awareness of the benefits that open space and vegetative buffers provide, both individually and in aggregates, has caused the issue of vegetation preservation and augmentation to become an integral part of the land development process.
As our built environment expands, it is imperative that land development activities not compromise the long term quality of our environment. The responsibility of land steward-ship is expanding beyond the traditional disciplines of agronomy, environmental and soil science, forestry and land-scape architecture to include various engineering and legal professionals,
<ul><li>corporations, community and urban planners, public officials, and private citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>In short, any individual who participates in the land development process must understand and appreciate the important functions and values provided by vegetative buffers in climate, air, and water quality preservation. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Forested area preservation, as well as other open space preservation is a vital part of our economic future. </li></ul><ul><li>Open space preservation in many cases is not limited to the preservation of individual trees alone; rather, the term ‘‘open space preservation’’ generally implies preservation of existing trees and other associated vegetation, including the under story </li></ul>
<ul><li>trees, shrubs, vines, and herbaceous plants. </li></ul>
The Values and Benefits of Trees and Open Space
<ul><li>Understanding the significance of tree preservation requires a basic understanding of the values and benefits provided by trees. </li></ul><ul><li>the functional uses of trees and their associated vegetation, from which the following values and benefits are derived. </li></ul>
The values and benefits related to architectural design elements include:
<ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Space definition and articulation </li></ul><ul><li>Screening undesirable views </li></ul><ul><li>Complementing or softening architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a sense of unity among inharmonious buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Providing textural and pattern variety </li></ul><ul><li>Buffering incompatible land uses </li></ul><ul><li>Attracting wildlife </li></ul>
<ul><li>Trees affect the microclimate of an area by moderating the effects of sun, wind, temperature, and precipitation. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Intercepting, filtering, or blocking unwanted solar radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Blocking undesirable wind by obstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Directing wind flow by deflection </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing wind velocities by filtration </li></ul><ul><li>Moderating temperature changes (although this is more directly a function of solar radiation interception) </li></ul>
The value and benefits of trees and open space relative to site development and engineering are equally as important. <ul><li>Decreasing storm water runoff directly through interception of rainfall and water uptake through the root system, as well as filtering pollutants contained in runoff from the adjacent watershed </li></ul>
<ul><li>Stabilization of soils </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing the glare & reflection characteristically generated by the combination of buildings &/or roadways and natural and/or artificial light </li></ul><ul><li>Acting as noise attenuators </li></ul><ul><li>Interacting with the particulate matter and gasses known to cause air pollution to significantly reduce the concentrations of these pollutants </li></ul>
<ul><li>Adding extra oxygen to the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Recreational opportunities (gardening, ballfields,hiking trails) </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Non-polluting transportation (bike trails) </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Flood protection </li></ul>
<ul><li>All of the architectural, aesthetic, climatological, and engineering uses give value to trees that can be described in both economic and legal terms (Miller, 1988). </li></ul><ul><li>Because of these measurable assets, trees and open space contribute to and enhance property values. </li></ul>
Preservation/Protection Ordinances <ul><li>Open spaces are considered valuable environmental resources, and the incremental loss of these resources has prompted many jurisdictions to enact legislation to preserve and protect forested areas and farmlands, as well as individual trees. In addition, increasingly poor water quality and urbanization in areas that were once very rural have led communities to protect more than just the natural resources, but entire watersheds and viewsheds as well. This legislation is generally enforced through local zoning or landscape ordinances. Generally, these ordinances are not intended to place unreasonable constraints on land development. Many of these ordinances have been created to act as guides for land development so that the preservation of a valuable resource or viewshed is balanced with site development </li></ul>
<ul><li>The idea underlying preservation ordinances is that if site development is balanced with appropriate preservation, then the end result is largely beneficial to all those participating. Land development and preservation need not be mutually exclusive. In fact, open space preservation has been demonstrated to prevent flood damage, attract investment, revitalize cities, boost tourism, along with preserving the environment (Lerner & Poole, 1999). Since communities differ in their natural environment, political structures, cultural traditions and legal framework, preservation ordinances can and do vary between jurisdictions. However, all have the similar goal of protecting significant natural resources or historic views. All of the regulations or ordinances are, and need to be, specific to local conditions, circumstances, needs, and desires (Robinette,1992). </li></ul>
Open Space and Tree Preservation and the Site Development Process <ul><li>It is critical to understand that in order for open space and tree preservation to be successful, it must be integrated into the early planning stages of land development. It is nearly an impossible task to address these types of preservation later in the site design stages and achieve the optimum balance between the built and natural environments. Retrofitted open space and tree preservation has a greater chance of failure and can actually create unwanted liabilities. Properly planned and implemented open space and tree preservation can enhance the aesthetic, natural and economic environments for all. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Prior to any site visit, a review and analysis of the existing site conditions will provide an overview of the limits of the existing vegetation, the site topography, soils locations and descriptions, riparian areas such as streams, ponds and/ or wetlands, open fields, existing buildings, and other existing and/or natural features. All of these living and nonliving factors influence the species and quality of vegetation indigenous to the site. A review of recent aerial photography of the site affords an overview of the site and a characterization of existing vegetative patterns. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Existing site information or data collected during a site visit can range from general to detailed, depending upon the level of information desired or required regarding the vegetation. At a minimum, the data collected during a site visit should include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify individual, significant trees, groups of similar trees </li></ul><ul><li>The species present </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of forest structure </li></ul><ul><li>Relative age and condition </li></ul><ul><li>Note any riparian areas </li></ul><ul><li>Other information can include: </li></ul><ul><li>The locations of scenic vistas, important wildlife habitats, or obvious past or present management activity (e.g., logging, prescribed burning, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Transplantable tree stock </li></ul><ul><li>Obvious insects or diseases present </li></ul><ul><li>Any other natural or cultural features that may contribute to the significance of the vegetative cover and ambiance of the project </li></ul>
Protection of Trees During Construction <ul><li>In tree preservation, the root zone area is the critical and limiting factor of success. Plants depend upon roots for water and mineral uptake, storage of food reserves, and the synthesis of needed organic compounds and anchorage. Generally, tree roots are located in the upper 36 in. of the soil, with the majority of the roots in the upper 18 in. However, two factors that can significantly alter that generalization are the soil texture and existing forest litter. The finer the soil texture, the shallower the absorbing tree roots; similarly, the thicker the leaf litter, the shallower the absorbing roots. In many cases, the feeder roots of trees growing in finer texture soils and/or mature forest situations will occur in the upper six to twelve inches of soil. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Unless the tree canopy is physically or chemically damaged in some way, or the trunk or branches are physically or mechanically damaged, most construction-related injury involves root damage. One common form of construction related tree root damage (Figure 17.2) occurs because of extensive disturbance of the soil peripheral around preservation areas while removing the trees adjacent to the preservation areas (e.g., pulling stumps instead of grinding them). Other damage includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Root severance in the topsoil stripping process or in lowering grades </li></ul><ul><li>Excavating for footings or trenching for utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Raising the grade, which can suffocate roots </li></ul><ul><li>Compacting the soil, which crushes and suffocates roots </li></ul>
<ul><li>Changing the hydrologic regime (wetter or drier) by altering existing drainage patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Storing, dumping or disposing of construction materials that are toxic to plants in or near preservation areas, like concrete washout areas. </li></ul><ul><li>For these reasons, tree protection fencing or other protection devices should generally be located outside the drip line of trees that are to be preserved and should be implemented prior to or at the beginning of any clearing and grading activities. </li></ul>
<ul><li>During Construction and Beyond . </li></ul><ul><li>Open space preservation as with tree and forest preservation, must be incorporated into the early planning process of site development. </li></ul><ul><li>It can include the preservation of old field ecosystems, riparian areas of all types, specific geological formations, springs, etc. The preservation of these areas varies widely. Old fields are primarily made up of a mix of perennial flowers, grasses, and what some would classify as weeds. Many wildlife species rely on these old fields for foraging and reproduction. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Wetland Functions </li></ul><ul><li>After a long history of wetland destruction, wetlands are increasingly recognized as providing desirable functions to society. Today, wetlands are known to act as chemical sinks or transformers that can improve water quality. They act as ‘‘kidneys of the landscape’’ (Mitsch and Gosselink, 1986) by removing excess nutrients in rivers and streams. At the same time, wetlands reduce flooding by desynchronizing flood flows in drainage basins. This is done by storing storm water and releasing it slowly into streams, thus reducing peak flows. When located along streams and bays, wetlandscan buffer erosive forces and hold sediments, preventing loss of shoreline. Wetlands can recharge or discharge aquifers, depending upon their position on the landscape, and therefore may either replenish the aquifer or contribute to base flow in streams. </li></ul>
Water Quality <ul><li>As water purifiers, wetlands act to reduce nutrients, chemical wastes, and turbidity. Nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen are removed from water by wetland plants and are utilized for growth. Utilizing the nutrients not only prevents algal blooms, but the increased biological oxygen demand created as the algal masses decompose can kill fish and other aquatic life as oxygen levels drop. A wetland’s ability to absorb nutrients varies between individual wetlands and wetland types. Furthermore, a wetland can be overloaded with nutrients and thus be unable to assimilate all of the nutrient load. </li></ul>
Fish and Wildlife Habitat <ul><li>Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world in terms of photo synthetically producing energy from the sun and recycling nutrients. They provide food and habitat for an array of wildlife and are critical in the nesting, migration, and wintering of waterfowl. While not accounting for nearly as high a percentage of our total land area, wetlands are critical to the life history of over one-third of our nation’s threatened and endangered plant and animal species. Coastal wetlands provide spawning habitat, as well as nursery and feeding areas, for much of our commercially important fish and shellfish. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Effects on Flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Wetlands within a watershed can reduce flood flows along streams through the storage of floodwaters they provide. Floodwaters are retained by the wetland and released gradually after the storm. The relative ability of a wetland to alter flood flows depends on several variables, including its size relative to the size of the watershed, its relationship to other wetlands in the watershed, and the amount of urbanization in the watershed. In many respects, wetlands serve as a natural form of stormwater management. Coastal wetlands Provide similar benefits in terms of reducing the potential flood damages associated with tropical storms, hurricanes, northeasters, and the like. The wetland vegetation dissipates wave energy, thus reducing potential wave heights, while coastal wetlands serve as a buffer to protect shoreline areas from wave-induced erosion. </li></ul>
Recreation <ul><li>In addition to commercially important fish and shellfish that depend on wetlands for all or part of their life cycle, many of the species pursued by sport fishermen are spawned or reared in our coastal wetlands. Hunting, especially for waterfowl, is ever popular and generates substantial benefits to local economies. Waterfowl hunters spend over 300 million dollars annually on guns, ammunition, lodging, guides, boats, decoys, and other equipment in pursuit of their quarry (Feierabend and Zelazny, 1987). In addition to consumptive uses like hunting, fishing, and trapping, many individuals spend a great deal of time (and money) on non-consumptive uses such as bird watching, hiking, and canoeing in wetlands. The EPA estimates that over 50 million people annually visit wetlands for bird watching (USEPA, 1988). </li></ul>
F I G U R E 1 7 . 4 A wetland created by a beaver dam built on a stream channel
F I G U R E 1 7 . 5 A palustrine emergent wetland created by ground water discharge at the surface.
F I G U R E 1 7 . 6 A gleyed hydric soil sample being compared to the Munsell Soil Color Chart
<ul><li>Hydrophytic vegetation is plant life that has adapted to saturated soil conditions. The field indicators of hydrophytic vegetation include the identification of the dominant tree, sapling-shrub: herbaceous, and woody-vine species. A wetland indicator status from the National List of Plant Species that Occur in Wetlands: 1988 (Reed, 1988) is assigned to each species of plant to determine the probability of finding that plant growing under saturated conditions. This status indicates the frequency of occurrence of a species in wetlands as shown in Table 17.3. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Wetland hydrology, generally the most difficult of the three criteria to verify in the field, is normally confirmed through the use of field indicators. The wetland delineator must keep in mind that while some indicators are not necessarily indicative of the presence of wetland hydrology during the growing season, they do provide evidence that inundation or soil saturation has occurred. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Field indicators listed in the Corps manual include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Visual observation of inundation or saturation </li></ul><ul><li>Watermarks indicating prior inundation </li></ul><ul><li>Driftlines of water-carried debris </li></ul><ul><li>Sediment deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage patterns within wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidized rhizospheres </li></ul>
The Environment - An Essential Asset for Cities <ul><li>Managing environmental resources as a group of strategic assets that are crucial to a municipality’s goals, important to ecosystem health, and beneficial to the community is key to successful urban management. </li></ul>
Environmental resources as assets to a city <ul><li>Investment in environmental protection helps the economy and reduces city budget expenditure. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- It is far less costly to avoid environmental degradation than it is to live with its consequences, or to repair its damage. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Many municipal activities ultimately do protect the environment, even if that was not the primary intention. </li></ul><ul><li>- actions to improve transport, protect water catchment areas or develop tourism also improve air quality, benefit sensitive wetlands and address coastal pollution </li></ul>
What are the ways in which the environment can be viewed as an asset for cities? <ul><li>The natural environment provides </li></ul><ul><li>cities with countless ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>services. Some of these are so fundamental to urban liveability that they may seem invisible to urban managers: air, water, open space. </li></ul>
These are just some of the countless examples of the services that the natural environment provides to urban settlements : <ul><li>Clean air is essential to a healthy environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers and water bodies provide drinking </li></ul><ul><li>water and act as natural pollution filters. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity is essential for food, materials, medicine and improved quality of life, not just locally but also globally. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Forests serve as watersheds, habitats, carbon sinks, leisure amenities and tourist destinations. If managed sustainably, forests are also a source of energy and building materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Wetlands filter and process waste and act as a nursery for fisheries. </li></ul><ul><li>Sand dunes, coral reefs and mangroves protect cities from storm surges, prevent erosion and siltation, and in the case of the latter two act as nurseries for fisheries. Attractive coasts draw tourism. </li></ul>
Attracting Investment: The Role of the Environment in Hong Kong <ul><ul><li>According to a 2006 survey by the American Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong, almost 4 out of 5 professionals based in Hong Kong were thinking of leaving, or knew others who had already left, because of the quality of the environment. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>95 percent of respondents were worried about the air quality in Hong Kong and the potential long-term effects on the health of themselves and their children. </li></ul><ul><li>55 percent of respondents knew of professionals who had declined to move to Hong Kong because of the quality of its natural environment. </li></ul><ul><li>“ quality of the natural environment” topped a list of seven factors in terms of importance when selecting a place to live. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Hong Kong example shows that if the environment were cleaner and the air quality better companies would invest more money in the city. A healthy environment is vital to attract and keep investment capital. </li></ul>
Local Governments and the Urban Environment <ul><li>Local governments have an enormous influence on how urban-environment relationships evolve, and on how their cities interact with the hinterland and with the wider global community. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective local government can make cities more competitive, more efficient and more attractive to investors and workers by promoting the sustainable development of the urban environment. </li></ul>
Family life in a Manila slum—poverty needs to be monitored at the municipal level. * The power of good planning and effective management in strong, empowered city governments is critical to propelling cities towards sustainability. * Local governments today play a leading role in developing new approaches to the management of the natural and built environment.
Integrating Environmental Considerations into Urban Planning: The Advantages <ul><li>What are the arguments for integrating the environment into city development strategies? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For a city to grow and develop in the long term, it cannot disregard its environment. It must also consciously integrate the environment into its planning and management mechanisms. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Where are the entry points for integrating environmental considerations into urban planning and management? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The social, economic and environmental challenges which urban settlements face today, coupled with the speed of urban expansion, have encouraged the development of new an innovative approaches to local governance. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Local governments are becoming increasingly aware of the benefits of citizen participation in urban decision-making. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governance approaches which encourage urban stakeholders to have a say in the management of their city provide several entry points for the inclusion of environmental issues in urban planning. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Pollution from copper mine in Bulgaria. </li></ul>A Municipal Response to Industrial Damage: Development and Sustainability in Bulgaria In the city of Bourgas, Bulgaria, the Mayor and municipal staff have sought ways to alleviate the environmental impacts of the municipality’s intensive industrialisation.
<ul><li>The Municipal Development Strategy for 2007-2013 recognises the need for an integrated long-term approach to balance current development with resource protection and sustainability. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of municipal responsibilities are formally linked to environment (for example, procurement, public transport, urban planning, energy management), and policy-making attempts to address economic and social issues in synergy with environmental questions. </li></ul>
Reducing Poverty and Improving the Environment and Citizen Health in Brazil Hillside favela in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
<ul><li>Favelas (slums) are a primary feature of urban development in Brazil. These informal settlements often occupy environmentally precarious areas such as steep hillsides and riverbanks, and usually lack key infrastructure, in particular sanitation and sewerage systems which has resulted in increased rates of disease and mortality. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Municipality of Goiânia’s “Fora de Risco” (Out of Risk) Project was driven by three motivating factors: </li></ul><ul><li>- poverty reduction, environmental improvement and citizen health </li></ul><ul><li>The project addressed the environmental factors in relation to the social and economic issues, and was able to achieve successes in all areas. </li></ul><ul><li>The key has been the social inclusion of the community at risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 20 community groups were involved in the project and thus the Fora de Risco has acted as a catalyst for social development. </li></ul>
City of Calgary skyline. <ul><li>EnviroSystem: How Calgary Works Towards Its City Vision </li></ul>
<ul><li>In Calgary, the environmental management system that is used is referred to as Enviro- System. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It describes the City of Calgary’s strengths, accountability to itself and its citizens, and commitments to protect the natural environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It enables the city to uphold its vision of “working together to create and sustain a vibrant, healthy, safe and caring community”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It has created a culture of environmental caring and an understanding of the importance of protecting the watershed, preserving natural areas and green space, and protecting the air. </li></ul></ul>
Instruments for Environmental Integration: An Overview
<ul><li>-presents some of the instruments that a city can use to integrate the environment into urban planning and management. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments can fall into several categories: </li></ul><ul><li>- Policy instruments provide guiding principles for urban decision-makers. </li></ul>
<ul><li>- Process instruments provide ways of doing something, steps that can be taken to reach a desired goal. </li></ul><ul><li>-Planning instruments offer a variety of methods by which urban development plans can be developed and implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>-Management instruments provide tools to direct and administer urban planning decisions. </li></ul>
Overview of Instruments for Environmental Integration
*Internet, *electronic newsletters, *outreach media *sustainable procurement *product life cycle analysis *eco-labelling <ul><li>Information : Written, internet, face-to face advice, information offices, training, research and development, awareness raising campaigns, clearing house mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>2. Voluntary : Product labeling, branding, voluntary codes of practice or standards, externally accredited environmental management standards or audits, voluntary agreements </li></ul>Policy instruments Tool examples Options Instrument type
City twinning projects through which developed cities will support climate related initiatives in developing cities *Regulations * polluter pays principle 3. Economic : Emission charges & taxes, tax refund schemes, deposit & refund schemes, tradable permits, public spending subsidies, fine, legal liability for environmental damage, bonds. 4. Regulatory : Controls on emissions, resource use, toxic substance use through bans, permits, quotas and licensing Policy instruments Tool examples Options Instrument type
● ecoBUDGET ● Air quality management ● Environmental budgets and audits ● Environment quality management Management instruments Indicators, guidelines and documentation from a range of programmes and organisations ● Environmental profiles ● SWOT analysis ● Rapid Ecological Footprint Assessment ● Monitoring systems and indicators ● Strategic Environmental Assessment Planning instruments task forces, round tables, expert panels, workshops ● Visioning ● Participation Process instruments Tool examples Options Instrument type
A community action planning (CAP) workshop in Yangzhou, China. Providing the Public with Environmental Information in Yangzhou, China
<ul><li>Yangzhou’s Eco Centre serves as an environmental information and communication clearinghouse. Apart from raising environmental consciousness, it informs the public about the government’s efforts and activities related to the urban environment. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Eco Centre serves to both inform the public on the importance of the environment and the impacts that their day-to-day decisions can have on both their local environment as well as the global implications. It has served as an invaluable tool for the city, facilitating interaction with citizens on environmental issues. </li></ul>
<ul><li>SOME EXAMPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRATION </li></ul><ul><li>(CASE STUDY) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Aerial view of Alexandria, Egypt. </li></ul>Implementing a City Development Strategy in Alexandria, Egypt
<ul><li>During the 2004–2006 phase, Alexandria prepared a Comprehensive Strategic Development Plan for the city within the framework of the Alexandria CDS. </li></ul><ul><li>The implementation of the Alexandria CDS has greatly helped decision makers, private sector, NGOs, and the community at large to come together for a common strategic vision and unified their efforts towards setting up a strategic plan for development. </li></ul>
<ul><li>By using a consultative process to tailor the development plan, the results reflect all stakeholders’ commitment to work towards its implementation. By having such equal participation, all of the players knew their roles, duties, responsibilities, and benefits. Likewise, the CDS provided the opportunity for all stakeholders to exchange views, develop positive dialogues, and be well informed regarding their city development strategic plan. </li></ul>
Donguan Gate, Yangzhou, China. Eco City Planning in China
<ul><li>Although eco-city plans are not statutory in China, the Mayor of Yangzhou required all other plans prepared by the municipal administration, including the statutory spatial plan to conform to the eco-city plan. </li></ul><ul><li>By doing so, the ECP in Yangzhou allows staff to pursue goals of economic advancement through industrial development and tourism while at the same time ensuring social stability and improvement in the quality of life of residents and environmental conservation. </li></ul>
Housing project in San Isidoro, Philippines. Using ecoBUDGET to Fight Poverty in the Philippines
<ul><li>The coastal town of Tubigon in Bohol Province, Philippines, has a high degree of biodiversity and is rich in natural resources which support the livelihoods of the community. </li></ul><ul><li>The municipality uses the ecoBUDGET approach. As Tubigon considers poverty and environmental degradation “twin problems”, the ecoBUDGET approach is linked to poverty alleviation and to addressing the Millennium Development Goals in the areas of water, sanitation and human settlements. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Recommendations for International Financing Partners </li></ul>
<ul><li>1. International programmes which support cities in the preparation of their urban planning and management strategies could inform cities of the benefits of including environmental issues in their strategies, and should encourage their inclusion. </li></ul>
<ul><li>2. Support programmes could inform applicant cities of the range of approaches, instruments and tools available that can be used to integrate the environment into urban development strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Support programmes could build capacities in applicant cities by drawing their attention to relevant publications, programmes and international agreements </li></ul>
<ul><li>1. Cities and urban settlements seeking funding support for their planning and management strategies should incorporate environmental issues in their proposals. They should be able to demonstrate why this integration is important in the context of their city, and to suggest how it can be achieved. </li></ul>
<ul><li>2. Proposals for funding could also include a section on awareness—raising and capacity building for municipal staff and the general public. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Urban managers should seriously consider ways to institutionalise and therefore sustain integration of the environment into planning strategies, and about how to manage implementation once funding ends. International programmes could make cities aware of the various environmental management approaches available, such as the ecoBUDGET system. </li></ul>
<ul><li>4. Urban managers could also incorporate a system for the ongoing monitoring of environmental quality and the use of natural resources in the city development strategy. </li></ul>
<ul><li>5. Once a proposal for funding has been approved, the urban planning and management strategies should undergo a Strategic Environmental Assessment. This assessment, which would include expected impacts and mitigation strategies could form part of the reporting requirements. It ensures that external funding will not lead to environmental damage and significant mitigation costs. </li></ul>
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) It is mandated to be the primary agency responsible for the conservation, management, development, and proper use of the country’s environment and natural resources.
<ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Assure the availability and sustainability of the country's natural resources through judicious use and systematic restoration or replacement. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Enhance the contribution of natural resources for achieving national economic and social development. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote equitable access to natural resources by the different sectors of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve specific terrestrial and marine areas representative of the Philippine natural and cultural heritage for present and future generations. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Core Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate and implement policies, guidelines, rules and regulations relating to environmental management, pollution prevention and control. </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate, implement and supervise the government’s policies, plans and programs pertaining to the management, conservation, development, use and replenishment of the country’s natural resources and ecological diversity. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Promulgate and implement rules and regulations governing the exploration, development, extraction, disposition, and use of the forests, lands, minerals, wildlife and other natural resources. </li></ul>
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau (ERDB) It is the principal research agency of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) It pursues research, development and extension (RDE) functions to provide science-based strategies for the sustainable management of the country's major ecosystems: the forest, upland farms, grassland and degraded areas, the coastal zone and freshwater and urban ecosystems.
Functions: *Formulates an integrated research and development program on Philippine ecosystems and natural resources. *Monitors and evaluates DENR regional and integrated RDE programs of 16 DENR Regional Research and Development Services. *Coordinates R&D activities of all regional research offices.
*Conducts research to generate technologies towards sustainable management and use of Philippine ecosystems and natural resources. *Organizes and translates all recommendable findings into understandable language and presentation. *Facilitates dissemination of research information and technology to all possible users.
Forest Management Bureau The Forest Management Bureau of the DENR provides support for the effective protection, development, occupancy management, and conservation of forest lands and watersheds. It collaborates with international and local development organizations in several forestry development programs .
Functions: * Recommends policies and/or programs for the effective protection, development, occupancy, management and conservation of forest lands, watersheds, including grazing and mangrove areas, reforestation and rehabilitation of critically denuded/degraded forest reservations, improvement of water resource use and development, ancestral lands, wilderness areas and other natural reserves, development of forest plantations, including rattan, bamboo and other valuable non-timber forest resources, rationalization of the wood-based industries, regulation of utilization and exploitation of forest resources including wildlife, to ensure continued supply of forest goods and services.
Functions: * Advises the Regional Offices in the implementation of the above policies and/or programs * Develops plans, programs, operating standards and administrative measures to promote the Bureau’s objectives and functions
* Assists in the monitoring and evaluation of forestry and watershed development projects to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. * Undertakes studies on the economics of forest-based industries, including the supply and demand trends on the local, national and international levels, identifying investment problems and opportunities in various areas.
Lands Management Bureau The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) through the Lands Management Bureau and DENR Field Offices is mandated to administer, survey, manage, and dispose Alienable and Disposable (A&D) lands and other government lands not placed under the jurisdiction of other government agencies .
Mines and Geosciences Bureau The MGB, as steward of the country's mineral resources, is committed to the promotion of sustainable mineral resources development, aware of its contribution to national economic growth and countryside community development. It fully recognizes that the development of a responsive policy framework in partnership with stakeholders to govern mineral exploration, mining and investment decisions and an effective institutional structure, are fundamental requisites for the sustainable utilization of the country's mineral resources.
It is adherent to the promotion of geological studies as an integral element of socio-economic development, environmental protection and human safety. Yet, it is sensitive to the known environmental impacts of mining and the need for restoration and rehabilitation of mining affected areas and the development and adoption of environmental and geoscientific technologies . It is the government agency primarily responsible for the implementation of Mining Act of 1995. It has direct charge in the administration and disposition of mineral resources.
National Mapping and Resource Information Authority NAMRIA is mandated to provide the public with mapmaking services and to act as the central mapping agency, depository, and distribution facility for natural resources data in the form of maps, charts, texts, and statistics. It envisions a highly-professionalized, technologically advanced, globally competitive, and environment and natural resources-caring agency. Its mission is to generate and disseminate reliable and up-to-date geographic information and provide related services, by employing state-of-the-art technology in support of national development.
<ul><li>Core Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Topographic Base Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the National Geodetic Network </li></ul><ul><li>Land Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrographic Surveys and Nautical Charting </li></ul><ul><li>Delineation of Maritime Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic Information Management </li></ul>
Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau Conservation of the country's biological diversity through: * Establishment, management and development of the National Integrated Protected Areas System * Conservation of Wildlife Resources * Information and Education for Nature Conservation
PAWB envisions a perpetual existence of biological and physical diversities in a system of protected areas and such other important biological components of the environment managed by a well-informed and empowered citizenry for the sustainable use and enjoyment of present and future generations.
Functions: * Formulate and recommend policies, guidelines, rules and regulations for the establishment and management of an Integrated Protected Areas System such as national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and refuge, marine parks and biospheric reserves * Formulate an up-to-date listing of endangered Philippine flora and fauna and recommend a program of conservation and propagation of the same
Functions: * Formulate and recommend policies, guidelines and rules for the preservation of biological diversity, genetic resources, the endangered Philippine flora and fauna * Assist the Secretary in the monitoring and assessment of the management of the Integrated Protected Areas System and provide technical assistance to the Regional offices in the implementation of programs for these areas
Environmental Management Bureau Its primary goal is to come out with a comprehensive national program to achieve and maintain air quality that meets the National Ambient Air Quality Guidelines for Criteria Pollutants and their emission standards, while minimizing the possible associated negative impacts on the country’s economy. Its implementing rules and regulations contain specific requirements that prohibit vehicular and industrial sources from emitting pollutants in amounts that cause significant deterioration of air quality. It ensures the Attainment of an Environmental Quality that is conducive for present and future generations.
INTRODUCTION Land development is faced not only with the issue of competing with the demands of human needs but also with that of meeting the requirements of environmental restoration and preservation. Our past actions as a society have resulted in significant impacts to the environment due to human consumption and the mismanagement of our natural resources and hazardous waste. To prevent continued degradation of the environment, environmental regulations/laws & policies were established to ensure that everyone acts responsibly toward the protection and maintenance of the environment.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) - It is a national policy that takes into consideration the preservation of the natural environment and human needs caused by population increases, high-density urbanization, and industrial expansion by taking into account economical and technical considerations. - NEPA requirements are invoked when airports, buildings, military complexes, highways, parkland purchases, and other federal activities are proposed .
<ul><li>Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act </li></ul><ul><li>provides wildlife with equal consideration </li></ul><ul><li>for the development, protection, and stocking of wildlife resources and their habitat </li></ul><ul><li>- authorizes the preparation of plans to protect wildlife resources </li></ul>
Endangered Species Act - to conserve threatened and endangered species. - Federal agencies are required to carry out programs for the conservation of the threatened and endangered species and must take actions to ensure that projects they authorize, fund, or carry out are not likely to jeopardize the existence of the listed species or result in the destruction or modification of their habitat that is declared to be critical.
<ul><li>Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) </li></ul><ul><li>to ensure that the impacts to the environment resulting from the use of pesticides do not outweigh the benefits </li></ul><ul><li>regulates the use and safety of toxic pesticides that are produced in order to reduce the amount of waste that needs to be managed </li></ul>
<ul><li>Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act </li></ul><ul><li>This act regulates dumping of all types of material into the ocean and designates certain areas of the ocean waters as sanctuaries. </li></ul><ul><li>- The EPA is responsible for issuing permits for the dumping of materials in ocean waters. They will not issue a permit for the </li></ul><ul><li>dumping of any radiological, chemical, biological warfare agents, or high-level radioactive waste. </li></ul>
Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) - It is a federal program that establishes standards to protect the coastal resources that are determined to be of national significance. * coastal areas, wetlands, floodplains, estuaries, beaches, dunes, barrier islands, coral reefs, and fish and wildlife and their habitats
The DENR-MGB Geohazards Assessment and Mapping Program It is an important component of the government’s disaster management and mitigation program in order to reduce the loss of lives and properties brought about by natural disasters.
It involves both the identification of areas of the country that are prone or susceptible to various geologic hazards, like rain-induced landslides, floods, flash-floods, storm surge, coastal erosion, sea-level rise and other natural events, and dissemination of these information to increase public awareness. The output of the program is equally important for land use planning (CLUPs), land development and the emerging concern on climate-change adaptation.
The program’s five (5) components: 1. Remote sensing analysis generates data using air photographs,satellite (LandSat, ERTS) and radar images to identify features thatcould indicate unstable areas or impending physical events 2. Actual conduct of field surveys wherein on-site conditions are documented and ground data are generated. Historical background of past disasters or natural events are also noted. Indicative signs of ground instability and pending events are duly recorded.
3. Data generated during the field survey are stored, processed and manage dunder a GIS platform for ease of handling and retrieval. The resulting database is continually updated as recent data are generated. 4. Preparation of geohazards susceptibility maps in the 1:50,000 scale for rain-induced landslides and floods/flashfloods on the basis of all available data. More detailed maps of 1:10,000 scale are also prepared for specific critical areas of concern although only limited coverage had so far been achieved 5. Information dissemination through the conduct of seminars, workshops, and other information campaigns to explain the nature of geologic hazards and the use of the maps.
Clean Air Act - focuses on the reduction or elimination of the amount of pollutants produced or created. - this act recognizes that states should take the lead in carrying out the CAA because pollution control problems often require special understanding of local industries, geography, housing patterns, and other factors
<ul><li>Philippine Clean Air Act </li></ul><ul><li>of 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>- The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. </li></ul><ul><li>The State recognizes that the responsibility of cleaning the habitat and environment is primarily area-based. </li></ul><ul><li>- The State also recognizes the principle that "polluters must pay". </li></ul>
AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT RA 8749 - AN ACT PROVIDING FOR A COMPREHENSIVE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL POLICY AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES DAO 98-47 - IMPLEMENTING RULES AND REGULATIONS (IRR) FOR MANDATING THE PHASE-OUT OF LEADED GASOLINE AS ONE OF THE MEANS OF SOLVING AIR POLLUTION DAO 98-46 - REVISED RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE PREVENTION, CONTROL AND ABATEMENT OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOTOR VEHICLES
HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT RA 6969 - AN ACT TO CONTROL TOXIC SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS AND NUCLEAR WASTES, PROVIDING PENALTIES FOR VIOLATIONS THEREOF, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES. DAO 94-28 - INTERIM GUIDELINES FOR THE IMPORTATION OF RECYCLABLE MATERIALS CONTAINING HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES. DAO 97-38 -CHEMICAL CONTROL ORDER FOR MERCURY AND MERCURY COMPOUNDS.
HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT DAO 97-39 - CONTROL ORDER FOR CYANIDE AND CYANIDE COMPOUNDS. DAO 2000-18 - CHEMICAL CONTROL ORDER FOR OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES (ODS) DAO 2004-01 - CHEMICAL CONTROL ORDER (CCO) FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PaCBs)
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PD 825 - PROVIDING PENALTY FOR IMPROPER DISPOSAL OF GARBAGE AND OTHER FORMS OF UNCLEANLINESS AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES. RA 9003 - AN ACT PROVIDING FOR AN ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM, CREATING THE NECESSARY INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISMS AND INCENTIVES, DECLARING CERTAIN ACTS PROHIBITED AND PROVIDING PENALTIES, APPROPRIATING FUNDS, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES. DAO 98-50 - ADOPTING THE LANDFILL SITE IDENTIFICATION AND SCREENING CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES.
<ul><li>Clean Water Act (CWA) </li></ul><ul><li>to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of our nation’s water. </li></ul><ul><li>- Water supply and water pollution </li></ul><ul><li>issues also include non point controls and effective use of water resources management practices . </li></ul>
<ul><ul><li>WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DAO 94-26A - PHILIPPINE STANDARDS FOR DRINKING WATER 1993 UNDER THE PROVISION OF CHAPTER II, SECTION 9 OF PD 856, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE CODE ON SANITATION OF THE PHILIPPINES. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RA 9275 - AN ACT PROVIDING FOR A COMPREHENSIVE WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DAO 90-34 - REVISED WATER USAGE AND CLASSIFICATION/WATER QUALITY CRITERIA AMENDING SECTION NOS. 68 AND 69, CHAPTER III OF THE 1978 NPCC RULES AND REGULATIONS </li></ul></ul>