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Pal gov.tutorial2.session7 Pal gov.tutorial2.session7 Presentation Transcript

  • ‫أكاديمية الحكومة اإللكترونية الفلسطينية‬ The Palestinian eGovernment Academy www.egovacademy.psTutorial II: Data Integration and Open Information Systems Session 7 OWL (Web Ontology Langauge) Dr. Mustafa Jarrar University of Birzeit mjarrar@birzeit.edu www.jarrar.info PalGov © 2011 1
  • AboutThis tutorial is part of the PalGov project, funded by the TEMPUS IV program of theCommission of the European Communities, grant agreement 511159-TEMPUS-1-2010-1-PS-TEMPUS-JPHES. The project website: www.egovacademy.psProject Consortium: Birzeit University, Palestine University of Trento, Italy (Coordinator ) Palestine Polytechnic University, Palestine Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium Palestine Technical University, Palestine Université de Savoie, France Ministry of Telecom and IT, Palestine University of Namur, Belgium Ministry of Interior, Palestine TrueTrust, UK Ministry of Local Government, PalestineCoordinator:Dr. Mustafa JarrarBirzeit University, P.O.Box 14- Birzeit, PalestineTelfax:+972 2 2982935 mjarrar@birzeit.eduPalGov © 2011 2
  • © Copyright NotesEveryone is encouraged to use this material, or part of it, but shouldproperly cite the project (logo and website), and the author of that part.No part of this tutorial may be reproduced or modified in any form or byany means, without prior written permission from the project, who havethe full copyrights on the material. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC-BY-NC-SAThis license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creationsunder the identical terms. PalGov © 2011 3
  • Tutorial Map Topic h Intended Learning Objectives Session 1: XML Basics and Namespaces 3A: Knowledge and Understanding Session 2: XML DTD’s 3 2a1: Describe tree and graph data models. Session 3: XML Schemas 3 2a2: Understand the notation of XML, RDF, RDFS, and OWL. Session 4: Lab-XML Schemas 3 2a3: Demonstrate knowledge about querying techniques for data models as SPARQL and XPath. Session 5: RDF and RDFs 3 2a4: Explain the concepts of identity management and Linked data. Session 6: Lab-RDF and RDFs 3 2a5: Demonstrate knowledge about Integration &fusion of Session 7: OWL (Ontology Web Language) 3 heterogeneous data. Session 8: Lab-OWL 3B: Intellectual Skills Session 9: Lab-RDF Stores -Challenges and Solutions 3 2b1: Represent data using tree and graph data models (XML & Session 10: Lab-SPARQL 3 RDF). Session 11: Lab-Oracle Semantic Technology 3 2b2: Describe data semantics using RDFS and OWL. Session 12_1: The problem of Data Integration 1.5 2b3: Manage and query data represented in RDF, XML, OWL. Session 12_2: Architectural Solutions for the Integration Issues 1.5 2b4: Integrate and fuse heterogeneous data. Session 13_1: Data Schema Integration 1C: Professional and Practical Skills Session 13_2: GAV and LAV Integration 1 2c1: Using Oracle Semantic Technology and/or Virtuoso to store Session 13_3: Data Integration and Fusion using RDF 1 and query RDF stores. Session 14: Lab-Data Integration and Fusion using RDF 3D: General and Transferable Skills 2d1: Working with team. Session 15_1: Data Web and Linked Data 1.5 2d2: Presenting and defending ideas. Session 15_2: RDFa 1.5 2d3: Use of creativity and innovation in problem solving. 2d4: Develop communication skills and logical reasoning abilities. Session 16: Lab-RDFa 3 PalGov © 2011 4
  • Session ILOsAfter completing this session students willbe able to: - Understand the notation of OWL. PalGov © 2011 5
  • Reading MaterialOWL Guide http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/#BasicDefinitionsYou only need to read: Section 1. Introduction Section 2. The Structure of Ontologies Section 3. Basic Elements Section 4. Ontology Mapping Section 5. Complex ClassesOWL 2 Document Overview http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/OWL 2 Web Ontology Language: Structural Specification and Functional-Style Syntax http://www.w3.org/2007/OWL/draft/owl2-syntax PalGov © 2011 6
  • What is OWL? http://www.w3schools.comOWL stands for Web Ontology Language.OWL is built on top of RDF.OWL is written in XML.OWL is for processing information on the web.OWL was designed to be interpreted by computers.OWL was not designed for being read by people.OWL has three sublanguages (OWL full, OWL DL, OWL Lite)OWL is a W3C standard. PalGov © 2011 7
  • OWL Source: www.w3.org PalGov © 2011 8
  • What is an Ontology• Ontology is about the exact description of things and their relationships.• For the web, ontology is about the exact description of web information and relationships between them.• (only at this stage), you can see an ORM schema as ontology.• Later, we will study the difference between an ontology and a databases schema. PalGov © 2011 9
  • Why OWL ?• OWL is part of the "Semantic Web Vision" – Web information has exact meaning. – Web information can be processed by computers. – Computers can integrate information from the web. PalGov © 2011 10
  • OWL was Designed for Processing Information• OWL was designed to provide a common way to process the content of web information (instead of displaying it).• OWL read by computer applications (instead of humans). was designed to be PalGov © 2011 11
  • OWL is Different from RDF• OWL and RDF Schema are much of the same thing, but OWL allow constrains and rules.• OWL comes with a larger vocabulary and stronger syntax than RDF and RDFS. PalGov © 2011 12
  • Variations of OWL• OWL Full – An extension of RDF – Allows for classes as instances, modification of RDF and OWL vocabularies• OWL DL – The part of OWL Full that is in the Description Logic framework. – Known to have decidable reasoning.• OWL Lite – A subset of OWL DL – Easier for frame-based tools to transition to – Easier reasoning PalGov © 2011 13
  • OWL is Written in XML• OWL is specified in XML so it can be easily exchanged between different types of computers using different types of operating system and application languages.• OWL can be seen as an extension of RDF/RDFS, so that RDF parsers can parse OWL.• Names in OWL are RDF URI references – e.g., http://cohse.semanticweb.org/ontologies/people#pet – Often (informally) abbreviated via XML qualified names – e.g., pp:pet• Data items belong to XML Schema datatypes – e.g., XML Schema integers and strings – Generally written in RDF/XML form – e.g., .7.8sd:integer, .Susan.8sd:string PalGov © 2011 14
  • OWL is a Web Standard• OWL became a W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) Recommendation in February 2004.• A W3C Recommendation is understood by the industry and the web community as a web standard. A W3C Recommendation is a stable specification developed by a W3C Working Group and reviewed by the W3C Membership. PalGov © 2011 15
  • OWL 2• OWL 2, became a W3C recommendation in 27 October 2009.• An ontology language for the semantic Web which is extended from OWL 1 and empowered by new features.• OWL 2 DL underpinning description logic is SROIQ DL.• Contains the majority of constructs to be used for building any needed ontology.• OWL 2 is supported by several semantic reasoners such as RacerPro 2, Pellet, Hermit and FaCT++.• OWL 2 ontologies are primary exchanged as RDF documents, where these ontologies can be used with information written in RDF.• OWL 2 elements are identified by Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs). PalGov © 2011 16
  • Variations of OWL 2• OWL 2 EL – Allows for subclass axioms with intersection, existential quantification, top, bottom and closed classes with only one member. – Disallow for negation, disjunction, arbitrary universal quantification, role inverses.• OWL 2 QL – Allows for subproperties, domain, range and subclass statements. – Disallow for closed classes.• OWL 2 RL – Allows for all axiom types, cardinality restrictions(only ≤1 and ≤0 on right hand side) and closed classes with only one member. – Disallow certain constructors( universal and negation on left hand side and extensional and union on right hand side of subclass statements). PalGov © 2011 17
  • OWL Basics• Classes• Individuals• Properties• Special Classes and Properties PalGov © 2011 18
  • ClassesOwl:Class• Unary predicates: Person(__), City(__).• User-defined classes which are subclasses of root class owl:Thing. A class may contain individuals, which are instances of the class, and other subclasses. <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Person"/> <owl:Class rdf:ID=“City"/> <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Country"/> <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Book"/>• Similar to Object-Type in ORM, Entity in EER, or Class in UML PalGov © 2011 19
  • IndividualsIndividuals• Constants: Edward_Said, Palestine.• An individual is a member/instance of a class <Man rdf:ID=“Edward_Said" /> <Country rdf:ID=“Palestine" /> <City rdf:ID=“Jerusalem" />• Notice that there is no way in ORM/UML/EER to add instance of concepts as art of the schema. PalGov © 2011 20
  • Propertiesowl:ObjectProperty• A relation between instances of two classes.• Binary predicates (author(__, __) ).• Similar to a binary relation in ORM between two entities. <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=“Author"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="# Book"/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#Person"/> </owl:ObjectProperty> PalGov © 2011 21
  • Propertiesowl:DataTypeProperty• Relation between instances of classes and literals.• The range of a literal datatype (use XML Schema datatypes).• Similar to a binary relation in ORM between an Entity and a Value. <owl:DatatypeProperty rdf:ID=“Title"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Book" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource=" xsd:string"/> </owl:DatatypeProperty> <owl:DatatypeProperty rdf:ID=“Price"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Book" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="xsd:integer"/> </owl:DatatypeProperty> PalGov © 2011 22
  • Special Classes and Properties• Top class: T owl:Thing contains all individuals of the domain.• Bottom class: ┴ owl:Nothing contains no individuals(empty class).• Universal property: U owl:topObjectProperty links every individual to every individual. PalGov © 2011 23
  • Class Expression Axioms• Subclass Axioms• Equivalent Classes• Disjoint Classes• Disjoint Union of Class Expressions PalGov © 2011 24
  • Class Expression Axioms Subclass Axiomsrdfs:subClassOf• Notice that rdfs:subClassOf is part of RDFS, not OWL. This to show that OWL extends RDF/RDFS.• rdfs:subClassOf is similar to the SubType relation UML and EER, and the same as subType in ORM, but here it is not a proper subtypes.• Similar to a subtype in ORM.• SubClassOf( a:Man a:Person ) means that Each Man is a Person. <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Man"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=“#Person"/> ... </owl:Class> <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Book"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#Publication" /> ... </owl:Class> PalGov © 2011 25
  • Class Expression Axioms Equivalent Classesowl:equivalentClass• States the equivalence (in terms of their class extension) of two named classes.• Useful when integrating or mapping between two different ontologies. <owl:Class rdf:about="#Palestine_President"> <owl:equivalentClass rdf:resource=“aa:PrincipalResidentOfPlestine"/> </owl:Class>• A class axiom may contain (multiple) owl:equivalentClass statements. <owl:Class rdf:about="#Being"> <owl:equivalentClass rdf:resource="#Human"/> <owl:equivalentClass rdf:resource="#Person"/> </owl:Class>The classes Being, Human and Person are semantically equivalent to each other. PalGov © 2011 26
  • Class Expression Axioms Disjoint Classesowl:disjointWith• Each owl:disjointWith statement asserts that the class extensions of the two class descriptions involved have no individuals in common.• DisjointClasses (C1 ... Cn ): all of the classes Ci, 1 ≤ i ≤ n, are pairwise disjoint; that is, no individual can be at the same time an instance of both Ci and Cj for i ≠ j. <owl:Class rdf:about="#Opera"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#MusicDrama"/> </owl:Class> <owl:Class rdf:about="#Operetta"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#MusicDrama"/> <owl:disjointWith rdf:resource="#Opera"/> </owl:Class> PalGov © 2011 27
  • Class Expression Axioms Disjoint Classes (continued )owl:AllDisjointClasses In order to assert that a set of classes is mutually disjoint, we can use AllDisjointClasses. <rdf:Description> <rdf:type rdf:resource="&owl:AllDisjointClasses"/> <owl:members rdf:parseType="Collection"> <rdf:Description rdf:about="#Building"/> <rdf:Description rdf:about="#Tree"/> <rdf:Description rdf:about="#Bird"/> </owl:members> </rdf:Description> PalGov © 2011 28
  • Class Expression Axioms Disjoint Union of Class Expressionsowl:disjointUnionOf• DisjointUnion (C C1 ... Cn ): a class C is a disjoint union of the classes Ci, 1 ≤ i ≤ n, all of which are pairwise disjoint the extensions of all Ci exactly cover the extension of C.• DisjointUnion (Person Female Male ) means each Person is either a Male or a Female, each Female is a Person, each Male is a Person, and nothing can be both a Female and a Male. <owl:Class rdf:about="#Person"> <owl:disjointUnionOf rdf:parseType="Collection"> <rdf:Description rdf:about="#Female"/> <rdf:Description rdf:about="#Male"/> </owl:disjointUnionOf> PalGov © 2011 29
  • Class Expression Axioms OWL2 Example1 • In what follows we illustrate a simple example represented in ORM and OWL 2. • In the example, the illustrated OWL 2 constructs are Class, Subclass, Union of Classes and Disjoint Classes. ... <Class rdf:about="&OWL2Example1:Person“/> <Class rdf:about="&OWL2Example1:Female"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="&OWL2Example1:Person"/> <disjointWith rdf:resource="&OWL2Example1:Male"/> Person </Class> <Class rdf:about="&OWL2Example1:Male"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="&OWL2Example1:Person"/> </Class> <Class rdf:about="&OWL2Example1:Person"> <equivalentClass>Male Female <Class> <unionOf rdf:parseType="Collection"> <rdf:Description rdf:about="&OWL2Example1:Female"/> <rdf:Description rdf:about="&OWL2Example1:Male"/> </unionOf> </Class> <equivalentClass> </Class> … PalGov © 2011 30
  • Object Property Axioms• Object Subproperties• Equivalent Object Properties• Disjoint Object Properties• Inverse Object Properties• Object Property Domain• Object Property Range• Functional Object Properties• Inverse-Functional Object Properties PalGov © 2011 31
  • Object Property Axioms Object Subpropertiesrdfs:subPropertyOf• Properties, like classes, can be arranged in a hierarchy.• SubObjectPropertyOf (OP1 OP2 ): if an individual x is connected by OP1 to an individual y, then x is also connected by OP2 to y.• The rdfs:subPropertyOf means that anything with a Borrows property with value X also has a ChecksOut property with value X.• Similar to the Subset constraint in ORM. <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=“Borrows"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Person"/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#Book"/> </owl:ObjectProperty> <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=“ChecksOut"> <rdfs:subPropertyOf rdf:resource="# Borrows" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#Book" /> ... </owl:ObjectProperty> PalGov © 2011 32
  • Object Property Axioms Equivalent Object Propertiesowl:equivalentProperty• EquivalentObjectProperties (OP1 ... OPn): all of the object properties OPi, 1 ≤ i ≤ n, are semantically equivalent to each other.• Similar to the Equality constraint in ORM.• EquivalentObjectProperties (a:hasBrother a:hasMaleSibling) means that having a brother is the same as having a male sibling. <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="#hasBrother"> <owl:equivalentProperty rdf:resource="#hasMaleSibling"/> </owl:ObjectProperty> PalGov © 2011 33
  • Object Property Axioms Disjoint Object Propertiesowl:propertyDisjointWith• DisjointObjectProperties (OP1 ... OPn): all of the object properties OPi, 1 ≤ i ≤ n, are pairwise disjoint; that is, no individual x can be connected to an individual y by both OPi and OPj for i ≠ j .• Similar to the Exclusion constraint in ORM.• DisjointObjectProperties( a:hasFather a:hasMother ) means that Fatherhood is disjoint with motherhood. <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="#hasFather"> <owl:propertyDisjointWith rdf:resource="#hasMother"/> </owl:ObjectProperty> PalGov © 2011 34
  • Object Property Axioms Inverse Object Propertiesowl:inverseOf• If a property P is tagged as the owl:inverseOf Q, then for all x and y: P(x,y) iff Q(y,x).• Note that the syntax for owl:inverseOf takes a property name as an argument. A iff B means (A implies B) and (B implies A).• InverseObjectProperties (OP1 OP2): the object property OP1 is an inverse of the object property OP2, that is if an individual x is connected by OP1 to an individual y, then y is also connected by OP2 to x, and vice versa.• InverseObjectProperties (a:hasFather a:fatherOf ) means that having a father is the opposite of being a father of someone. <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="#hasFather"> <owl:equivalentProperty> <rdf:Description> <owl:inverseOf rdf:resource="#fatherOf"/> </rdf:Description> </owl:equivalentProperty> </owl:ObjectProperty> PalGov © 2011 35
  • Object Property Axioms Object Property Domainrdfs:domain• ObjectPropertyDomain (OP C): the domain of the object property OP is the class C, that is, if an individual x is connected by OP with some other individual, then x is an instance of C.• ObjectPropertyDomain( a:hasDog a:Person ) means that only people can own dogs. <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="#hasDog"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Person"/> … </owl:ObjectProperty> PalGov © 2011 36
  • Object Property Axioms Object Property Rangerdfs:range• ObjectPropertyRange(OP C): the range of the object property OP is the class C , that is, if some individual is connected by OP with an individual x, then x is an instance of C.• ObjectPropertyRange( a:hasDog a:Dog ) means that the range of the a:hasDog property is the class a:Dog. <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="#hasDog"> … <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#Dog"/> </owl:ObjectProperty> PalGov © 2011 37
  • Object Property Axioms Functional Object PropertyOwl:FunctionalProperty• FunctionalObjectProperty (OP): the object property OP is functional, that is, for each individual x, there can be at most one distinct individual y such that x is connected by OP to y.• Similar to the Uniqueness constraint in ORM.• FunctionalObjectProperty (a:hasFather ) means that each object can have at most one father. <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="#hasFather"> <rdf:type rdf:resource="&owl;FunctionalProperty"/> … </owl:ObjectProperty> PalGov © 2011 38
  • Object Property Axioms Inverse-Functional Object PropertyOwl:InverseFunctionalProperty• InverseFunctionalObjectProperty (OPI ): the object property OPI is inverse-functional, that is, for each individual x, there can be at most one individual y such that y is connected by OP with x.• InverseFunctionalObjectProperty (a:fatherOf ) means that each object can have at most one father. <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="#fatherOf"> <rdf:type rdf:resource="&owl;InverseFunctionalProperty"/> … </owl:ObjectProperty> PalGov © 2011 39
  • Object Property Axioms OWL2Example2 • In what follows we illustrate a simple example represented in ORM and OWL 2. • In the example, the illustrated OWL 2 constructs are Object Subproperties, Inverse Object Properties, Object Property Domain, Object Property Range and Functional Object Properties. Drives DrivenBy Gender Has Person Vehicle Owns ... <ObjectProperty rdf:about="&OWL2Example2:Owns"><Class rdf:about="&OWL2Example2:Person"/> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="&OWL2Example2:Person"/><Class rdf:about="&OWL2Example2:Vehicle"/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="&OWL2Example2:Vehicle"/><Class rdf:about="&OWL2Example2:Gender"/> </ObjectProperty><ObjectProperty rdf:about="&OWL2Example2:Drives"> <ObjectProperty rdf:about="&OWL2Example2:Owns"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="&OWL2Example2:Person"/> <rdfs:subPropertyOf rdf:resource="&OWL2Example2:Drives"/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="&OWL2Example2:Vehicle"/> </ObjectProperty> </ObjectProperty> <ObjectProperty rdf:about="&OWL2Example2:Has"> <ObjectProperty rdf:about="&DrivenBy"> <rdf:type <inverseOf rdf:resource="OWL2Example2:Drives"/> rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#FunctionalPropert </ObjectProperty> y"/> </ObjectProperty> … PalGov © 2011 40
  • Assertions• Class Assertions• Individual Equality• Individual Inequality PalGov © 2011 41
  • Assertions Class Assertionsowl:NamedIndividual• ClassAssertion (C a ): the individual a is an instance of the class C.• ClassAssertion (a:Person a:Mira ) means that Mira is a Person. <owl:NamedIndividual rdf:about="#Mira"> <rdf:type rdf:resource="#Person"/> </owl:NamedIndividual> PalGov © 2011 42
  • Assertions Individual Equalityowl:sameAs• Identity between Individuals• This mechanism is similar to that for classes, but declares two individuals to be identical.• SameIndividual ( a1 ... an ): all of the individuals ai, 1 ≤ i ≤ n, are equal to each other(synonymes). <Book rdf:ID=“http://www.amazon.com/Orientalism-Edward-W-Said/dp/039474067X"> <owl:sameAs rdf:resource=" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orientalism" /> </Book> <rdf:Description rdf:about="#Edward_Said"> <owl:sameAs rdf:resource="# E_Said "/> </rdf:Description> <owl:Class rdf:ID="FootballTeam"> <owl:sameAs rdf:resource="http://sports.org/US#SoccerTeam"/> </owl:Class> PalGov © 2011 43
  • Assertions Individual Inequalityowl:differentFrom [OWL DL]• An owl:differentFrom statement indicates that two URI references refer to different individuals.• It is needed where OWL 2 does not support unique name assumption. <Book rdf:ID="http://www.amazon.com/Orientalism-Edward-W-Said/dp/039474067X"> <owl:differentFrom rdf:resource="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X3iA73JXIFo"/> </Book> PalGov © 2011 44
  • Assertions Individual Inequality (AllDifferent)• The use of owl:differentFrom is likely to lead to a large number of statements, as all individuals have to be declared pairwise disjoint.• DifferentIndividuals( a1 ... an ): all of the individuals ai, 1 ≤ i ≤ n, are different from each other; that is, no individuals ai and aj with i ≠ j can be derived to be equal.• DifferentIndividuals( a:Antoon a:Mustafa a:Rami ) Anton, Mustafa and Rami are all different from each other. <rdf:Description> <rdf:type rdf:resource="&owl;AllDifferent"/> <owl:distinctMembers rdf:parseType="Collection"> <rdf:Description rdf:about="#Anton"/> <rdf:Description rdf:about="#Mustafa"/> <rdf:Description rdf:about="#Rami"/> </owl:distinctMembers> </rdf:Description> PalGov © 2011 45
  • Class Expressions• Intersection of Class Expressions• Union of Class Expressions• Complement of Class Expressions• Enumeration of Individuals PalGov © 2011 46
  • Class Expressions Intersection of Class Expressionsowl:intersectionOfDescribes a class for which the class extension contains precisely thoseindividuals that are members of the class extension of all classdescriptions in the list. <owl:Class> <owl:intersectionOf rdf:parseType="Collection"> <owl:Class> <owl:oneOf rdf:parseType="Collection"> <owl:Thing rdf:about="#BirzeitUniversity" /> <owl:Thing rdf:about="#TeraCollage" /> </owl:oneOf> </owl:Class> <owl:Class> <owl:oneOf rdf:parseType="Collection"> <owl:Thing rdf:about="#BirzeitUniversity" /> <owl:Thing rdf:about="#AlqudsUniversity" /> <owl:Thing rdf:about="#AlnajahUniversity" /> </owl:oneOf> </owl:Class> </owl:intersectionOf> </owl:Class> PalGov © 2011 47
  • Class Expressions Union of Class Expressionsowl:unionOf [OWL DL]Describes an anonymous class for which the class extension containsthose individuals that occur in at least one of the class extensions of theclass descriptions in the list. <owl:Class> <owl:unionOf rdf:parseType="Collection"> <owl:Class> <owl:oneOf rdf:parseType="Collection"> <owl:Thing rdf:about="#BirzeitUniversity" /> <owl:Thing rdf:about="#TeraCollage" /> </owl:oneOf> </owl:Class> <owl:Class> <owl:oneOf rdf:parseType="Collection"> <owl:Thing rdf:about="#BirzeitUniversity" /> <owl:Thing rdf:about="#AlqudsUniversity" /> <owl:Thing rdf:about="#AlnajahUniversity" /> </owl:oneOf> </owl:Class> </owl:unionOf> </owl:Class> PalGov © 2011 48
  • Class Expressions Complement of Class Expressionsowl:complementOf [OWL DL]• Describes a class for which the class extension contains exactly those individuals that do not belong to the class extension of the class description that is the object of the statement.• Analogous to logical negation: the class extension consists of those individuals that are NOT members of the class extension of the complement class. <owl:Class rdf:ID="NotPalestinian"> <owl:intersectionOf rdf:parseType="Collection"> <owl:Class rdf:about="#Person"/> <owl:Class> <owl:complementOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hasParent" /> <owl:hasValue rdf:resource="#Palestine" /> </owl:Restriction> </owl:complementOf> </owl:Class> </owl:intersectionOf> </owl:Class> PalGov © 2011 49
  • Class Expressions Enumeration of Individualsowl:one of [OWL DL]• A list of individuals that are the instances of the class described.• This enables a class to be described by exhaustively enumerating its instances.• The class extension of a class described with owl:oneOf contains exactly the enumerated individuals, no more, no less.<owl:Class> <owl:oneOf rdf:parseType="Collection"> <owl:Thing rdf:about="#Jerusalem "/> <owl:Thing rdf:about="#Aka"/> <owl:Thing rdf:about="#Gaza"/> <owl:Thing rdf:about="#Nablus"/> <owl:Thing rdf:about="#Hebron"/> </owl:oneOf> </owl:Class> PalGov © 2011 50
  • Class Expressions Object Property Restrictions• Existential Quantification• Universal Quantification• Individual Value Restriction• Self-Restriction PalGov © 2011 51
  • Class Expressions Object Property Restrictions- Existential Quantificationowl:someValuesFrom For all Accounts, they have at least one Owner that is a Peron. <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Account"> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#HasOwner" /> <owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="#Person" /> </owl:Restriction> </owl:Class> PalGov © 2011 52
  • Class Expressions Object Property Restrictions- Universal Quantificationowl:allValuesFromFor all Accounts, if they have owners, all the owners are Persons. <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Account"> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#HasOwner" /> <owl:allValuesFrom rdf:resource="#Person" /> </owl:Restriction> </owl:Class> PalGov © 2011 53
  • Class Expressions Object Property Restrictions- Individual Value Restrictionowl:hasValue ObjectHasValue( OP a ): consists of an object property OP and an individual a, and it contains all those individuals that are connected by OP to a. … <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#fatherOf"/> <owl:hasValue rdf:resource="#John"/> </owl:Restriction> … PalGov © 2011 54
  • Class Expressions Object Property Restrictions- Self Restrictionowl:hasSelf• ObjectHasSelf( OP ): consists of an object property OP, and it contains all those individuals that are connected by OP to themselves.• ObjectHasSelf( a:hates ) contains those individuals that hate themselves. … <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hates"/> <owl:hasSelf rdf:datatype="&xsd;boolean">true</owl:hasSelf> </owl:Restriction> … PalGov © 2011 55
  • Class Expressions Object Property Cardinality Restrictions• Minimum Cardinality• Maximum Cardinality• Exact Cardinality PalGov © 2011 56
  • Class Expressions Object Property Cardinality Restrictions- Minimum Cardinalityowl:Restriction , owl:onProperty, owl:minCardinality• OWL allows us to place some restrictions on properties, such as owl:minCardinality.• The owl:Restriction below is to place a min cardinality constraint on the property AuthorOf, at least one.• This is similar to Mandatory in ORM <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Book"> <rdfs:subClassOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#AuthorOf"/> <owl:minCardinality rdf:datatype="&xsd;nonNegativeInteger“>1</owl:minCardinality> </owl:Restriction> </rdfs:subClassOf> ... </owl:Class> PalGov © 2011 57
  • Class Expressions Object Property Cardinality Restrictions- Maximum Cardinalityowl:maxCardinality• OWL allows us to place some restrictions on properties, such as owl:maxCardinality.• The owl:Restriction below is to place a max cardinality constraint on the property AuthorOf, at most one.• This is similar to unique in ORM. <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Book"> <rdfs:subClassOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#AuthorOf"/> <owl:maxCardinality rdf:datatype="&xsd;nonNegativeInteger“>1</owl:maxCardinality> </owl:Restriction> </rdfs:subClassOf> ... </owl:Class> PalGov © 2011 58
  • Class Expressions Object Property Cardinality Restrictions - CardinalityThis permits the user to indicate at least one, no more than one, andexactly one. For example: Each book has at least and at most (i.e.,exactly) one ISBN value. <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Book"> <rdfs:subClassOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hasISBN"/> <owl:cardinality rdf:datatype="&xsd;nonNegativeInteger">1</owl:cardinality> </owl:Restriction> </rdfs:subClassOf> </owl:Class>• Cardinality with values limited to 0 or 1 are part of OWL Lite.• owl:maxCardinality can be used to specify an upper bound. owl:minCardinality can be used to specify a lower bound.• In combination, the two can be used to limit the propertys cardinality to a numeric interval.• Positive integer values other than 0 and 1 are permitted in OWL DL. PalGov © 2011 59
  • Class Expressions Object Property Cardinality Restrictions- Exact Cardinalityowl:qualifiedCardinality The owl:Restriction below is to place an exact cardinality expression that contains those individuals that are connected by a:hasVehicle to exactly one instance of a:Car. <owl:Class rdf:about="#Person"> <owl:equivalentClass> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hasVehicle"/> <owl:onClass rdf:resource="#Car"/> <owl:qualifiedCardinality rdf:datatype="&xsd;nonNegativeInteger">1</owl:qualifiedCardinality> </owl:Restriction> </owl:equivalentClass> </owl:Class> PalGov © 2011 60
  • Property Chain Axiomsowl:propertyChainAxiom Allows for inferring the existence of a property from a chain of properties. <rdf:Description rdf:about="hasGrandparent"> <owl:propertyChainAxiom rdf:parseType="Collection"> <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="hasParent"/> <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="hasParent"/> </owl:propertyChainAxiom> </rdf:Description> PalGov © 2011 61
  • XML Datatypesxsd:string xsd:int xsd:gYearMonthxsd:normalizedString xsd:short xsd:gYearxsd:boolean xsd:byte xsd:gMonthDayxsd:decimal xsd:unsignedLong xsd:gDay xsd:float xsd:unsignedInt xsd:gMonthxsd:double xsd:unsignedShort xsd:anyURIxsd:integer xsd:unsignedByte xsd:tokenxsd:nonNegativeInteger xsd:hexBinary xsd:languagexsd:positiveInteger xsd:base64Binary xsd:NMTOKENxsd:nonPositiveInteger xsd:dateTime xsd:Namexsd:negativeInteger xsd:time xsd:NCNamexsd:long xsd:date The above datatypes, plus rdfs:Literal, form the built-in OWL datatypes. PalGov © 2011 62
  • Properties of IndividualsWe may also add properties between individuals. <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=“hasCapital"> . <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=“#Country" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#City" /> </owl:ObjectProperty> <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=“hasPopulation"> . <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=“#City" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource=" xsd:integer /> </owl:ObjectProperty> <City rdf:ID=“Palestine"> <hasCapital rdf:resource="#J" /> </Region> PalGov © 2011 63
  • References• www.w3c.org• www.w3schools.com• Rami Hodrob, Mustafa Jarrar: ORM to OWL 2 DL Mapping. In proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Semantic Web – Applications and Services. Pages 131-137. ACM ISBN 9781450304757. June 2010. PalGov © 2011 64
  • Thank you! PalGov © 2011 65