‫أكاديمية الحكومة اإللكترونية الفلسطينية‬           The Palestinian eGovernment Academy                      www.egovacade...
AboutThis tutorial is part of the PalGov project, funded by the TEMPUS IV program of theCommission of the European Communi...
© Copyright NotesEveryone is encouraged to use this material, or part of it, but shouldproperly cite the project (logo and...
Tutorial Map                                                                                        Topic                 ...
Session ILOsThis session will help student to:   4a1: Demonstrate knowledge of what is an ontology, how it is       built,...
Ontology-based Applications       (i) Open Information Systems (Data Integration and Interoperability)                Info...
Ontology-based Applications                  (i) Open Information Systems (Data Integration and Interoperability)         ...
Ontology-based Applications                  (i) Open Information Systems (Data Integration and Interoperability)         ...
Ontology-based Applications                   (i) Open Information Systems (Data Integration and Interoperability)        ...
Ontology-based Applications(i) Open Information Systems (Data Integration and Interoperability)   E-Commerce Application  ...
Ontology-based Applications(i) Open Information Systems (Data Integration and Interoperability)   E-Commerce Application  ...
Ontology-based Applications(i) Open Information Systems (Data Integration and Interoperability)   E-Commerce Application  ...
Ontology-based Applications       (ii)The Semantic Web scenario (RDFa)find a developer position, max 10 minutes from Ramal...
Ontology-based Applications       (ii)The Semantic Web scenario (RDFa)                                              Bad re...
Ontology-based Applications                     (ii)The Semantic Web scenario (RDFa)Shared meanings of things,            ...
Ontology-based Applications                 (iii) Shared semantics in e-CommerceCentral customer complaining portal       ...
Example (Customer Complaint Ontology) See http://www.jarrar.info/publications/mjarrar-CCFORM-chapter.pdf.htm              ...
The Need for a Shared Understanding•   The Internet and the open connectivity environments are creating a    huge demand n...
The Need for Meaning Mediation“Lack of technologies and products to dynamically mediatediscrepancies in business semantics...
XML vs Ontology        Common Alphabet is not Enough…  One may ask:  Can we use XML instead of ontologies?  <aaa>         ...
Standard Vocabularies vs Ontology Can we use business glossaries instead of ontologies?    Contract: A binding agreement b...
The meaning of Meaning (Semantics)•      Humans require words (or at least symbols) to communicate       efficiently. The ...
The meaning of Meaning (Semantics)Concept: a set of rules we have in mind                                                 ...
The meaning of Meaning (Semantics)• A Term (/symbol) may refer to different concepts (Animal: Jaguar,  Car:Jaguar)• A Conc...
Levels of Ontological Precision                                                                                           ...
References•   Mustafa Jarrar: Towards Effectiveness and Transparency in e-    Business Transactions, An Ontology for Custo...
Thank you!   PalGov © 2011   27
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Pal gov.tutorial4.session1 1.needforsharedsemantics

  1. 1. ‫أكاديمية الحكومة اإللكترونية الفلسطينية‬ The Palestinian eGovernment Academy www.egovacademy.psTutorial 4: Ontology Engineering & Lexical Semantics Session 1.1 The Need for Shared Semantics Dr. Mustafa Jarrar University of Birzeit mjarrar@birzeit.edu www.jarrar.info PalGov © 2011 1
  2. 2. AboutThis tutorial is part of the PalGov project, funded by the TEMPUS IV program of theCommission of the European Communities, grant agreement 511159-TEMPUS-1-2010-1-PS-TEMPUS-JPHES. The project website: www.egovacademy.psProject Consortium: Birzeit University, Palestine University of Trento, Italy (Coordinator ) Palestine Polytechnic University, Palestine Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium Palestine Technical University, Palestine Université de Savoie, France Ministry of Telecom and IT, Palestine University of Namur, Belgium Ministry of Interior, Palestine TrueTrust, UK Ministry of Local Government, PalestineCoordinator:Dr. Mustafa JarrarBirzeit University, P.O.Box 14- Birzeit, PalestineTelfax:+972 2 2982935 mjarrar@birzeit.eduPalGov © 2011 2
  3. 3. © Copyright NotesEveryone is encouraged to use this material, or part of it, but shouldproperly cite the project (logo and website), and the author of that part.No part of this tutorial may be reproduced or modified in any form or byany means, without prior written permission from the project, who havethe full copyrights on the material. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC-BY-NC-SAThis license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creationsunder the identical terms. PalGov © 2011 3
  4. 4. Tutorial Map Topic Time Session 1_1: The Need for Sharing Semantics 1.5 Session 1_2: What is an ontology 1.5 Intended Learning ObjectivesA: Knowledge and Understanding Session 2: Lab- Build a Population Ontology 3 4a1: Demonstrate knowledge of what is an ontology, Session 3: Lab- Build a BankCustomer Ontology 3 how it is built, and what it is used for. Session 4: Lab- Build a BankCustomer Ontology 3 4a2: Demonstrate knowledge of ontology engineering and evaluation. Session 5: Lab- Ontology Tools 3 4a3: Describe the difference between an ontology and a Session 6_1: Ontology Engineering Challenges 1.5 schema, and an ontology and a dictionary. Session 6_2: Ontology Double Articulation 1.5 4a4: Explain the concept of language ontologies, lexical semantics and multilingualism. Session 7: Lab - Build a Legal-Person Ontology 3B: Intellectual Skills Session 8_1: Ontology Modeling Challenges 1.5 4b1: Develop quality ontologies. Session 8_2: Stepwise Methodologies 1.5 4b2: Tackle ontology engineering challenges. 4b3: Develop multilingual ontologies. Session 9: Lab - Build a Legal-Person Ontology 3 4b4: Formulate quality glosses. Session 10: Zinnar – The Palestinian eGovernment 3C: Professional and Practical Skills Interoperability Framework 4c1: Use ontology tools. Session 11: Lab- Using Zinnar in web services 3 4c2: (Re)use existing Language ontologies. Session 12_1: Lexical Semantics and Multilingually 1.5D: General and Transferable Skills d1: Working with team. Session 12_2: WordNets 1.5 d2: Presenting and defending ideas. Session 13: ArabicOntology 3 d3: Use of creativity and innovation in problem solving. Session 14: Lab-Using Linguistic Ontologies 3 d4: Develop communication skills and logical reasoning abilities. Session 15: Lab-Using Linguistic Ontologies 3 PalGov © 2011 4
  5. 5. Session ILOsThis session will help student to: 4a1: Demonstrate knowledge of what is an ontology, how it is built, and what it is used for PalGov © 2011 5
  6. 6. Ontology-based Applications (i) Open Information Systems (Data Integration and Interoperability) Information System Conceptual Schema DBMS Query processor Logical Schema Apps Data Each Information System is made for one organization. Interoperation between Information Systems was important in the past. Why do we need conceptual schemes? for designing Information systems at the conceptual level. PalGov © 2011 6
  7. 7. Ontology-based Applications (i) Open Information Systems (Data Integration and Interoperability) Ontologies/ Semantics (OWL) Agreed data schemes (XML, RDF)IS1 ISn Conceptual Schema Conceptual SchemaDBMS DBMS Query processor Logical Schema Query processor Logical Schema Apps Apps Data Data New needs: Open data exchange, inter-organizational transactions, global queries… PalGov © 2011 7
  8. 8. Ontology-based Applications (i) Open Information Systems (Data Integration and Interoperability) eGovernment Application Government Ontology Agreed data schemes (XML or RDF)Ministry1 Ministryn Conceptual Schema Conceptual SchemaDBMS DBMS Query processor Logical Schema Query processor Logical Schema Apps Apps Data Data New needs: Open data exchange, inter-ministry transactions, global queries… PalGov © 2011 8
  9. 9. Ontology-based Applications (i) Open Information Systems (Data Integration and Interoperability) eGovernment ApplicationThe meaning, vocabulary,and data structure in themessage commit to the Government OntologyGovernment Ontology Agreed data schemes (XML, RDF) Ministry1 Ministryn Conceptual Schema Conceptual Schema DBMS DBMS Query processor Logical Schema Query processor Logical Schema Apps Apps Data Data New needs: Open data exchange, inter-ministry transactions, global queries… PalGov © 2011 9
  10. 10. Ontology-based Applications(i) Open Information Systems (Data Integration and Interoperability) E-Commerce Application Semantic Mediator Shared meaning (i.e. formal Bookstore Ontology semantics) of bibliographical Terminology PalGov © 2011 10
  11. 11. Ontology-based Applications(i) Open Information Systems (Data Integration and Interoperability) E-Commerce Application Semantic Mediator Shared meaning (i.e. formal Product ⊑ ValuatedBy.Price Bookstore Ontology semantics) of bibliographical Book ⊑ Product ⊓ hasISBN Terminology ⊓ hasTitle ⊓ hasAuthor PalGov © 2011 11
  12. 12. Ontology-based Applications(i) Open Information Systems (Data Integration and Interoperability) E-Commerce Application Semantic Mediator …. <owl:Class rdf:ID="Product" /> Shared meaning (i.e. formal <owl:Class rdf:ID="Book"> Bookstore Ontology <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#Product" /> </owl:Class> semantics) of bibliographical <owl:Class rdf:ID="Price" /> <owl:Class rdf:ID="Value" /> <owl:Class rdf:ID="Currency" /> <owl:Class rdf:ID="Title" /> Specification using Terminology <owl:Class rdf:ID="ISBN" /> <owl:Class rdf:ID="Author" /> OWL <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="Valuated-By"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Product" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#Price" /> </owl:ObjectProperty> (Ontology Web Language ) <owl:DataProperty rdf:ID=" Amounted-To .Value"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Price" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string"/> </owl:ObjectProperty> <owl:DataProperty rdf:ID="Measured-In.Currency"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Price" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string"/> … PalGov © 2011 12
  13. 13. Ontology-based Applications (ii)The Semantic Web scenario (RDFa)find a developer position, max 10 minutes from Ramallah PalGov © 2011 13
  14. 14. Ontology-based Applications (ii)The Semantic Web scenario (RDFa) Bad results, as it is string-matching search, i.e., not meaningful searchfind a developer position, max 10 minutes from Ramallah PalGov © 2011 14
  15. 15. Ontology-based Applications (ii)The Semantic Web scenario (RDFa)Shared meanings of things, This meaning is embeddedinside web pages. 1 Ontology 2“The semantic web” mission:syntax to semantic based 3search  The next generationof the web. 4 find a developer position, max 10 minutes from Ramallah 3 billion pages PalGov © 2011 15
  16. 16. Ontology-based Applications (iii) Shared semantics in e-CommerceCentral customer complaining portal CCForm Project (EU FP5). The idea of this project is to build a portal for treating customer complaints (CCPortal): • Instead of developing a complaining system for each website offering products and services, these websites can provide a link to the CC Portal, so to allow customers to write their complaints. • All types of complains (about anything) are collected centrally and product/service providers can respond and interact with customers in a transparent way through this CCPortal. • A Customer Complaint Ontology (CCOntology) is built and used in the background; such that, the complaining vocabulary (all types of complaints, responses, etc.) become “standard” for all companies and customers. See http://www.jarrar.info/publications/mjarrar-CCFORM-chapter.pdf.htm • Nice idea, but not fully implemented yet. PalGov © 2011 16
  17. 17. Example (Customer Complaint Ontology) See http://www.jarrar.info/publications/mjarrar-CCFORM-chapter.pdf.htm PalGov © 2011 17
  18. 18. The Need for a Shared Understanding• The Internet and the open connectivity environments are creating a huge demand not only for sharing data but also its semantics.• Not only humans but also computers needs to communicate meaningfully.• However, due to different needs and background contexts, there can be widely varying viewpoints and assumptions regarding what is essentially the same subject matter; each may have differing, overlapping and/ or mis-matched concepts. [Martin Hepp]• The consequent lack of a shared understanding leads to poor communication within and between people, organizations, and systems. PalGov © 2011 18
  19. 19. The Need for Meaning Mediation“Lack of technologies and products to dynamically mediatediscrepancies in business semantics will limit the adoptionof advanced Web services for large public communitieswhose participants have disparate business processes” Gartner Research, February 28, 2002 PalGov © 2011 19
  20. 20. XML vs Ontology Common Alphabet is not Enough… One may ask: Can we use XML instead of ontologies? <aaa> <Book> <bbb> Orientalism </bbb> <Title> Orientalism </Title> <ccc>Edward Said</ccc> <Author>Edward Said</Author> <ddd>11</ddd> <Price>11</Price> </aaa> </Book>“XML is only the first step to ensuring that computers can communicatefreely. XML is an alphabet for computers, and as everyone who travels inEurope knows, knowing the alphabet doesn’t mean you can speak Italianor French” [Business Week, March 18, 2002]XML provides syntax, ontologies providesemanticsmeaning. PalGov © 2011 20
  21. 21. Standard Vocabularies vs Ontology Can we use business glossaries instead of ontologies? Contract: A binding agreement between two or more legal persons that is enforceable by law; an invoice can be a contract. Complaint: An expression of grievance or resentment issued by a complainant against a compliant-recipient, describing a problem(s) that needs to be resolved. Legal Person: An entity with legal recognition in accordance with law. It has the legal capacity to represent its own interests in its own name, before a court of law, to obtain rights or obligations for …. • Vocabulary definitions are often ambiguous or circular • People don’t implement such definitions correctly anyway Standard vocabularies don’t provide precise and formal meanings, as ontologies PalGov © 2011 21
  22. 22. The meaning of Meaning (Semantics)• Humans require words (or at least symbols) to communicate efficiently. The mapping of words to things is indirect. We do it by creating concepts that refer to things.• The relation between symbols and things has been described in the form of the meaning triangle: Concept “Jaguar“ َْ ‫ال َبغور‬ Ogden, C. K. & Richards, I. A. 1923. "The Meaning of Meaning." 8th Ed. New York, Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc [Carole Goble, Nigel Shadbolt, Ontologies and the Grid Tutorial] PalGov © 2011 22
  23. 23. The meaning of Meaning (Semantics)Concept: a set of rules we have in mind An instance of a conceptto distinguish similar things in reality. (‫)الماصدق‬ Concept “Jaguar“ َْ ‫ال َبغور‬ PalGov © 2011 23
  24. 24. The meaning of Meaning (Semantics)• A Term (/symbol) may refer to different concepts (Animal: Jaguar, Car:Jaguar)• A Concept might not be agreed on among all people (i.e., not exactly the same set of rules are agreed by all people)Dictionaries represent meanings approximately and informally, mixed with lexical aspects.Ontologies specify the meaning formally and precisely. We will come to this topic (Lexical Semantics) in more details later PalGov © 2011 24
  25. 25. Levels of Ontological Precision [Guarino] game(x) → activity(x) athletic game(x) → game(x) court game(x) ↔ athletic game(x) ∧ ∃y. played_in(x,y) ∧ court(y) game tennis(x) → court game(x) NT athletic game double fault(x) → fault(x) ∧ ∃y. part_of(x,y) ∧ tennis(y) NT court game RT courtCatalog NT tennis game Axiomatized Glossary RT double fault athletic game Theories Thesaurus court game tennis tennis football outdoor game game field game field game football court game athletic game Taxonomy outdoor game OO/DB schema Ontological Precision PalGov © 2011 25
  26. 26. References• Mustafa Jarrar: Towards Effectiveness and Transparency in e- Business Transactions, An Ontology for Customer Complaint Management.• Ogden, C. K. & Richards, I. A. 1923. "The Meaning of Meaning." 8th Ed. New York, Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.• Carole Goble and Nigel Shadbolt: Ontologies and the Grid Tutorial. PalGov © 2011 26
  27. 27. Thank you! PalGov © 2011 27

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