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Transcript of "Pal gov.tutorial4.session10.zinnar"

  1. 1. ‫أكادٌمٌة الحكومة اإللكترونٌة الفلسطٌنٌة‬ The Palestinian eGovernment Academy www.egovacademy.ps Tutorial 4: Ontology Engineering & Lexical Semantics Session 10 ZinnarThe Palestinian Interoperability Framework Dr. Mustafa Jarrar University of Birzeit mjarrar@birzeit.edu www.jarrar.info PalGov © 2011 1
  2. 2. AboutThis tutorial is part of the PalGov project, funded by the TEMPUS IV program of theCommission of the European Communities, grant agreement 511159-TEMPUS-1-2010-1-PS-TEMPUS-JPHES. The project website: www.egovacademy.psProject Consortium: Birzeit University, Palestine University of Trento, Italy (Coordinator ) Palestine Polytechnic University, Palestine Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium Palestine Technical University, Palestine Université de Savoie, France Ministry of Telecom and IT, Palestine University of Namur, Belgium Ministry of Interior, Palestine TrueTrust, UK Ministry of Local Government, PalestineCoordinator:Dr. Mustafa JarrarBirzeit University, P.O.Box 14- Birzeit, PalestineTelfax:+972 2 2982935 mjarrar@birzeit.eduPalGov © 2011 2
  3. 3. © Copyright NotesEveryone is encouraged to use this material, or part of it, but shouldproperly cite the project (logo and website), and the author of that part.No part of this tutorial may be reproduced or modified in any form or byany means, without prior written permission from the project, who havethe full copyrights on the material. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC-BY-NC-SAThis license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creationsunder the identical terms. PalGov © 2011 3
  4. 4. Tutorial Map Topic Time Session 1_1: The Need for Sharing Semantics 1.5 Session 1_2: What is an ontology 1.5 Intended Learning ObjectivesA: Knowledge and Understanding Session 2: Lab- Build a Population Ontology 3 4a1: Demonstrate knowledge of what is an ontology, Session 3: Lab- Build a BankCustomer Ontology 3 how it is built, and what it is used for. Session 4: Lab- Build a BankCustomer Ontology 3 4a2: Demonstrate knowledge of ontology engineering and evaluation. Session 5: Lab- Ontology Tools 3 4a3: Describe the difference between an ontology and a Session 6_1: Ontology Engineering Challenges 1.5 schema, and an ontology and a dictionary. Session 6_2: Ontology Double Articulation 1.5 4a4: Explain the concept of language ontologies, lexical semantics and multilingualism. Session 7: Lab - Build a Legal-Person Ontology 3B: Intellectual Skills Session 8_1: Ontology Modeling Challenges 1.5 4b1: Develop quality ontologies. Session 8_2: Stepwise Methodologies 1.5 4b2: Tackle ontology engineering challenges. 4b3: Develop multilingual ontologies. Session 9: Lab - Build a Legal-Person Ontology 3 4b4: Formulate quality glosses. Session 10: Zinnar – The Palestinian eGovernment 3C: Professional and Practical Skills Interoperability Framework 4c1: Use ontology tools. Session 11: Lab- Using Zinnar in web services 3 4c2: (Re)use existing Language ontologies. Session 12_1: Lexical Semantics and Multilingually 1.5D: General and Transferable Skills d1: Working with team. Session 12_2: WordNets 1.5 d2: Presenting and defending ideas. Session 13: ArabicOntology 3 d3: Use of creativity and innovation in problem solving. Session 14: Lab-Using Linguistic Ontologies 3 d4: Develop communication skills and logical reasoning abilities. Session 15: Lab-Using Linguistic Ontologies 3 PalGov © 2011 4
  5. 5. Outline and Session ILOsThis session will help student to:4a1: Demonstrate knowledge of what is an ontology, how it is built, and what it is used for.4a2: Demonstrate knowledge of ontology engineering and evaluation.4b1: Develop quality ontologies. PalGov © 2011 5
  6. 6. Zinnar Website http://www.zinnar.pna.ps PalGov © 2011 6
  7. 7. What is eGovernment? PalGov © 2011 7
  8. 8. What is e-Government (Simplified Demo) e-Government is a (framework) to enable electronic services: government-to-government (G2G), government- to-business (G2B), and government-to-citizen (G2C).  Authenticate UsersMinistry D Ministry C Ministry B Ministry A Transport ######## Interior ######## Health ######## ######## Name:########### PIN:########### ?  12345 Portal Metadata Payment Authentication Server Server PalGov © 2011 8
  9. 9. What is e-Government (Simplified Demo) List of allowed servicesMinistry D Ministry C Ministry B Choose Renew Driving License Ministry A Transport ######## Interior ######## Health ######## ######## Renew License Register Car Renew Passport Register New born Copy of Birth Certificate <Query> <Query> Portal Metadata Payment Authentication Server Server PalGov © 2011 9
  10. 10. What is e-Government (Simplified Demo)  Servers interoperate among each other to exchange data messages (to implement an e-service), similar to exchanging papers between ministries in the real world. List of allowed servicesMinistry D Ministry C Ministry B Choose Renew Driving License Ministry A Transport Interior Health ===== ===== ===== ===== Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx ######## Renew License ######## ######## Register Car ######## Name: Aaa aaa aaa a aaaaa Name: Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa Name: Vvvv Passport Renew ccc bbbbb Registeraaabbbb a bb aaa Copy Aaa aaa aaaaa Bbbbb New born a of Birth Certificate <Query> <Query> <Query> <Query> <Query> Portal Metadata Payment Authentication Server Server PalGov © 2011 10
  11. 11. What is e-Government (Simplified Demo)  Servers interoperate among each other to exchange data messages (to implement an e-service), similar to exchanging papers between ministries in the real world. List of allowed servicesMinistry D Ministry C Ministry B Choose Renew Driving License Ministry A Transport Interior Health  Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Renew License Register Car Name: Aaa aaa aaa a aaaaa Name: Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa Name: Vvvv Passport Renew ccc bbbbb Registeraaabbbb a bb aaa Copy Aaa aaa aaaaa Bbbbb New born a of Birth Certificate Portal Metadata Payment Authentication Server Server PalGov © 2011 11
  12. 12. What is e-Government (Simplified Demo)  Servers interoperate among each other to exchange data messages (to implement an e-service), similar to exchanging papers between ministries in the real world.  A framework is needed allow this Interoperability between servers, taking into account the (Organizational, Technical, and Semantics) issues.Ministry D Ministry C Ministry B Ministry A Transport ######## Interior ######## Health ######## ######## ===== =====  Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Renew License Register Car Name: Aaa aaa aaa a aaaaa Name: Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa Name: Vvvv Passport Renew ccc bbbbb Registeraaabbbb a bb aaa Copy Aaa aaa aaaaa Bbbbb New born a of Birth Certificate <Query> <Query> <Query> Portal Metadata Payment Authentication Server Server PalGov © 2011 12
  13. 13. e-Government (Data Messages) Data Message  Servers interoperate among each other to exchange data messages <SOAP-ENV:Envelope xmlns:SOAP-ENV="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/" (to SOAP-ENV:encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"> implement an e-service), similar to exchanging papers between <SOAP-ENV:Header> ministries in the real world. ... <SOAP-ENV:Header>  A framework <SOAP-ENV:Body> is needed allow this Interoperability between servers, ... taking into account the (Organizational, Technical, and Semantics) <Person> <PersonID>123456789</PersonID> issues. <FName>Rula</FName> ...Ministry D Ministry C <Nationality>PAL33</Nationality> Ministry B Ministry A ... Transport Transport </SOAP-ENV:Body> ######## Interior ######## Interior Health Health ######## ######## ===== =====  Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Renew License Register Car Name: Aaa aaa aaa a aaaaa Name: Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa Name: Vvvv Passport Renew ccc bbbbb Register Newaaaaa Aaa aaa aaa a born Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa Copy of Birth Certificate <Query> <Query> <Query> Portal Metadata Payment Authentication Server Server PalGov © 2011 13
  14. 14. e-Government Interoperability Data Message  Servers interoperate among each other to exchange data messages <SOAP-ENV:Envelope xmlns:SOAP-ENV="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/" (to SOAP-ENV:encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"> implement an e-service), similar to exchanging papers between <SOAP-ENV:Header> ministries in the real world. ... <SOAP-ENV:Header>  A We. need is needed allow share: <SOAP-ENV:Body> to agree on and this Interoperability between servers, framework . . taking• into account the (Organizational, Technical, and Semantics) Vocabulary (naming & codes) <Person> • <PersonID>123456789</PersonID> issues.Meaning of data <FName>Rula</FName> • Structure of data ...Ministry D Ministry C <Nationality>PAL33</Nationality> Ministry B Ministry A ... </SOAP-ENV:Body> an ontology, =>We need Transport Transport ######## Interior ######## Interior Health Health ######## ######## ===== =====  Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Renew License Register Car Name: Aaa aaa aaa a aaaaa Name: Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa Name: Vvvv Passport Renew ccc bbbbb Register Newaaaaa Aaa aaa aaa a born Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa Copy of Birth Certificate <Query> <Query> <Query> Portal Metadata Payment Authentication Server Server PalGov © 2011 14
  15. 15. Why e-Goverment in Palestine? Egov in Palestine is not a luxury, but a must (political, economy, social)Like other countries: • To make the life of citizens easier • For effectiveness and transparency in public services. • Improve economy: more income, less spendingAnd More: (To Bridge Palestinians)• To serve Palestinians who live inside but unable to reach public offices because of the hundreds of Israeli check-points between cities.• To connect and serve Palestinians refugees and foreigners (70% of Palestinians). PalGov © 2011 15
  16. 16. E-government FrameworksThe e-government project in Palestine is divided into five main frameworks:  Infrastructure  Security  Interoperability  Legal  Policy PalGov © 2011 16
  17. 17. E-government Frameworks To connect ministries: • through the internet, or own network? • Who manages the network? • … Done! (See eGov Network)Ministry D Ministry C Ministry B Ministry A 1. Infrastructure Transport ######## Interior ######## Health ######## ######## ===== =====  Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Renew License Register Car Name: Aaa aaa aaa a aaaaa Name: Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa Name: Vvvv Passport Renew ccc bbbbb Registeraaabbbb a bb aaa Copy Aaa Bbbbb New aaaaa aaa a born of Birth Certificate Portal Metadata Payment Authentication Server Server PalGov © 2011 17
  18. 18. E-government Frameworks To assure: • Ministry A is sure about the message sources (Ministry B). • Ministry B cannot deny sending the message. • The message cannot be changed in the middle. • …. Little progress! 2. Security FrameworkMinistry D Ministry C Ministry B Ministry A 1. Infrastructure Transport ######## Interior ######## Health ######## ######## ===== =====  Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Renew License Register Car Name: Aaa aaa aaa a aaaaa Name: Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa Name: Vvvv Passport Renew ccc bbbbb Registeraaabbbb a bb aaa Copy Aaa Bbbbb New aaaaa aaa a born of Birth Certificate Portal Metadata Payment Authentication Server Server PalGov © 2011 18
  19. 19. E-government Frameworks To assure • The content of the exchanged messages is understood meaningfully. • Organizational procedures are compatible. • Technical issues and systems are compatible. 3. Interoperability Framework • …. Done! (See Zinnar) 2. Security FrameworkMinistry D Ministry C Ministry B Ministry A 1. Infrastructure Transport ######## Interior ######## Health ######## ######## ===== =====  Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Renew License Register Car Name: Aaa aaa aaa a aaaaa Name: Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa Name: Vvvv Passport Renew ccc bbbbb Registeraaabbbb a bb aaa Copy Aaa Bbbbb New aaaaa aaa a born of Birth Certificate Portal Metadata Payment Authentication Server Server PalGov © 2011 19
  20. 20. E-government Frameworks • All communications are legally accepted. • Can a ministry deny providing a service? 4. Legal Framework • What information is private, cannot be exchanged with other ministries 3. Interoperability Framework • …. Some Progress(e-sig Law Drafted) 2. Security FrameworkMinistry D Ministry C Ministry B Ministry A 1. Infrastructure Transport ######## Interior ######## Health ######## ######## ===== =====  Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Renew License Register Car Name: Aaa aaa aaa a aaaaa Name: Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa Name: Vvvv Passport Renew ccc bbbbb Registeraaabbbb a bb aaa Copy Aaa Bbbbb New aaaaa aaa a born of Birth Certificate Portal Metadata Payment Authentication Server Server PalGov © 2011 20
  21. 21. E-government Frameworks • Which services to provide now and later. 5. Policy Framework • Who should benefit from services (Green ID, Blue IDs, refugees and 4. Legal Framework foreigner)? 3. Interoperability Framework • …. Not Done! 2. Security FrameworkMinistry D Ministry C Ministry B Ministry A 1. Infrastructure Transport ######## Interior ######## Health ######## ######## ===== =====  Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Renew License Register Car Name: Aaa aaa aaa a aaaaa Name: Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa Name: Vvvv Passport Renew ccc bbbbb Registeraaabbbb a bb aaa Copy Aaa Bbbbb New aaaaa aaa a born of Birth Certificate Portal Metadata Payment Authentication Server Server PalGov © 2011 21
  22. 22. The Interoperability Framework PalGov © 2011 22
  23. 23. Palestinian Interoperability Framework (Zinnar) http//:zinnar.pna.psInteroperability is divided into three types: 1- Semantic Interoperability The ability of computer systems to exchange data and have that data properly interpreted by the receiving system in the same sense as intended by the transmitting system. 2- Organizational Interoperability The ability of the government organisations to collaborate to achieve their mutually agreed goals. In practice, organisational interoperability is established through the integration of business processes and the related exchange of information. (read more) 3- Technical Interoperability The ability of organisation‟s systems to communicate and exchange data messages PalGov © 2011 23
  24. 24. Palestinian Interoperability Framework (Zinnar) http//:zinnar.pna.psTechnical Interoperability e-Government Service Bus Tech Standards (Service-Oriented Architecture ) SOAP, WSDL, UTF-8…Semantic & Organizational Interoperability are (realized in five servers) Address GIS-enabled Server Addresses Database of Government Entity Databases Server Ontology Classification codes Metadata about Entity mappings all state DBs Service Business Processes, CommitTo Repository AsIs-ToBe, WSDL, UDDI PalGov © 2011 24
  25. 25. How to use the Ontology? The (naming, meaning, data structure) Ontology in all exchanged messages commit to the OntologyMinistry D Ministry C Ministry B Ministry A Transport Interior Health Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Renew License Register Cara aaaaa Aaa aaa aaa Name: Name: Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa Name: Vvvv Passport Renew ccc bbbbb Registeraaabbbb a bb aaa Copy Aaa aaa aaaaa Bbbbb New born a of Birth Certificate Message1 Message2 Message3 Message4 Portal Metadata Payment Server PalGov © 2011 25
  26. 26. Government Ontology: Why do we need it?• Why do we really need a “Framework” to agree on the naming, meaning, structure of the data, …?• Can‟t we simply agree on all of this “ad-hoc”, without a framework or ontology? B Suppose • A governmental agency A provides A a certain service to agency B. C • The developers from agency B must understand/(agree with the developers from agency A) on the naming, meaning, structure of the F D data, business rules, … This must be done for all other E agencies that want to consume certain services from A. PalGov © 2011 26
  27. 27. Government Ontology: Why do we need it?• Why do we really need a “Framework” to agree on the naming, meaning, structure of the data, …?• Can‟t we simply agree on all of this “ad-hoc”, without a framework or ontology? B A C Suppose B is the provider of the services … F D E PalGov © 2011 27
  28. 28. Government Ontology: Why do we need it?• Why do we really need a “Framework” to agree on the naming, meaning, structure of the data, …?• Can‟t we simply agree on all of this “ad-hoc”, without a framework or ontology? B A C Suppose C is the provider of the services … F D E PalGov © 2011 28
  29. 29. Government Ontology: Why do we need it?• Why do we really need a “Framework” to agree on the naming, meaning, structure of the data, …?• Can‟t we simply agree on all of this “ad-hoc”, without a framework or ontology? B  Building the Palestinian e-Government A C “ad-hoc” is not scalable. F D E PalGov © 2011 29
  30. 30. Government Ontology: Why do we need it?• Why do we really need a “Framework” to agree on the naming, meaning, structure of the data, …?• Can‟t we simply agree on all of this “ad-hoc”, without a framework or ontology? B  Building the Palestinian e-Government A C “ad-hoc” is not scalable.  We need a framework (Ontology), such Ontology that: • The WSDL of a service “commits” to D the Ontology. F • The consumer of the service refers to the ontology to understand the E meaning, structure and business rules pertaining to the data. PalGov © 2011 30
  31. 31. The Entity Server PalGov © 2011 31
  32. 32. e-Government (Data Messages) Data Message  Servers interoperate among each other to exchange data messages (to <SOAP-ENV:Envelope xmlns:SOAP-ENV="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/" SOAP-ENV:encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"> implement an e-service), similar to exchanging papers between <SOAP-ENV:Header> ministries in the real world. ... <SOAP-ENV:Header> Such codes should be  A framework <SOAP-ENV:Body> is needed allow this Interoperability between servers, ... standardized between the taking into account the (Organizational, Technical, and Semantics) <Person> service provider and the <PersonID>123456789</PersonID> issues. <FName>Rula</FName> consumer ...Ministry D Ministry C <Nationality>PAL33</Nationality> Ministry B Ministry A ... Transport Transport </SOAP-ENV:Body> ######## Interior ######## Interior Health Health ######## ######## ===== =====  Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Renew License Register Car Name: Aaa aaa aaa a aaaaa Name: Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa Name: Vvvv Passport Renew ccc bbbbb Register Newaaaaa Aaa aaa aaa a born Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa Copy of Birth Certificate <Query> <Query> <Query> Portal Metadata Payment Authentication Server Server PalGov © 2011 32
  33. 33. How to use the Entity Server? Using the same entity codes when transferring data between governmental Entity Server agencies. All entities (codes, names, and mappings) appear in data messages should defined in the Entity Server.Ministry D Ministry C Ministry B Ministry A Transport Interior Health Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Renew License Register Car Name: Aaa aaa aaa a aaaaa Name: Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa Name: Vvvv Passport Renew ccc bbbbb Registeraaabbbb a bb aaa Copy Aaa Bbbbb New aaaaa aaa a born of Birth Certificate Message1 Message2 Message3 Message4 Portal Metadata Payment Server PalGov © 2011 33
  34. 34. How to use the Entity Server?• Governmental agencies cannot communicate without the Entity Server.• Service providers and consumers don‟t have to change their internal databases, but when exchanging messages they have to use those shared entities. Entity Server NationalityCode NationalityName PSE ‫فلسطيني‬ ... Agency A Agency B Code Name ... Nationality <NationalityCode>PSE<NationalityCode/> PAL ‫فلسطين‬ ... ‫فالسطيني‬ ... ... PalGov © 2011 34
  35. 35. The Entity Server PalGov © 2011 35
  36. 36. The Entity Server (example entity) PalGov © 2011 36
  37. 37. The Entity Server (mapping tables) PalGov © 2011 37
  38. 38. The Entity Server (Methodology)• For each Entity, we: – provide the classification in different formats: (Web service (XML), xls, sql, html). – provide Documentation that also serves as log/history document of the Entity. – make sure the developed standards cover tables used in different governmental agencies. PalGov © 2011 38
  39. 39. The Entity Server PalGov © 2011 39
  40. 40. The Entity Server (entity-identity mappings)In case same entities (e.g. people) are identified differently acrossorganizations, exchanging data about such entities requires that theiridentities are mapped to each otherFor example: (Passportnumber1, Passportnumber2) of the same person, (IDNumber, Name-Bdate-BirthPlace) of the same person, (A.Platnumber, B.platenumber) of the same car; or (A.landnumber, B.landcode) of the same land.A mapping table should be built to link different identities of the sameentity.Such entity-identity mappings are stored in the Entity server. PalGov © 2011 40
  41. 41. Ontology-based Entity Server• The entity server is governed by the ontology.• A value constraint in the ontology module is linked with a table in the entity server.• That is, the allowed values for a concept in the ontology is limited by a certain set of the entities in the Entity server.• For example, the list of values for “BirthCountry” in the ontology must be one of the “CountriesAndNationalities” in the entity server. PalGov © 2011 41
  42. 42. The address server PalGov © 2011 42
  43. 43. The address server: Why do we need it?Addressing info is not consistent across all governmental agencies • E.g., different agencies register different names/numbers for the same building/street/area/region. • In addition, how to know that „Beit Sahour Str‟ is part of „Beit Sahour ‟, and that „Beit Sahour ‟ is part of „Bethlahem‟. Street Street Street Beit Sahour St Shepherds Field Karkafe Street agency A agency B agency CCurrently: citizens have different address cross ministries; ministriescannot register full address; different spellings of towns and streets;ministries cannot send official letters to citizens, etc. In order for different governmental agencies to interoperate, they must use the same address system. PalGov © 2011 43
  44. 44. The Address Server PalGov © 2011 44
  45. 45. The Address Server PalGov © 2011 45
  46. 46. The Address ServerOne of the major problems that face Governmental agencies when building e-Government servicesand exchanging data electronically is the inconsistency of addressing information across differentgovernmental agencies (e.g., different agencies register different names/ numbers for the samebuilding/ street/ area/ region). In order to interoperate, different governmental agencies must usethe same address for a certain person. As a solution to the problem, we propose the addressserver. The address server is a repository of addresses that would contain all the addressingInformation including building numbers, street names, postcodes, and regions. Basically, anaddress is an entity and thus it could have been included within the Entity Server. However, due tothe complexity of the addressing system in general and the requirements of the Palestinianaddressing system that is being developed, the address Entity is treated separately.Currently, the address server contains the Palestinian postcodes that were recently developed bythe Ministry of Telecom & IT. The newly developed Palestinian Postcode system represented thefirst step towards establishing a modern addressing system for Palestine. The postcode consists offour digits (from W100 - W799) in Westbank and (G800 – G999) in Gaza Strip, such that the areasof the Westbank and Gaza Strip were divided into 900 postcode zones. For instance, Jenin wasdivided into 100 zones (from W200 - W299) while Bethlehem was divided into 50 zones (W150 -W199).The Palestinian postcodes data is presented currently on this page using a GIS web application onan interactive map that allows the user to search and navigate addressing data easily, and it is alsopresented using a tabular form. In addition, GIS street information for several cities in Palestine willbe added very soon. PalGov © 2011 46
  47. 47. Ontology-based Address ServerThat is, the value constraint on „Address‟ should be limited to theaddress provided in the Address server. PalGov © 2011 47
  48. 48. Database of State Databases PalGov © 2011 48
  49. 49. Database of State DatabasesA typical problems in governments (and large enterprises) is that samedata is collected and registered in many different databases.For example: your profile might be registered differently in 15 ministries.The more the data is repeatedly registered in many databases, the moredifficult the interoperability and integration will be.In addition, If you change your address, mobile, or number of children,you have to go and change it in every ministry. PalGov © 2011 49
  50. 50. Database of State DatabasesTo develop and maintain e-Government services, metadata about statedatabases should be collected and maintained in a registry of databases.Such metadata includes at least the following information: Name of thedatabase, owner, type of the registered data, repository usage, the yearthe database was built in, number of records, number of records addedper day, percentage of automated data, type of automated data, degreeof coverage, condition of the data.When a ministry creates a database, it should register it in the databaseof databases, and provides metadata about it.In this way, it will be clear what data exists, and who holds/registers whichdata.In some courtiers, ministers are forced by law to license each databasethey have, and they have to specify exactly the purposes/usage of thisdatabase. PalGov © 2011 50
  51. 51. Database of State Databases PalGov © 2011 51
  52. 52. Database of State Databases PalGov © 2011 52
  53. 53. Ontology-based Database of State DatabasesAll (or the relevant) fields in all databases are linked with a concept in theontology. PalGov © 2011 53
  54. 54. Service Repository PalGov © 2011 54
  55. 55. Service Repository• Metadata about e-governmental services will be collected and kept in a repository of services.• Such metadata includes specifications of: • Formal description of governmental services (including the AS- IS and TO-BE business processes models), • Web services (WSDL) , • Web service repository (UDDI). PalGov © 2011 55
  56. 56. Business Process modeling• There is typically a set of services that a ministry provides to citizens, to enterprises, and to other governmental institutions.• Such services (called business processes) for all ministries should be well defined (formal AS-IS and TO-BE models); or at least those services that need to be provided. PalGov © 2011 56
  57. 57. Service Repository: governmental Business ProcessesAs-is process model Re-engineered process “To-be model” PalGov © 2011 57
  58. 58. Ontology-based Service GovernanceGovernment Ontology .. . Citizen FirstName .. . .. . CitizenProfile Service Database of State Databases Commits toService Specification WSDL Commits to <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <definitions xmlns="http://xmlsoap.org/wsdl/"> Registry (1) ... Registered Data FirstName, … <element name=“Citizen“> ... Maps to ... ... Provided Services Citizen Profile <service name=“CitizenProfileService">. . .</service> Service, … </definitions> Implements Business Process Models PalGov © 2011 58
  59. 59. Ontology-based Service Governance Government ontology describes not only theGovernment Ontology .. . data but also the services Citizen FirstName .. . (classification). .. . CitizenProfile Service Database of State Databases Commits to Thus, not only the data inService Specification WSDL Commits to <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> Registry (1) WSDL files are rooted and <definitions xmlns="http://xmlsoap.org/wsdl/"> ... Registered Data FirstName, … linked with concepts in the <element name=“Citizen“> ... Maps to ... ... ontology but also the Provided Services Citizen Profile <service name=“CitizenProfileService">. . .</service> </definitions> Service, … services names (web services) are also linked Implements and rooted in the ontology In this way, as web services are sub processes in the ASIS and TOBEs, it Business implies a link between the business Process process and ontology. Models PalGov © 2011 59
  60. 60. The Government Ontology in more details PalGov © 2011 60
  61. 61. Ontology-based Service GovernanceThe Government Ontology can be viewed as a framework(or a standard) that consists of the agreed-uponvocabulary (naming), meaning, structure and businessrules pertaining to the data exchanged in e-Governmentservices. PalGov © 2011 61
  62. 62. Government Ontology – What is it?The Government Ontology is a formal description of theterminology (concepts and their interrelationships) that arecommunicated in the Government domain. so that all the terminology in the web services is mapped to(commits to) this ontology. PalGov © 2011 62
  63. 63. Government Ontology – How it was built?• The Government Ontology in Palestine was built smoothly with low cost.• Only two persons were involved, and it was delivered at a short time;• Few meetings with some domain experts were conducted.The way the ontology was engineered was effective, mainly, because:  The ontology was modularized into several modules,  The notion of gloss, to also informally describe concepts,  The use of ORM, to model and graphically represent the ontology. PalGov © 2011 63
  64. 64. Government Ontology – What is it?The Government Ontology is modularized into separate (but connected)modules. Such modules are: Legal Person, Address, Organization, Car,Land. PalGov © 2011 64
  65. 65. Government Ontology – How it was built?The Government Ontology is modularized into separate (but connected)modules. Such modules are: Legal Person, Address, Organization, Car,Land. Modules are: 1. Easier to reuse 2. Easier to build, maintain, and replace 3. Enable distributed development of modules 4. Enable the effective management and browsing Modularization is based on (Modularity criteria): 1. Subject-oriented 2. Purpose/Task-oriented 3. Stability PalGov © 2011 65
  66. 66. Zinnar – Palestinian Government Ontology Still more topics need to be covered PalGov © 2011 66
  67. 67. Zinnar – Palestinian Government Ontology Legal-Person Module PalGov © 2011 67
  68. 68. Government Ontology (Example) Each Module consists of three components: (1) ORM Diagram, (2) Glossary, (3) Business Rules. ORM Diagram GlossaryBusiness Rules PalGov © 2011 68
  69. 69. Government Ontology (Example) Each Module consists of three components: (1) ORM Diagram, (2) Glossary, (3) Business Rules.1- ORM Diagram ORM Diagram GlossaryBusiness Rules PalGov © 2011 69
  70. 70. Government Ontology (Example) Each Module consists of three components: (1) ORM Diagram, (2) Glossary, (3) Business Rules.ORM Diagram2- Glossary GlossaryBusiness Rules PalGov © 2011 70
  71. 71. ‫)‪Government Ontology (Example‬‬ ‫)2( ,‪Each Module consists of three components: (1) ORM Diagram‬‬ ‫.‪Glossary, (3) Business Rules‬‬ ‫‪ORM Diagram‬‬ ‫‪Glossary‬‬ ‫‪3- Business Rules‬‬ ‫ال ٌجوز لمجموعة تضم أكثر من عشرٌن شخصا ً أن تتعاطى معا ُ أي عمل بقصد الربح إال إذا سجلت كشركة‬ ‫مساهمة محدودة بمقتضى القانون.‬ ‫مقدار رأس المال األسهمً ٌكون بالعملة األردنٌة، وٌقسم إلى أسهم متساوٌة القٌمة وال تقل قٌمة السهم‬‫‪Business Rules‬‬ ‫االسمٌة عن دٌنار واحد وال تزٌد على عشرة دنانٌر.‬ ‫1102 © ‪PalGov‬‬ ‫17‬
  72. 72. ReferencesMustafa Jarrar, Anton Deik, Bilal Faraj: Ontology-based Data and ProcessGovernance Framework -The Case of e-Government Interoperability in Palestine.In pre-proceedings of the IFIP International Symposium on Data-Driven ProcessDiscovery and Analysis (SIMPDA‟11). ISBN 978-88-903120-2-1. Campione, Italy.June 30, 2011.www.zinnar.pna.ps PalGov © 2011 72
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