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Pal gov.tutorial6.session3.introduction to ict and e government


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  • 1. ‫أكاديمية الحكومة اإللكترونية الفلسطينية‬ The Palestinian eGovernment Academy Tutorial 6: The Legal Framework of New Technologies Session3Introduction to ICT and E-government Dr. Samer Najjar PalGov © 2011 1
  • 2. AboutThis tutorial is part of the PalGov project, funded by the TEMPUS IV program of theCommission of the European Communities, grant agreement 511159-TEMPUS-1-2010-1-PS-TEMPUS-JPHES. The project website: www.egovacademy.psProject Consortium: Birzeit University, Palestine University of Trento, Italy (Coordinator ) Palestine Polytechnic University, Palestine Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium Palestine Technical University, Palestine Université de Savoie, France Ministry of Telecom and IT, Palestine University of Namur, Belgium Ministry of Interior, Palestine TrueTrust, UK Ministry of Local Government, PalestineCoordinator:Dr. Mustafa JarrarBirzeit University, P.O.Box 14- Birzeit, PalestineTelfax:+972 2 2982935 mjarrar@birzeit.eduPalGov © 2011 2
  • 3. © Copyright NotesEveryone is encouraged to use this material, or part of it, but should properlycite the project (logo and website), and the author of that part.No part of this tutorial may be reproduced or modified in any form or by anymeans, without prior written permission from the project, who have the fullcopyrights on the material. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC-BY-NC-SAThis license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creationsunder the identical terms. PalGov © 2011 3
  • 4. Session’s ILOs• a1: understand the legal frame for access management• a2: Enforcing security management through internal regulation• a6: Understand the importance of policy making in the legislative process PalGov © 2011 4
  • 5. What is ICTEasy to tell the words:• I: Information ‫المعلومات‬• C: Communications ‫االتصاالت‬• T: Technologies ‫التكنولوجٌا‬Difficult to get concise definition due:Fast advancement of technology ‫من الصعب الحصول على تعرٌف دقٌق لسرعة التطورات‬ ‫التقنٌة‬ PalGov © 2011 5
  • 6. What is ICTIt is about Communicating Information by using a TechnologyTechnology: is normally thought of as a DEVICE? ‫التكنولوجٌا ٌنظر الٌها كجهاز‬It is about procedure often including a device ‫من االفضل النظر الٌها كعملٌة غالبا م تتضمن استخدام جهاز‬ PalGov © 2011 6
  • 7. What is ICTIt comprises all types of hardware and software that has anything to do with communicating information by technological means and the services associated with them ً‫تتضمن جمٌع انواع المكونات المادٌة والبرمجٌات الت‬ ‫تتربط باي شكل من تكنولوجٌات نقل المعلومات‬ ‫والخدمات المتعلقة بها‬ PalGov © 2011 7
  • 8. What is ICTIncludes:Device, that is used for :‫جهاز ٌستخدم لـ‬storing, ‫تخزين‬retrieving, ‫استراجاع‬manipulating, ‫معالجة‬transmitting or )‫نقل (وبث‬receiving ‫استقبال‬Information ‫المعلوملت‬in a electronic form. ‫بشكل الكتروني‬Examples: PC, digital television, email, satellite, robots, ….. PalGov © 2011 8
  • 9. What is ICTThe definition of ICT: “the use of information in order to meet human need or purpose including reference to the use of contemporary devices such as the Internet. However, in an ever-changing world of Video-phones, mobile computing, blogs, Skype and OSS perhaps we should no longer just include the Internet, but leave the definition at contemporary devices...?”Ray Tolley PalGov © 2011 9
  • 10. What ICT laws• This area of the law focuses on the legal risks posed by information technology, information security and information management.‫• القوانٌن التً تركز على المخاطر التً ٌطرحها استخدام‬ ‫التكنولوجٌا، وسرٌة المعلومات وتنظٌم االتصاالت‬ PalGov © 2011 10
  • 11. ICT & E-government - Information• Information held by government need to be: :‫المعلومات التً بحوزة الحكومة ٌجب ان‬- Stored ‫تخزن‬- Exchanged by different departments ‫ٌتم تبادلها بٌن الدوائر المختلفة‬- Accessed by people ‫االطالع علٌها‬- Etc… PalGov © 2011 11
  • 12. ICT & E-governmentThe implications?• Information ‫تخزٌن المعلومات‬- Stored ? Is it safe? ‫هل المعومات بامان‬ Accurate? ‫هل تحفظ بدقة‬ How long it should be kept? ‫ما هً المدة الزمنٌة لألحتفاظ بها‬Hence the need for laws and regulations to ensure that. PalGov © 2011 12
  • 13. ICT & E-governmentThe implications?• Information ‫تبادل المعلومات بٌن الدوائر‬- Exchanged between departments? Is it safe? ‫هل تتم العملٌة بشكل آمن‬ who has the authority to consult info? ‫من ٌمتلك الصالحٌة لالطالع علٌها‬Hence the need for more laws and regulations to facilitate that. PalGov © 2011 13
  • 14. ICT & E-government The implications?• Information (Citizens‟ Dimension) (‫• المعلومات )عالقتها بالمواطن‬- Have citizens the right to see what information is held about them? ‫- هل ٌملك المواطن حق االطالع على المعلومات المتعلقة به ؟‬- How can they rectify any errors? ‫- هل له الحق بتصحٌح االخطاء اذا وجدت ؟‬- Can they tell who has accessed their information? ‫- هل له الحق بمعرفة من قام باالطالع على المعومات الخاصة به ؟‬ Hence the need for a Freedom of Information Act (maybe?). PalGov © 2011 14
  • 15. ICT & E-governmentThe implications?• Communications ‫االتصاالت‬- Who owns the infrastructure? ‫- من الذي ٌمتلك البنٌة التحتٌة لالتصاالت‬ Old model: a monopoly (with regulator) ‫النموذج القدٌم: ملكٌة احتكارٌة، )من قبل الحكومة، شركة‬ ( ‫واحدة – مع وجود جهة رقابٌة‬New model: Competitive (also with regulator) (‫النموذج االحدث: قطاع خاص تنافسً )مع وجود جهة رقابٌة‬ PalGov © 2011 15
  • 16. ICT & E-governmentThe implications?• Communications ‫االتصاالت‬- In competitive communication markets: :ً‫فً سوق اتصاالت تنافس‬Need for licensing & Regulator (rules?) ‫الحاجة الى تعلٌمات لمنح التراخٌص؟ وتنظٌم الجهة الرقابٌة‬ Need for anti-monopoly legislations? (can be wider that the communication sector?) ‫الحاجة الى قوانٌن لمكافحة االحتكار؟ )ربما اوسع من قطاع‬ (‫االتصالت‬ PalGov © 2011 16
  • 17. ICT & E-governmentThe implications?• Communications: ‫االتصاالت‬ Good licensing policies can be an effective tool for: :‫وضع سٌاسات جٌدة لمنح التراخٌص ٌمكن ان‬- attracting entry (‫- زٌادة التنافسٌة )دخول شركات جدٌدة‬- developing the telecommunications sector ‫- تطوٌر قطاع االتصاالت‬ PalGov © 2011 17
  • 18. ICT & E-government The implications?• Communications Licensing policies can:- Set the industry structure- Decide level of competition- Enhance efficiency of the supply of telecommunications services- Remove uncertainty and regulatory risk for service providers, and their investors PalGov © 2011 18
  • 19. ‫‪ICT & E-government‬‬‫?‪The implications‬‬‫• سٌاسات منح التراخٌص لقطاع االتصاالت ٌمكن ان تسهم‬ ‫فً:‬ ‫تحدٌد هٌكلٌة قطاع االتصاالت‬ ‫-‬ ‫تحدٌد مستوى التنافسٌة فً قطاع االتصاالت‬ ‫-‬‫تحسٌن ورفع كفاءة الخدمات المقدمة فً قطاع االتصاالت‬ ‫-‬ ‫ازالة المخاطر الناتجة عن غٌاب الٌقٌن وكذلك اآلتٌة من‬ ‫-‬ ‫الجهات الرقابٌة والمنظمة لقطاع االتصاالت‬ ‫1102 © ‪PalGov‬‬ ‫91‬
  • 20. ICT & E-governmentThe implications?• Communications: ‫االتصاالت‬ Competition Problems: :‫المشاكل الممكن حدوثها نتٌجة التنافس‬- Refusal to supply facilities ‫- رفض اعطاء تسهٌالت للمنافسٌن‬- Refusal to interconnect ‫- رفض الربط عبر الشبكات المنافسة‬- Price wars ‫حروب االسعار‬ PalGov © 2011 20
  • 21. ICT & E-governmentThe implications?• Communications ‫االتصاالت‬- Need to have a social responsibility: ‫- ٌجب على قطاع االتصاالت ان ٌتحمل مسئولٌاته‬ ‫االجتماعٌة‬ *Can the e-government be within the reach of all citizens? ‫* هل ستصبح الحكومة االلكترونٌة بمتناول جمٌع‬ ‫المواطنٌن ؟‬ PalGov © 2011 21
  • 22. ICT & E-government The implications?• Communications ‫االتصاالت‬ ٍSocial responsibility: *Must there be a mandatory obligation to reach all citizens? ‫* هل ٌجب على قطاع االتصاالت تزٌد خدماته لجٌع المواطنٌن‬ **Who is going to pay? ‫** من سٌدفع التكالٌف‬ *Is the consumer protected? ( ‫* هل المستهلك محمً )قانون حماٌة المستهلك‬ PalGov © 2011 22
  • 23. Importance of ICT• United Nations promotes ICT as means to address the Digital Divide ‫ وسٌلة الغالق ما تسمٌه “الهوة‬ICT ً‫• االمم المتحدة ترى ف‬ :‫الرقمٌة” بٌن الدول الغنٌة والدول الفقٌرة‬- As ICT promotes new economical development ‫ ٌوفر الفرص لتنمٌة اقتصادٌة جدٌدة‬ICT -- Third world is in danger of being left behind due to its weak ICTً‫- دول العالم الثالث مهددة بان تصبح مرة اخرى ضحٌة للتخلف التكنولوج‬ PalGov © 2011 23
  • 24. Importance of ICT• EU Commission thinks importance is not in technologies but ability to give more access to under-served communities ‫ فرصة العطاء‬ICT ً‫• االتحاد االوروبً ٌرى ف‬ ‫المجتمعات المهمشة خدمات متساوٌة‬- e.g. rural communities can get services which imply opportunities, that otherwise will not materialise. ‫- مثال: المجتمعات الرٌفٌة ستحصل على فرص لم ٌكن‬ ICT ‫بمقدورها الحصول علٌها لوال‬ PalGov © 2011 24
  • 25. Importance of ICT• As a result many countries established organisations to enhance ICT availability in their countries. ‫• كثٌر من الدول اقامت هٌئات متخصصة لتحسٌن تطبٌق‬ ‫ فً بالدهم‬ICT• UN especially encourages countries to enhance their ICT. ICT ‫• االمم المتحدة تشجع كل الدول لتحسٌن قطاع‬ PalGov © 2011 25
  • 26. Legal matters of ICT• Some pre-digital age laws can work depends on the way it was expressed in. ‫• بعض القوانٌن الموجودة ) من قبل العصر الرقمً( ٌمكن ان‬ ICT ‫تظل مستخدمة لبعض تطبٌقات‬• But is it acceptable to apply laws on matters that were not envisaged to be included in them by the original legislators? ‫• هنا ٌثار السؤال: هل ٌجوز استخدام النصوص القانونٌة لتطبق‬ ‫على امور جدٌدة لم ٌتخٌل المشرع وقوعها ؟‬ PalGov © 2011 26
  • 27. Legal principles of ICT• Fast advancements of ICT means that any law that is specific to a technology will, probably be obsolete very soon, hence ICT related laws must be: Technologically Neutral ‫الحياد تجاه التكنولوجيا‬ PalGov © 2011 27
  • 28. Legal principles of ICTAccording to UN• Legal infrastructure: Key legal and regulatory facilitators for electronic commerce- Adherence to law reform principles such as „technology neutrality‟- Regulatory structures- Market liberalization. PalGov © 2011 28
  • 29. ‫‪Legal principles of ICT‬‬‫‪According to UN‬‬ ‫• االطار القانوني‬‫من االمور القانونٌة االساسٌة )حسب االمم المتحدة( لتأطٌر‬ ‫الجهات الرقابٌة و قطاع التجارة االلكترونٌة:‬ ‫- االلتزام بمبدأ الحٌاد تجاه التكنولوجٌا‬ ‫- تنظٌم الطار القانونً لألجهزة الرقابٌة والتنظٌمٌة‬ ‫- زٌادة حرٌات االسواق‬ ‫1102 © ‪PalGov‬‬ ‫92‬
  • 30. Legal principles of ICTAccording to UN• Legal certainty: ً‫الٌقٌن القانون‬The legal status of electronic communications:- Forms of contracting, specifically the need to explicitly recognise the validity,- Enforceability and admissibility of electronic means of executing legal acts. PalGov © 2011 30
  • 31. Legal principles of ICTAccording to UN• Legal security: ً‫االمان القانون‬- Examining the security risks inherent in an electronic environment- Considers the methods used to overcome these, in particular the use of digital signatures and certification services. PalGov © 2011 31
  • 32. Legal principles of ICTAccording to UN• Legal protection: ‫الحماٌة القانونٌة‬ Includes:- intellectual property rights and how such intangible property is protected in an online environment- The consumer protection issues which the Internet raises. PalGov © 2011 32
  • 33. Legal principles of ICTAccording to UN• Legal deterrence: ً‫الردع القانون‬ Examining:- The development of cybercrime- The regulatory approaches to criminalising such harmful conduct- Ensuring that law enforcement are able to investigate and prosecute offenders. PalGov © 2011 33
  • 34. ICT applications in Palestine• What useful applications we have?• What useful applications we can have? PalGov © 2011 34
  • 35. ICT applications in Palestine• What useful applications we have?-ID Cards-Vehicle licensing-Law & order agencies-Civil servants payroll- etc PalGov © 2011 35
  • 36. ICT applications in Palestine• What useful applications can we have?- Education- Health services- National archives (e.g. heritage) PalGov © 2011 36
  • 37. ICT applications in World• Malaysia: mySMS system The system enables users to receive information on demand, documents on demand, and broadcast information from government agencies, including emergency information to basic notifications. The system also allows users to provide complaints to government agencies. PalGov © 2011 37
  • 38. ICT applications in World• Singapore: Mobile government Citizens and businesses have expressed a high level of satisfaction and enjoy the convenience of accessing more than 300 public services through mobile technology. PalGov © 2011 38
  • 39. ICT applications in World• Singapore: Mobile government The next wave of mobile services planned by the Singapore Infocomm Development Authority will support even more 24/7 transactions, including some that use near field technology to enable payment of train and bus fares, redemption of e- coupons, and even the opening of doors with the tap of a phone against a wireless reader. Commercial relationships between mobile cellular companies and network providers help ensure availability of the requisite technology. PalGov © 2011 39
  • 40. ICT applications in World• Belgium: My Belgium national portal The national portal of Belgium has a link called My Belgium that is the single point of contact to government information and services. Over 9 million Belgians have eID cards that allow them to download authenticated certificates from their personal file from the MyBelgium portal. PalGov © 2011 40
  • 41. ICT applications in World• Austria: Gender equality website Austria has a website that supports gender equality. It provides information about current government initiatives such as „Equal pay and revenue transparency for women‟ and the „New Child‟ law. The website promotes a programme provides parents with additional income during the first 14 months of the child‟s life, supporting mothers, fathers and single parents during difficult economic times. PalGov © 2011 41
  • 42. ICT applications in World• Germany: Children Education Tools website The national portal of Germany has a link off the homepage to a website for children to learn how their government works, Regierenkapieren. It has tabs for interactive features titled such as ‟discover‟, „games‟ and „questions‟ and a daily news section. It captures the children‟s attention and gives them a better understanding of the process of government. PalGov © 2011 42
  • 43. ICT applications in World• Algeria: H1N1 National Hotline On the national portal of Algeria there is a link titled “Alerte Grippe Porcine”, for the H1N1 (birds) flu. The feature takes the user to a portal page with a specific section for health care professionals along with resources for citizens with links to information and medical resources, a new telephone hot line number, audios from radio spots sharing information on symptoms to watch for and hygiene protocol, and weekly health newsletters have been archived. PalGov © 2011 43
  • 44. ICT applications in World• Bahrain: Web 2.0 The Bahrain e-government program has embraced the Web 2.0 to reach its customers. Ministers and senior government officials have established an opendoor policy to interact with citizens. The e-government program has its presence on social networking sites such as Facebook and You Tube. In addition, the national portal and ministry websites provide features such as open forums, blogs, live chats, online polls, e-newsletters and other interactive services that involve citizens in government decision making.• For instance, two of the ministers and the CEO of the e- Government Authority have interacted with citizens through such blogs. PalGov © 2011 44
  • 45. ICT applications in World• United States: Social Security Administration The SSA portal receives a high number of repeat customers and has become one of the primary resources for information on social services in the United States. The SSA portal has continued to make improvements to respond to customers‟ needs, which has led to an increase in loyalty and cost savings. Examples Source: The United Nations E-Government Survey 2010 PalGov © 2011 45
  • 46. ICT applications anywhereIn simple words:Any government ICT application that can:• Empower citizens• Provide better services• Increase prosperity• Achieve more transparency• Reach the less-advantaged sectors of the societyis a good ICT application. PalGov © 2011 46
  • 47. References• The United Nations E-Government Survey 2010• **United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, “Information and Communication Technology Policy and Legal Issues for Central Asia - Guide for ICT Policymakers”, UNITED NATIONS New York and Geneva, 2007.• eGovernment Electronic Communications, Omar Dhaher Presentation, CRIDS, Namur University, 2011 PalGov © 2011 47
  • 48. Session End PalGov © 2011 48