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    Pal gov.tutorial4.session6 2.knowledge double-articulation Pal gov.tutorial4.session6 2.knowledge double-articulation Presentation Transcript

    • ‫أكاديمية الحكومة اإللكترونية الفلسطينية‬ The Palestinian eGovernment Academy www.egovacademy.psTutorial 4: Ontology Engineering & Lexical Semantics Session 6.2 Knowledge Double-Articulation Dr. Mustafa Jarrar University of Birzeit mjarrar@birzeit.edu www.jarrar.info PalGov © 2011 1
    • AboutThis tutorial is part of the PalGov project, funded by the TEMPUS IV program of theCommission of the European Communities, grant agreement 511159-TEMPUS-1-2010-1-PS-TEMPUS-JPHES. The project website: www.egovacademy.psProject Consortium: Birzeit University, Palestine University of Trento, Italy (Coordinator ) Palestine Polytechnic University, Palestine Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium Palestine Technical University, Palestine Université de Savoie, France Ministry of Telecom and IT, Palestine University of Namur, Belgium Ministry of Interior, Palestine TrueTrust, UK Ministry of Local Government, PalestineCoordinator:Dr. Mustafa JarrarBirzeit University, P.O.Box 14- Birzeit, PalestineTelfax:+972 2 2982935 mjarrar@birzeit.eduPalGov © 2011 2
    • © Copyright NotesEveryone is encouraged to use this material, or part of it, but shouldproperly cite the project (logo and website), and the author of that part.No part of this tutorial may be reproduced or modified in any form or byany means, without prior written permission from the project, who havethe full copyrights on the material. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC-BY-NC-SAThis license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creationsunder the identical terms. PalGov © 2011 3
    • Tutorial Map Topic Time Session 1_1: The Need for Sharing Semantics 1.5 Session 1_2: What is an ontology 1.5 Intended Learning ObjectivesA: Knowledge and Understanding Session 2: Lab- Build a Population Ontology 3 4a1: Demonstrate knowledge of what is an ontology, Session 3: Lab- Build a BankCustomer Ontology 3 how it is built, and what it is used for. Session 4: Lab- Build a BankCustomer Ontology 3 4a2: Demonstrate knowledge of ontology engineering and evaluation. Session 5: Lab- Ontology Tools 3 4a3: Describe the difference between an ontology and a Session 6_1: Ontology Engineering Challenges 1.5 schema, and an ontology and a dictionary. Session 6_2: Ontology Double Articulation 1.5 4a4: Explain the concept of language ontologies, lexical semantics and multilingualism. Session 7: Lab - Build a Legal-Person Ontology 3B: Intellectual Skills Session 8_1: Ontology Modeling Challenges 1.5 4b1: Develop quality ontologies. Session 8_2: Stepwise Methodologies 1.5 4b2: Tackle ontology engineering challenges. 4b3: Develop multilingual ontologies. Session 9: Lab - Build a Legal-Person Ontology 3 4b4: Formulate quality glosses. Session 10: Zinnar – The Palestinian eGovernment 3C: Professional and Practical Skills Interoperability Framework 4c1: Use ontology tools. Session 11: Lab- Using Zinnar in web services 3 4c2: (Re)use existing Language ontologies. Session 12_1: Lexical Semantics and Multilingually 1.5D: General and Transferable Skills d1: Working with team. Session 12_2: WordNets 1.5 d2: Presenting and defending ideas. Session 13: ArabicOntology 3 d3: Use of creativity and innovation in problem solving. Session 14: Lab-Using Linguistic Ontologies 3 d4: Develop communication skills and logical reasoning abilities. Session 15: Lab-Using Linguistic Ontologies 3 PalGov © 2011 4
    • Outline and Session ILOsThis session will help student to:4a2: Demonstrate knowledge of ontology engineering and evaluation.4b1: Develop quality ontologies.4b2: Tackle ontology engineering challenges.4b4: Formulate quality glosses.4c2: (Re)use existing Language ontologies. PalGov © 2011 5
    • ReadingMustafa Jarrar: Building A Formal Arabic Ontology (Invited Paper) . In proceedings ofthe Experts Meeting On Arabic Ontologies And Semantic Networks. Alecso, Arab League.Tunis, July 26-28, 2011.Article http://www.jarrar.info/publications/J11.pdf.htmSlides: http://mjarrar.blogspot.com/2011/08/building-formal-arabic-ontology-invited.htmlMustafa Jarrar: Towards The Notion Of Gloss, And The Adoption Of LinguisticResources In Formal Ontology Engineering. In proceedings of the 15th International WorldWide Web Conference (WWW2006). Edinburgh, Scotland. Pages 497-503. ACM Press. ISBN:1595933239. May 2006.http://www.jarrar.info/publications/J06.pdf.htm PalGov © 2011 6
    • Knowledge Double-Articulation A methodology to engineer ontologies Ontology Base Domain Double Articulation Ontology Axiomatization Commitment Application-kind Layer Axiomatizations     Particular ApplicationThe meaning of a vocabulary should be doubly-articulated into domain axiomatization and application axiomatization(s).• Domain axiomatization (or a linguistic resource) is mainly concerned with characterizing the “intended meaning/models” of a vocabulary at the community/domain level.• Application axiomatization is more concerned with the utility of these vocabularies according to certain application/usability perspectives.• Ontologies built in this way are easier to build, highly reusable and usable, easier to integrate with other ontologies, and smoother to maintain. PalGov © 2011 7
    • Knowledge Double-ArticulationHighly reusable (domain/community level) Highly usable (application level) Domain axiomatization Application-kind axiomatizations Particular Applications Bibliotheek PalGov © 2011 8
    • Knowledge Double-Articulation Highly reusable (domain/community level) Highly usable (application level) Domain axiomatization Application-kind axiomatizations Particular ApplicationsOntologyBase, holdinglinguistic knowledge, such asWordNet Bibliotheek PalGov © 2011 9
    • Knowledge Double-Articulation Highly reusable (domain/community level) Highly usable (application level) Domain axiomatization Application-kind axiomatizations Particular Applications accounts for the intended meaning of domain vocabularies;OntologyBase, holding rooted at a human aslinguistic knowledge, such language/communityWordNet conceptualization. interpreted Bibliotheek intensionally; a shared vocabulary space for application axiomatizations; PalGov © 2011 10
    • Knowledge Double-Articulation Theory A concept is a set of rules in our mind about a certain thing in reality. Back For concept C, the set I of “all possible” instances that comply with these rules are called the intended models of the concept C. Domain/Language Level An application A that is interested -according to its usability perspectives- in a subset IAi of the set I, is supposed to provide some rules to specialize I, IAi is called legal models. IAi  I Application Level I I: The set of the intended models for concept C IA e.g. “Book” at the a human language conceptualization level IA1: The set of the legal models (/possible extensions) of application C A e.g. “Book” for museum applications IB IA2: The set of the legal models (/possible extensions) of application C B e.g. “Book” for public/university libraries IC IA3: The set of the legal models(/possible extensions) of application CC e.g. “Book” for bookstores© 2011 PalGov 11
    • Applying the Double-Articulation TheoryTo apply the Double-Articulation Theory in practice you may assure thatyour ontology is engineering in this way: Rooting vocabulary: all vocabulary used in an application axiomatization is linked with a vocabulary in the domain axiomatization (which can be linguistic resources, e.g., WordNet). e.g., each concept in an ORM model/OWL file is linked with a concept WordNet/ArabicOntology. Glosses: If a certain vocabulary does not exist in the domain axiomatization, then it must define introduced with gloss. Context: Each application axiomatization must have a context, as its scope of interpretation. Modularize application axiomatization into several modules. PalGov © 2011 12
    •  Rooting vocabularyEach vocabulary in your ontology can be linked (e.g. though anamespace) with a concept in a linguistic resource (e.g. a synset inWordNet). PalGov © 2011 13
    • Example (Customer Complaint Ontology) Central complaining portal See http://www.jarrar.info/publications/mjarrar-CCFORM-chapter.pdf.htm PalGov © 2011 14
    • Example (Customer Complaint Ontology)See http://www.jarrar.info/publications/mjarrar-CCFORM-chapter.pdf.htm PalGov © 2011 15
    • CC Ontology (Example) CC Ontology base: 300 lexonsDomain Axiomatization CCcontext CC Glossary: 220 glosses Recipient Complaint Complianant Resolution Contract Address 7 axiomatization Modules Problem CCApplication1 CCApplication2 CCApplicationn PalGov © 2011 16
    •  Defining Glosses An auxiliary informal (but controlled) account of the intended meaning of a linguistic term, for the commonsense perception of humans.A gloss is supposed to render factual knowledge that is critical to understand aconcept, but that e.g. is implausible, unreasonable, or very difficult to formalizeand/or articulate explicitly(NOT) to catalogue general information and comments, as e.g. conventional dictionaries and encyclopedias usually do, or as <rdfs:comment>. PalGov © 2011 17
    • The ontological notion of GlossWhat should and what should not be provided in a gloss: 1. Start with the principal/super type of the concept being defined. E.g. „Search engine‟: “A computer program that …”, „Invoice‟: “A business document that…”, „University‟: “An institution of …”. 2. Written in a form of propositions, offering the reader inferential knowledge that help him to construct the image of the concept. E.g. Compare „Search engine‟: “A computer program for searching the internet, it can be defined as one of the most useful aspects of the World Wide Web. Some of the major ones are Google, ….”; A computer program that enables users to search and retrieves documents or data from a database or from a computer network…”. 3. Focus on distinguishing characteristics and intrinsic prosperities that differentiate the concept out of other concepts. E.g. Compare, „Laptop computer‟: “A computer that is designed to do pretty much anything a desktop computer can do, it runs for a short time (usually two to five hours) on batteries”. “A portable computer small enough to use in your lap…”. PalGov © 2011 18
    • The ontological notion of Gloss4. Use supportive examples : - To clarify cases that are commonly known to be false but they are true, or that are known to be true but they are false; - To strengthen and illustrate distinguishing characteristics (e.g. define by examples, counter- examples). Examples can be types and/or instances of the concept being defined.5. Be consistent with formal definitions/axioms.6. Be sufficient, clear, and easy to understand. PalGov © 2011 19
    •  Specifying a Context • Context: A scope of Interpretation • That is: An abstract identifier that refers to implicit (or maybe tacit) assumptions, in which the interpretation of a term is bounded to a conceptIn practice, we define context by referring to a source (e.g. a set ofdocuments, laws and regulations, informal description of “best practice”, etc.),which, by human understanding, is assumed to “contain” those assumptions.Concepts, relations and rules are assumed (by human understanding) to be“true within their context‟s source”. PalGov © 2011 20
    • Context (Example) Customer complaining Context PalGov © 2011 21
    •  Ontology Modularization Develop an application axiomatization as a set of modules and later compose to form one module. PalGov © 2011 22
    • Ontology Modularization (why? How?) Why to modularize? Because Modules are: 1. Easier to reuse 2. Easier to build, maintain, and replace 3. Enable distributed development of Axiomatization Axiomatization modules Application 4. Enable the effective Domain management and browsingWhen to modularize?Modularity criteria:1. Subject-oriented2. Purpose/Task-oriented3. Stability PalGov © 2011 23
    • References• Mustafa Jarrar: Building A Formal Arabic Ontology (Invited Paper) . In proceedings of the Experts Meeting On Arabic Ontologies And Semantic Networks. Alecso, Arab League. Tunis, July 26-28, 2011.Article http://www.jarrar.info/publications/J11.pdf.htm Slides: http://mjarrar.blogspot.com/2011/08/building-formal-arabic-ontology- invited.html• Mustafa Jarrar: Towards The Notion Of Gloss, And The Adoption Of Linguistic Resources In Formal Ontology Engineering. In proceedings of the 15th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW2006). Edinburgh, Scotland. Pages 497-503. ACM Press. ISBN: 1595933239. May 2006.http://www.jarrar.info/publications/J06.pdf.htm• Mustafa Jarrar: Towards methodological principles for ontology engineering. PhD Thesis. Vrije Universiteit Brussel. (May 2005) PalGov © 2011 24