‫أكاديمية الحكومة اإللكترونية الفلسطينية‬           The Palestinian eGovernment Academy                      www.egovacade...
AboutThis tutorial is part of the PalGov project, funded by the TEMPUS IV program of theCommission of the European Communi...
© Copyright NotesEveryone is encouraged to use this material, or part of it, but shouldproperly cite the project (logo and...
Tutorial Map                                                                                        Topic                 ...
Outline and Session ILOsThis session will help student to:4a4: Explain the concept of language ontologies, lexical semanti...
Reading[MBC93] George A. Miller, Richard Beckwith, Christiane Fellbaum, Derek        Gross, and Katherine Miller: Introduc...
Session Outline• The English WordNet• Euro WordNet• Global WordNet                   PalGov © 2011   7
What is WordNet?                                                     http://wordnet.princeton.edu• In 1985 a group of psyc...
WordNet: SynonymyWordNet gives information about two fundamental, universalproperties of human language: polysemy and syno...
ExerciseList the different meanings of the words:Table, Array, Matrix, Bureau                   PalGov © 2011            10
WordNet: Polysemy• Each word form-meaning pair is unique.• A word that appears in n synsets is n-fold polysemous.• For exa...
WordNet: GlossesA short gloss is provided for each synset.Glosses are examples of contexts for many word-sense pairs, tell...
WordNet: Statistics                                                                                                      W...
WordNet Semantic Relations              Synsets are interconnected with semantic relations, forming a large              s...
WordNet Relations: Hyponymy• A synset {x, x′, . . .} is hyponym of the synset {y, y′, . . .} if native English  speakers a...
WordNet Relations: Hyponymy  • A synset {x, x′, . . .} is hyponym of the synset {y, y′, . . .} if native English    speake...
WordNet Relations: Meronymy          • A synset {x, x′, . . .} is meronym of the synset {y, y′, . . .} if native English  ...
ExerciseFind the hyponyms and meronyms of this synset{car, auto, automobile, machine, motorcar}                     PalGov...
WordNet Relations: Another Example                                                                               [Vossen] ...
WordNet Relations: Antonymy• The antonym of a word x is sometimes not-x, but not always.                    For example, r...
Other WordNet Relations• Although the main interest of WordNet was on specifying semantic  relations but other lexical/mor...
Is WordNet a Thesaurus?                                                                  [Fellbaum]Yes:  • it groups toget...
Outline• The English WordNet• Euro WordNet• Global WordNet                   PalGov © 2011   23
EURO WordNet                                                                  [Vossen]• The development of a multilingual ...
EURO WordNet Model                                                                                                     [Vo...
The Multilingual Design                                                                      [Vossen]• Inter-Lingual-Index...
EURO WordNet Model                                                                   [Vossen]•   WordNets are unique langu...
Some Downsides of the EuroWordNet Model                                                                   [Vossen]• Constr...
Outline• The English WordNet• Euro WordNet• Global WordNet                   PalGov © 2011   29
From EuroWordNet to Global WordNet                                               http://www.globalwordnet.orgEuroWordNet e...
From EuroWordNet to Global WordNet                                                                            [Vossen]    ...
Global WordNet Model                                                                     [Vossen]Construct separate wordne...
References[MBC93] George A. Miller, Richard Beckwith, Christiane Fellbaum, Derek Gross, andKatherine Miller: Introduction ...
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Pal gov.tutorial4.session12 2.wordnets

  1. 1. ‫أكاديمية الحكومة اإللكترونية الفلسطينية‬ The Palestinian eGovernment Academy www.egovacademy.psTutorial 4: Ontology Engineering & Lexical Semantics Session 12.2 WordNets Dr. Mustafa Jarrar University of Birzeit mjarrar@birzeit.edu www.jarrar.info PalGov © 2011 1
  2. 2. AboutThis tutorial is part of the PalGov project, funded by the TEMPUS IV program of theCommission of the European Communities, grant agreement 511159-TEMPUS-1-2010-1-PS-TEMPUS-JPHES. The project website: www.egovacademy.psProject Consortium: Birzeit University, Palestine University of Trento, Italy (Coordinator ) Palestine Polytechnic University, Palestine Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium Palestine Technical University, Palestine Université de Savoie, France Ministry of Telecom and IT, Palestine University of Namur, Belgium Ministry of Interior, Palestine TrueTrust, UK Ministry of Local Government, PalestineCoordinator:Dr. Mustafa JarrarBirzeit University, P.O.Box 14- Birzeit, PalestineTelfax:+972 2 2982935 mjarrar@birzeit.eduPalGov © 2011 2
  3. 3. © Copyright NotesEveryone is encouraged to use this material, or part of it, but shouldproperly cite the project (logo and website), and the author of that part.No part of this tutorial may be reproduced or modified in any form or byany means, without prior written permission from the project, who havethe full copyrights on the material. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC-BY-NC-SAThis license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creationsunder the identical terms. PalGov © 2011 3
  4. 4. Tutorial Map Topic Time Session 1_1: The Need for Sharing Semantics 1.5 Session 1_2: What is an ontology 1.5 Intended Learning ObjectivesA: Knowledge and Understanding Session 2: Lab- Build a Population Ontology 3 4a1: Demonstrate knowledge of what is an ontology, Session 3: Lab- Build a BankCustomer Ontology 3 how it is built, and what it is used for. Session 4: Lab- Build a BankCustomer Ontology 3 4a2: Demonstrate knowledge of ontology engineering and evaluation. Session 5: Lab- Ontology Tools 3 4a3: Describe the difference between an ontology and a Session 6_1: Ontology Engineering Challenges 1.5 schema, and an ontology and a dictionary. Session 6_2: Ontology Double Articulation 1.5 4a4: Explain the concept of language ontologies, lexical semantics and multilingualism. Session 7: Lab - Build a Legal-Person Ontology 3B: Intellectual Skills Session 8_1: Ontology Modeling Challenges 1.5 4b1: Develop quality ontologies. Session 8_2: Stepwise Methodologies 1.5 4b2: Tackle ontology engineering challenges. 4b3: Develop multilingual ontologies. Session 9: Lab - Build a Legal-Person Ontology 3 4b4: Formulate quality glosses. Session 10: Zinnar – The Palestinian eGovernment 3C: Professional and Practical Skills Interoperability Framework 4c1: Use ontology tools. Session 11: Lab- Using Zinnar in web services 3 4c2: (Re)use existing Language ontologies. Session 12_1: Lexical Semantics and Multilingually 1.5D: General and Transferable Skills d1: Working with team. Session 12_2: WordNets 1.5 d2: Presenting and defending ideas. Session 13: ArabicOntology 3 d3: Use of creativity and innovation in problem solving. Session 14: Lab-Using Linguistic Ontologies 3 d4: Develop communication skills and logical reasoning abilities. Session 15: Lab-Using Linguistic Ontologies 3 PalGov © 2011 4
  5. 5. Outline and Session ILOsThis session will help student to:4a4: Explain the concept of language ontologies, lexical semantics and multilingualism.4b3: Develop multilingual ontologies. PalGov © 2011 5
  6. 6. Reading[MBC93] George A. Miller, Richard Beckwith, Christiane Fellbaum, Derek Gross, and Katherine Miller: Introduction to WordNet: An On-line Lexical Database. International Journal of Lexicography, Vol. 3, Nr. 4. Pages 235-244. (1990) http://wordnetcode.princeton.edu/5papers.pdf[GGO02] Aldo Gangemi , Nicola Guarino , Alessandro Oltramari , Ro Oltramari , Stefano Borgo: Cleaning-up WordNets Top-Level. In Proc. of the 1st International WordNetConference (2002) http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=C9962DFE DD793F3F839426B774BC9BAF?doi=10.1.1.11.4064&rep=rep1&ty pe=pdf PalGov © 2011 6
  7. 7. Session Outline• The English WordNet• Euro WordNet• Global WordNet PalGov © 2011 7
  8. 8. What is WordNet? http://wordnet.princeton.edu• In 1985 a group of psychologists and linguists at Princeton University started to develop a “mental lexicon”• You may also call it:“electronic dictionary”, “Mental dictionary”, English, “semantic Network”, hyperdimensional thesaurus, etc.• Includes the most frequent English words (nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs).• Organized by meaning: words in close proximity are semantically similar.• Can be used by humans and machines.• Human users and computers can browse WordNet and find words that are meaningfully related to their queries.• Available online, for downloading! PalGov © 2011 8
  9. 9. WordNet: SynonymyWordNet gives information about two fundamental, universalproperties of human language: polysemy and synonymy.• English words are grouped (roughly) into sets of synonyms.• Each set of synonyms is called a Synset; and given a unique SynsetID to identify it.• Each synset expresses a distinct meaning/concept. 03410635 {Furniture, Piece of furniture , Article of furniture} Furnishings that make a room…. 07955878 03018908 {Bureau, Dresser, {Categorization, Chest of Drawers,} Classification} A group of people or things Furniture with drawers for arranged… keeping clothes 08283156 {Table, Tabular Array} A set of data arranged in rows and columns 04615793 {work table} 06501650 A table designed… {Contents, TableOfContents} PalGov © 2011 A list of divisions… 9
  10. 10. ExerciseList the different meanings of the words:Table, Array, Matrix, Bureau PalGov © 2011 10
  11. 11. WordNet: Polysemy• Each word form-meaning pair is unique.• A word that appears in n synsets is n-fold polysemous.• For example: “Table” here is two-fold polysemous 03410635 07955013 {Furniture, Piece of furniture {Stream} {Arrangement} , Article of furniture} A natural body of An orderly grouping running water… Furnishings that make a room…. (of things or… 07955878 03018908 07955622 04386330 {River} {Bureau, Dresser, {Categorization, {Table} A large natural {Array} Chest of Drawers,} An orderly arrangement Classification} A piece of furniture stream of ... A group of people or things Furniture with drawers for having a smooth … arranged… keeping clothes 08283156 08284561 03184367 {Desk} {Nile} {Table, Tabular Array} {Matrix} A piece of furniture with The worlds A set of data arranged in rows A rectangular array a writing surface… longest.. and columns of quantities … 02877456 06499232 08284367 {Booth} {work table} {Calendar} 06501650 {Periodic Table} A table designed… A tabular array {Contents, a tabular arrangement A table (in a restaurant or of the days.. bar) surrounded by two… TableOfContents} of the chemical elem… PalGov © 2011 A list of divisions… 11
  12. 12. WordNet: GlossesA short gloss is provided for each synset.Glosses are examples of contexts for many word-sense pairs, telling ushow words with specific senses are being used in context. 03410635 07955013 {Furniture, Piece of furniture {Stream} {Arrangement} , Article of furniture} A natural body of (botany) the running water… Furnishings that make a room…. arrangement of veins in a leaf 07955878 03018908 07955622 04386330 {River} {Bureau, Dresser, {Categorization, {Table} A large natural {Array} Chest of Drawers,} An orderly arrangement Classification} A piece of furniture stream of ... A group of people or things Furniture with drawers for having a smooth … arranged… keeping clothes 08283156 08284561 03184367 {Desk} {Nile} {Table, Tabular Array} {Matrix} A piece of furniture with The worlds A set of data arranged in rows A rectangular array a writing surface… longest.. and columns of quantities … 02877456 06499232 08284367 {Booth} {work table} {Calendar} 06501650 {Periodic Table} A table designed… A tabular array {Contents, a tabular arrangement A table (in a restaurant or of the days.. bar) surrounded by two… TableOfContents} of the chemical elem… PalGov © 2011 A list of divisions… 12
  13. 13. WordNet: Statistics WordForms Synsets155 287 word forms, groups into noun 117,798 82,115117 659 synsets verb 11,529 13,767 adjective 21,479 18,156 adverb 4,481 3,621 Total 155,287 117,659 {Furniture, Piece of furniture {Stream} {Arrangement} , Article of furniture} A natural body of An orderly grouping running water… Furnishings that make a room…. (of things or… {River} {Categorization, {Bureau, Dresser, {Table} {Array} A large natural Classification} Chest of Drawers,} A piece of furniture stream of ... An orderly arrangement A group of people or things Furniture with drawers for having a smooth … arranged… keeping clothes {Desk} {Nile} {Table, Tabular Array} {Matrix} A piece of furniture with The worlds A set of data arranged in rows A rectangular array a writing surface… longest.. and columns of quantities … {Booth} {work table} {Calendar} {Periodic Table} A table designed… A tabular array {Contents, a tabular arrangement A table (in a restaurant or of the days.. bar) surrounded by two… TableOfContents} of the chemical elem… PalGov © 2011 A list of divisions… 13
  14. 14. WordNet Semantic Relations Synsets are interconnected with semantic relations, forming a large semantic network (graph). Such Relations are: • Hyponymy, also called “Is a” relation, or sub/superordinate. • Meronymy, also called “part of” relation {Container} Any object that can {Furniture, Piece of furniture {Stream} {Arrangement} be used .. , Article of furniture} A natural body of An orderly grouping running water… Furnishings that make a room…. (of things or… {River} {Categorization,{Drawer} {Bureau, Dresser, {Table} {Array} A large natural Classification}A boxlike container Chest of Drawers,} A piece of furniture stream of ... An orderly arrangement A group of people or thingsin a.. Furniture with drawers for having a smooth … arranged… keeping clothes {Desk} {Nile} {Table, Tabular Array} {Matrix} {shelf} A piece of furniture with The worlds A set of data arranged in rows A rectangular array A support that a writing surface… longest.. and columns of quantities … consists… {Booth} {work table} {Calendar} {Periodic Table} {Support} A tabular array {Contents, a tabular arrangement A table (in a restaurant or A table designed… of the days.. Any device that bar) surrounded by two… TableOfContents} of the chemical elem… bears.. PalGov © 2011 A list of divisions… 14
  15. 15. WordNet Relations: Hyponymy• A synset {x, x′, . . .} is hyponym of the synset {y, y′, . . .} if native English speakers accept sentences like x is a (kind of) y. E. g., Table/Tabular Array is a kind of Array, Array is a kind of Arrangement,…• Hyponymy is transitive and asymmetrical. So as Hyponymy generates a hierarchical semantic structure, a hyponym inherits all the features of the more generic concept and adds at least one feature that distinguishes it from its superordinate. {Furniture, Piece of furniture {Stream} {Arrangement} , Article of furniture} A natural body of An orderly grouping running water… Furnishings that make a room…. (of things or… {River} {Categorization, {Bureau, Dresser, {Table} {Array} A large natural Classification} Chest of Drawers,} A piece of furniture stream of ... An orderly arrangement A group of people or things Furniture with drawers for having a smooth … arranged… keeping clothes {Desk} {Nile} {Table, Tabular Array} {Matrix} A piece of furniture with The worlds A set of data arranged in rows A rectangular array a writing surface… longest.. and columns of quantities … {Booth} {work table} {Calendar} {Periodic Table} A table designed… A tabular array {Contents, a tabular arrangement A table (in a restaurant or of the days.. bar) surrounded by two… TableOfContents} of the chemical elem… PalGov © 2011 A list of divisions… 15
  16. 16. WordNet Relations: Hyponymy • A synset {x, x′, . . .} is hyponym of the synset {y, y′, . . .} if native English speakers accept sentences like x is a (kind of) y. E. g., Table/Tabular Array is a kind of Array, Array is a kind of Arrangement,… • Hyponymy is transitive and asymmetrical. So as Hyponymy generates a hierarchical semantic structure, a hyponym inherits all the features of the more generic concept and adds at least one feature that distinguishes it from its superordinate. Top Level Nouns (25 unique beginners) {act, action, activity} {natural object } {animal, fauna} {natural phenomenon } {artifact } {person, human being} {attribute, property } {plant, flora} {body, corpus} {possession} {cognition, knowledge} {process}The WordNet hierarchy {communication} {quantity, amount}is about 16 levels {event, happening} {relation } {feeling, emotion} {shape} {food} {state, condition} {group, collection} {substance} {location, place } {time} {motive} PalGov © 2011 16
  17. 17. WordNet Relations: Meronymy • A synset {x, x′, . . .} is meronym of the synset {y, y′, . . .} if native English speakers accept sentences like y has an x (as a part) or An x is a part of y. E. g., Finger is part of Hand , Hand is part of Arm, Arm is part of Body. • Meronymy is transitive (with qualification) and asymmetrical relations, and forms a part hierarchy.. • Synsets may have multiple hypernyms {Container} Any object that can {Furniture, Piece of furniture {Stream} {Arrangement} be used .. , Article of furniture} A natural body of An orderly grouping running water… Furnishings that make a room…. (of things or… {River} {Categorization,{Drawer} {Bureau, Dresser, {Table} {Array} A large natural Classification}A boxlike container Chest of Drawers,} A piece of furniture stream of ... An orderly arrangement A group of people or thingsin a.. Furniture with drawers for having a smooth … arranged… keeping clothes {Desk} {Nile} {Table, Tabular Array} {Matrix} {shelf} A piece of furniture with The worlds A set of data arranged in rows A rectangular array A support that a writing surface… longest.. and columns of quantities … consists… {Booth} {work table} {Calendar} {Periodic Table} {Support} A tabular array {Contents, a tabular arrangement A table (in a restaurant or A table designed… of the days.. Any device that bar) surrounded by two… TableOfContents} of the chemical elem… bears.. PalGov © 2011 A list of divisions… 17
  18. 18. ExerciseFind the hyponyms and meronyms of this synset{car, auto, automobile, machine, motorcar} PalGov © 2011 18
  19. 19. WordNet Relations: Another Example [Vossen] Hyponymy and meronymy relations are: • transitive • directed {conveyance,transport} {vehicle} meronyms {motor vehicle, automotive vehicle} {car mirror} {armrest} hyper(o)nym {car door} {doorlock} {car, auto, automobile, machine, motorcar} {bumper} {hinge, {car window} flexible joint} hyponym{cruiser, squad car, patrol car, {cab, taxi, hack, taxicab}police car, prowl car} PalGov © 2011 19
  20. 20. WordNet Relations: Antonymy• The antonym of a word x is sometimes not-x, but not always. For example, rich and poor are antonyms, but to say that someone is not rich does not imply that they must be poor; many people consider themselves neither rich nor poor.• Antonymy, which seems to be a simple symmetric relation, is actually quite complex, yet speakers of English have little difficulty recognizing antonyms when they see them. For example, the meanings {rise, ascend } and {fall, descend} may be conceptual opposites, but they are not antonyms; [rise/fall] are antonyms and so are [ascend/descend], but most people hesitate and look thoughtful when asked if rise and descend, or ascend and fall, are antonyms• Antonymy is a lexical relation between word forms, not a semantic relation between word meanings. Or, some call it semantic relations between words [MPC93]. {Rise, Uprise, Come up, {Hot} {Cold} Go up, Move up, Lift} {Fall, Come Down, Go Used of physical Having a low or Move upward heat; having.. inadequate.. Down, Descend} {Ascend, Move up, Rise} Move downward and lower, but not {New} {Worn} necessarily all the way Unaffected by use Move to a better position in life … Affected by wear; or exposure damaged by … {Ascend, Go up} Travel up {New} {Old} {Set, Go down, Go Under} Not of long Of long duration {Ascend, Come (astronomy) disappear beyond the horizon duration; having.. up, Rise, Uprise} {Old} {Young, Immature} (astronomy) come up, of having lived celestial bodies in an early period of life… for a relatively PalGov © 2011 20
  21. 21. Other WordNet Relations• Although the main interest of WordNet was on specifying semantic relations but other lexical/morphological relations between word forms were added.• For example: stems, singular-plural, verb tenses, etc. PalGov © 2011 21
  22. 22. Is WordNet a Thesaurus? [Fellbaum]Yes: • it groups together meaningfully related wordsNo: • it labels the relations • the relations are limited • related words are linked to specific concepts (disambiguated); thesaurus is a “bag of words” • many words linked in WordNet do not co-occur in the same thesaurus entry • WordNet allows one to measure and quantify the semantic similarity or distance among words and concepts PalGov © 2011 22
  23. 23. Outline• The English WordNet• Euro WordNet• Global WordNet PalGov © 2011 23
  24. 24. EURO WordNet [Vossen]• The development of a multilingual database with WordNets for several European languages.• Funded by the European Commission, DG XIII, LE2-4003 and LE4-8328• March 1996 - September 1999 (2.5 Million EURO) http://www.hum.uva.nl/~ewn http://www.illc.uva.nl/EuroWordNet/finalresults-ewn.html• Languages covered: EuroWordNet-1 (LE2-4003): English, Dutch, Spanish, Italian EuroWordNet-2 (LE4-8328): German, French, Czech, Estonian.• Size of vocabulary: EuroWordNet-1: 30,000 concepts - 50,000 word meanings. EuroWordNet-2: 15,000 concepts- 25,000 word meaning.• Type of vocabulary: the most frequent words of the languages all concepts needed to relate more specific concepts. PalGov © 2011 24
  25. 25. EURO WordNet Model [Vossen] Domains Ontology move bewegen Traffic 2OrderEntity go gaan III Air Road` Location Dynamic III ride drive rijden berijden I I III III II II Lexical Items Table Lexical Items Table Lexical Items Table Lexical Items Table ILI-record {drive} III IIIcabalgar II II conducir guidare cavalcarejinetear Inter-Lingual-Index III III mover I = Language Independent link andare transitar II = Link from Language Specific muoversi to Inter lingual Index III = Language Dependent Link PalGov © 2011 25
  26. 26. The Multilingual Design [Vossen]• Inter-Lingual-Index: unstructured fund of concepts to provide an efficient mapping across the languages;• Index-records are mainly based on WordNet synsets and consist of synonyms, glosses and source references;• Various types of complex equivalence relations are distinguished;• Equivalence relations from synsets to index records: not on a word- to-word basis;• Indirect matching of synsets linked to the same index items; PalGov © 2011 26
  27. 27. EURO WordNet Model [Vossen]• WordNets are unique language-specific structures:  same organizational principles: synset structure and same set of semantic relations.  different lexicalizations  differences in synonymy and homonymy: "decoration" in English versus "versiersel/versiering" in Dutch "bank" in English (money/river) versus "bank" in Dutch (money/furniture)•BUT also different relations for similar synsets PalGov © 2011 27
  28. 28. Some Downsides of the EuroWordNet Model [Vossen]• Construction is not done uniformly• Coverage differs• Not all wordnets can communicate with one another, i.e. linked to different versions of English wordnet• Proprietary rights restrict free access and usage• A lot of semantics is duplicated• Complex and obscure equivalence relations due to linguistic differences between English and other languages PalGov © 2011 28
  29. 29. Outline• The English WordNet• Euro WordNet• Global WordNet PalGov © 2011 29
  30. 30. From EuroWordNet to Global WordNet http://www.globalwordnet.orgEuroWordNet ended in 1999Global Wordnet Association was founded in 2000 to maintain theframework: http://www.globalwordnet.orgCurrently, wordnets exist for more than 50 languages, including: Arabic, Bantu, Basque, Chinese, Bulgarian, Estonian, Hebrew, Icelandic, Japanese, Kannada, Korean, Latvian, Nepali, Persian, Romanian, Sanskrit, Tamil, Thai, Turkish, Zulu...Many languages are genetically and typologically unrelated PalGov © 2011 30
  31. 31. From EuroWordNet to Global WordNet [Vossen] • EuroWordNet ended in 1999 • Global Wordnet Association was founded in 2000 to maintain the framework: http://www.globalwordnet.org • Currently, wordnets exist for more than 50 languages, including: Arabic, Bantu, Basque, Chinese, Bulgarian, Estonian, Hebrew, Icelandic, Japanese, Kannada, Korean, Latvian, Nepali, Persian, Romanian, Sanskrit, Tamil, Thai, Turkish, Zulu... • Many languages are genetically and typologically unrelated The Arabic WordNet extension was not successful, will be explained later. PalGov © 2011 31
  32. 32. Global WordNet Model [Vossen]Construct separate wordnets for each languageContributors from each language encode the same core set of conceptsplus culture/language-specific onesSynsets (concepts) are mapped cross linguistically via an ontologyinstead of just the English Wordnet PalGov © 2011 32
  33. 33. References[MBC93] George A. Miller, Richard Beckwith, Christiane Fellbaum, Derek Gross, andKatherine Miller: Introduction to WordNet: An On-line Lexical Database. InternationalJournal of Lexicography, Vol. 3, Nr. 4. Pages 235-244. (1990)http://wordnetcode.princeton.edu/5papers.pdf[GGO02] Aldo Gangemi , Nicola Guarino , Alessandro Oltramari , Ro Oltramari , StefanoBorgo: Cleaning-up WordNets Top-Level. In Proc. of the 1stInternational WordNetConference (2002)http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=C9962DFEDD793F3F839426B774BC9BAF?doi=10.1.1.11.4064&rep=rep1&type=pdfRoche Christophe, Calberg-Challot Marie (2010): “Synonymy in Terminology: theContribution of Ontoterminology”, Re-thinking synonymy: semantic sameness andsimilarity in languages and their description, Helsinki, 2010http://www.linguistics.fi/synonymy/Synonymy%20Ontoterminology%20Helsinki%202010.pdfRoche Christophe, Calberg-Challot Marie, Damas Luc, Rouard Philippe (2009):“Ontoterminology: A new paradigm for terminology”. KEOD, Madeirahttp://ontology.univ-savoie.fr/condillac/files/docs/articles/Ontoterminology-a-new-paradigm-for-terminology.pdf PalGov © 2011 33
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