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Pal gov.tutorial4.session12 1.lexicalsemanitcs

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  • 1. ‫أكاديمية الحكومة اإللكترونية الفلسطينية‬ The Palestinian eGovernment Academy www.egovacademy.psTutorial 4: Ontology Engineering & Lexical Semantics Session 12.1Lexical Semantics and Multilingualism Dr. Mustafa Jarrar University of Birzeit mjarrar@birzeit.edu www.jarrar.info PalGov © 2011 1
  • 2. AboutThis tutorial is part of the PalGov project, funded by the TEMPUS IV program of theCommission of the European Communities, grant agreement 511159-TEMPUS-1-2010-1-PS-TEMPUS-JPHES. The project website: www.egovacademy.psProject Consortium: Birzeit University, Palestine University of Trento, Italy (Coordinator ) Palestine Polytechnic University, Palestine Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium Palestine Technical University, Palestine Université de Savoie, France Ministry of Telecom and IT, Palestine University of Namur, Belgium Ministry of Interior, Palestine TrueTrust, UK Ministry of Local Government, PalestineCoordinator:Dr. Mustafa JarrarBirzeit University, P.O.Box 14- Birzeit, PalestineTelfax:+972 2 2982935 mjarrar@birzeit.eduPalGov © 2011 2
  • 3. © Copyright NotesEveryone is encouraged to use this material, or part of it, but shouldproperly cite the project (logo and website), and the author of that part.No part of this tutorial may be reproduced or modified in any form or byany means, without prior written permission from the project, who havethe full copyrights on the material. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC-BY-NC-SAThis license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creationsunder the identical terms. PalGov © 2011 3
  • 4. Outline and Session ILOsThis session will help students to:4a4: Explain the concept of language ontologies, lexical semantics and multilingualism.4b3: Develop multilingual ontologies. PalGov © 2011 4
  • 5. Tutorial Map Topic Time Session 1_1: The Need for Sharing Semantics 1.5 Session 1_2: What is an ontology 1.5 Intended Learning ObjectivesA: Knowledge and Understanding Session 2: Lab- Build a Population Ontology 3 4a1: Demonstrate knowledge of what is an ontology, Session 3: Lab- Build a BankCustomer Ontology 3 how it is built, and what it is used for. Session 4: Lab- Build a BankCustomer Ontology 3 4a2: Demonstrate knowledge of ontology engineering and evaluation. Session 5: Lab- Ontology Tools 3 4a3: Describe the difference between an ontology and a Session 6_1: Ontology Engineering Challenges 1.5 schema, and an ontology and a dictionary. Session 6_2: Ontology Double Articulation 1.5 4a4: Explain the concept of language ontologies, lexical semantics and multilingualism. Session 7: Lab - Build a Legal-Person Ontology 3B: Intellectual Skills Session 8_1: Ontology Modeling Challenges 1.5 4b1: Develop quality ontologies. Session 8_2: Stepwise Methodologies 1.5 4b2: Tackle ontology engineering challenges. 4b3: Develop multilingual ontologies. Session 9: Lab - Build a Legal-Person Ontology 3 4b4: Formulate quality glosses. Session 10: Zinnar – The Palestinian eGovernment 3C: Professional and Practical Skills Interoperability Framework 4c1: Use ontology tools. Session 11: Lab- Using Zinnar in web services 3 4c2: (Re)use existing Language ontologies. Session 12_1: Lexical Semantics and Multilingually 1.5D: General and Transferable Skills d1: Working with team. Session 12_2: WordNets 1.5 d2: Presenting and defending ideas. Session 13: ArabicOntology 3 d3: Use of creativity and innovation in problem solving. Session 14: Lab-Using Linguistic Ontologies 3 d4: Develop communication skills and logical reasoning abilities. Session 15: Lab-Using Linguistic Ontologies 3 PalGov © 2011 5
  • 6. Session Outline• Linguistic Ontologies vs. Application Ontologies• Lexical Semantics• The Semantic Triangle• Polysemy and Synonymy• Multilingually PalGov © 2011 6
  • 7. Linguistic Ontology vs. Application ontology• The importance of linguistic ontologies is growing rapidly.• An application ontology is to represent the semantics of a certain domain/application. Such as, the FOAF ontology, the Palestinian e- government ontology, the CContology, etc.  Each word convey one concept (no polysemy).  Represents application’s knowledge and data structure.  Used only by a certain application, or a class of applications.• A linguistic ontology is to represent the semantics of all words of a human language, independently of a particular application. Such as WordNet for English.  Each word may convey several concepts (Polysemy).  Represents common-sense knowledge (lexical semantics).  Can be used for general purposes. Let’s first understand the relations between a word and its meaning(s). PalGov © 2011 7
  • 8. Outline• Linguistic Ontologies vs. Application Ontologies• Lexical Semantics• The Semantic Triangle• Polysemy and Synonymy• Multilingually PalGov © 2011 8
  • 9. What is Lexical Semantics?The study of how and what the words of a language denote.• Whether the meaning of a lexical unit is established by looking at its neighborhood in the semantic net (by looking at the other words it occurs with in natural sentences), or if the meaning is already locally contained in the lexical unit?• There are several theories of the classification and decomposition of word meaning, the differences and similarities in lexical semantic structure between different languages, and the relationship of word meaning to sentence meaning and syntax.• Lexical Semantics  focuses on the mapping of words to concepts.Lexical item: a single word or chain of words that forms the basic elements of alanguages lexicon (vocabulary). E.g., "cat", "traffic light", "take care of", "by-the-way“, etc. PalGov © 2011 9
  • 10. What is Lexical Semantics?• There are different theories and approaches in defining the relation between a lexical unit and its meaning. For example: can we understand the meaning independently of a sentence? can we understand the meaning independently of the grammar (morphology)? and so on.• Such theories and approaches are: Prestructuralist semantics, structural semantics and none structural semantics, interpretative semantics and generative semantics, cognitive semantics.• In this lecture, we don’t investigate these theories, but rather, we study the “meaning” from a computational and engineering viewpoints, so to enable computer applications. PalGov © 2011 10
  • 11. Outline• Linguistic Ontologies vs. Application Ontologies• Lexical Semantics• The Semantic Triangle• Polysemy and Synonymy• Multilingually PalGov © 2011 11
  • 12. The Semantic Triangle• Humans require words (or at least symbols) to communicate efficiently. The mapping of words to things is indirect. We do it by creating concepts that refer to things.• The relation between symbols and things has been described in the form of the meaning triangle (by Gomperz 1908) : Concept Symbol stands for Thing PalGov © 2011 12
  • 13. The Semantic Triangle• Humans require words (or at least symbols) to communicate efficiently. The mapping of words to things is indirect. We do it by creating concepts that refer to things.• The relation between symbols and things has been described in the form of the meaning triangle (by Gomperz 1908) : A piece of furniture having a smooth flat top that is usually supported by one or more vertical legs A set of data Concept rows and columns arranged in “Table” Symbol stands for Thing PalGov © 2011 13
  • 14. The Semantic Triangle • Meaning/‫ = معنى‬Concept/‫ = مفهوم‬Semantics • The meaning/semantics of a term is its concepts.Concept: a set of rules we An instance of a concept (‫)الماصدق‬have in mind to distinguishsimilar things in reality[J05]. piece of furniture having a smooth flat top that is A usually supported by one or more vertical legs A set of data Concept rows and columns arranged in “Table” Symbol stands for Thing PalGov © 2011 14
  • 15. The Semantic Triangle • A concept might not be agreed among all people (i.e., not exactly the same set of rules/properties are agreed by all people). • Thus, “most common properties” are used within:  a community of practice (e.g., professions, or language communities).  Large community & less interactions  less concepts are shared.Concept: a set of rules we An instance of a concept (‫)الماصدق‬have in mind to distinguishsimilar things in reality[J05]. piece of furniture having a smooth flat top that is A usually supported by one or more vertical legs A set of data Concept rows and columns arranged in “Table” Symbol stands for Thing PalGov © 2011 15
  • 16. Outline• Linguistic Ontologies vs. Application Ontologies• Lexical Semantics• The Semantic Triangle• Polysemy and Synonymy• Multilingually PalGov © 2011 16
  • 17. Polysemy • Polysemy: is the capacity of a lexical unit to refer to multiple meanings/concepts. These meanings can be related or different. • Polysemy is the consequence of meaning evolution. The constant discussion over how to name and what words mean is in the discourse of a community and implies language evolution. [Temmerman] • Note: the most frequent word forms are the most polysemous! [Fellbaum]Concept: a set of rules we An instance of a concept (‫)الماصدق‬have in mind to distinguishsimilar things in reality[J05]. piece of furniture having a smooth flat top that is A usually supported by one or more vertical legs A set of data Concept rows and columns arranged in “Table” Symbol stands for Thing PalGov © 2011 17
  • 18. Synonymy • Synonymy: Different lexical units denoting the same concept • Two lexical units are said to be synonyms if they can be used interchangeably in a certain context. • many synonyms evolved from the parallel use. • Some lexicographers claim that no synonyms have exactly the same meaning (in all contexts or social levels of language). Flat tableland with steep edges A piece of furniture having a smooth flat top that is usually supported by one or more vertical legs {Table, Mesa} A set of data Concept rows and columns arranged in Table{Table, Tabular Array} Symbol Thing stands for PalGov © 2011 18
  • 19. Outline• Linguistic Ontologies vs. Application Ontologies• Lexical Semantics• The Semantic Triangle• Polysemy and Synonymy• Multilingually PalGov © 2011 19
  • 20. Multilingually• Concepts are not totally language-dependent, as they typically depend on the culture of the language-speakers.• Many concepts are shared cross languages, especially if the speakers of these languages interact with each other.• The more interaction between two communities speaking different languages, the more shared concepts can be found. A piece of furniture having a smooth flat top that is usually supported by one or more vertical legs A set of data Concept rows and columns arranged in “‫”جدول“ ”طاولة‬ “Table” Symbol stands for Thing PalGov © 2011 20
  • 21. Multilingually• Concepts are not totally language-dependent, as they typically depend on the culture of the language-speakers.• Many concepts are shared cross languages, especially if the speakers of these languages interact with each other.• The more interaction between two communities speaking different languages, the more shared concepts can be found. Arabic English A piece of furniture having a smooth flat top that is usually supported by one or more vertical legs A set of data Concept rows and columns arranged in “‫”جدول“ ”طاولة‬ “Table” Symbol Thing French stands for PalGov © 2011 21
  • 22. MultilinguallyIt would nice to know how many concepts are shared between English and French, and Arabic and French/English.This would reflect how much the communities speaking these languages interacted in the current and past centuries. Arabic English A piece of furniture having a smooth flat top that is usually supported by one or more vertical legs A set of data Concept rows and columns arranged in “‫”جدول“ ”طاولة‬ “Table” Symbol Thing French stands for PalGov © 2011 22
  • 23. ReferencesRoche Christophe, Calberg-Challot Marie (2010): “Synonymy in Terminology: the Contribution ofOntoterminology”, Re-thinking synonymy: semantic sameness and similarity in languages and their description,Helsinki, 2010http://www.linguistics.fi/synonymy/Synonymy%20Ontoterminology%20Helsinki%202010.pdfRoche Christophe, Calberg-Challot Marie, Damas Luc, Rouard Philippe (2009): “Ontoterminology: A newparadigm for terminology”. KEOD, Madeirahttp://ontology.univ-savoie.fr/condillac/files/docs/articles/Ontoterminology-a-new-paradigm-for-terminology.pdfGeorge A. Miller, Richard Beckwith, Christiane Fellbaum, Derek Gross, and Katherine Miller: Introduction to WordNet: An On-line Lexical Database. International Journal of Lexicography, Vol. 3, Nr. 4. Pages 235-244. (1990)http://wordnetcode.princeton.edu/5papers.pdf PalGov © 2011 23