Nuclear War Project
Period 7- Tye
Nuclear Fusion V.S. Nuclear Fission- Peanut butter is to jelly as
fusion is to ﬁssion-part1
Both nuclear fusion and ﬁssion are a nuclear reaction, which occur when the
energy and/or the composition of an atoms nucleus is altered.
The process of nuclear fusion occurs when a number of atoms join together
which all consist of the same charge, negative or positive. Once a large amount of
atoms have conjoined, they form a much larger atom with a heavier nucleus.
During the creation of a new atom energy is released (1). The quantity of the
matter (mass) in the newly formed
larger atom is smaller than in the atoms
that formed it (1).The difference in mass
between the two, is then released in
what is considered energy.
Nuclear ﬁssion is simply the complete
opposite of fusion. Through the ﬁssion
process, an atoms nucleus is torn apart
resulting in two new atoms (2). The new
atoms have about half the mass of the
original one because it has half as many
Nuclear fusion (14)
protons and neutrons (2). During the
transformation some of the neutrons of
the atom are unleashed which results in energy being given off.
Nuclear ﬁssion (13)
We Put Our Minds to the test in the PhET Stimulation-part 11
When A neutron is released towards the uranium-235 it changes into a
uranium-236 which makes it unstable and in essence allows for energy to be
released. Through ﬁssion, the atom is split into two, releasing an outward force,
creating daughter nucli.
Fission: One Nucleus (15)
In the chain reaction, when the
neutron is released towards the uranium-235 atoms, it hits and immediately splits
into daughter nucli which then in essence serve as new neutrons which bounce
around the contained area, hit the uranium atoms, and allow them to break apart.
In other words, the product of the split
uranium atoms into daughter nucli
become reactants which create new
In the nuclear reactor portion of the
stimulation we learn that nuclear
Chain Reaction (15)
reactions are caused by chain reactions.
Chain reactions take place when more than one nuclear reaction has been set off
(3). Whenever there is an interaction between neutrons and an elements isotopes
(atoms within the uranium element with a different number of neutrons), the
neutrons and isotopes will be released through ﬁssion (4). The neutrons that are
released thought the process will then interact with a new uranium element,
creating a chain reaction.
Nuclear Reactor (15)
**phET simulations citation (5)
I was very shocked when I saw the Fukashima video. I was surprised to learn that
the fuel roads inside the nuclear reaction release heat which ends up generating
the energy. It is important that these roads maintain a certain temperature, cool
enough so that they don't melt. It surprised me that all three emergency backup
plans failed at cooling the roads at the time of the earthquake. (6)
Hydrogen V.S. Atomic-part111
The difference between a hydrogen and atomic bomb is apparent through their
makeup. A hydrogen bomb is constructed with an underlying focus on nuclear
fusion (7). A number of hydrogen isotopes will come together (fuse) to form
helium (7). Through this process, energy is being produced as atoms collide with
one another. The constant split of atoms makes the explosion extremely
powerful. An atomic bomb undergoes the process of ﬁssion, when a neutrons hits
the nucleus of an atom (uranium) it causes the nucleus to break apart into two
new atoms(8). Again, through the ﬁssion process, energy is released. The atomic
bomb reactions are purposely uncontrolled in order for the disintegration rate to
increase, allowing for thermal energy to be given off(8). The increasing rates,
cause a huge amount of energy to be released, allowing the bomb to be
** Map citations - google maps
SI is about 24 miles from Downtown San Francisco. If a nuclear explosion were
to occur in the city, SI would probably be just outside the cremation zone but
deﬁnitely within the mushroom cloud zone.
Video Exploration on Nuclear Attacks-part IV
After watching the videos, I learned in the ﬁrst video that underwater
nuclear explosion is seen dramatically from ground level as an explosive cloud
over the sea. I was surprised to learn about the tsar which is composed of 58
million tons of TNT (the amount of explosives used throughout all of WWII
multiplied by ten). The tsar was the bomb that Russians hoped would be string
enough to explode America. They attached a parachute to the bomb in order to
allow more time for the pilot to escape once the bomb was designated. The earth
below the bomb was turned to ash as a result of the intense heat the bomb gave
off. This bomb was 4 times bigger than anything the united states had designated.
In the third video I leaned that after the bomb fell for 43 seconds in Hiroshima
there was a nuclear chain reaction which allowed for it to explode. The atom
bomb of Nagasaki stood out to me because it was set off as a little egg like
device on the ground and exploded as if it reached high above the clouds
(mushroom clouds). It's power took out neighborhoods and destroyed all types
of infrastructure. I was surprised and depressed to see the results of the
Hiroshima bomb. It is insane to see how powerful and the amount of destruction
that one nuclear weapon has the ability to accomplish.
Craters Impacting Our Earth-part V
It's neat to see the impact that the powerful explosions make on the earth,
creating craters. Exploring on google earth was a ton of fun and I got to see how
big the craters actually were in regards to the land masses around them.
Nuclear Weapons: Who's Really in Control?- partVI
1. What countries are declared nuclear weapons-possessing countries?
The countries that are known to have nuclear weapons include, France, the
United States, Russia, United Kingdom, China, and India. All of these contrives
have land, sea, and air conﬁrmed deliveries of nuclear weapons.
2. What countries are undeclared nuclear weapons-possessing countries or are believed
to be pursuing nuclear weapons technologies?
Israel, Iran, and North Korea, are all detected to be pursuing nuclear weapons.
Countries who posses or are seeking to
possess nuclear weapons. (9)
4. How many nuclear weapons are in the US arsenal?
There are said to be 7,650 nuclear weapons in the US arsenal. 2,150 of those
warheads are operational, 2,500 are in storage, and 3,000 are awaiting
5. When was the last time the US made an above-ground ("atmospheric") nuclear test?
What about a below-ground test?
In 1963, before the limited test band treaty was signed, the United States
launched an above- ground nuclear test. 1992 was the last recorded belowground test arranged by the US.
6.When was the last time an atmospheric test by any country was made?
In 1980 China launched a nuclear test, making it the most recent atmospheric
7. When was the last time any nuclear test by any country was made
In 2013, North Korea launched a below ground nuclear test, making it the most
recent nuclear test.
** Part 6 info from (9)
How Can We Help?-VII
1. Summarize the obligations of the United States under the Non-Proliferation Treaty?
Under the Non-Prolifefration Treaty, the United States has an obligation to avert
any wide spread use of nuclear weaponry. The "Parties of the Treaty" have
decided that only "peaceful applications of nuclear technology" is acceptable in
trade throughout the world. Both nuclear and non nuclear weapon states have
agreed to no longer participate in the transfer or in receiving nuclear weapons
meant for innocent destruction (10). Because the United states is a nuclearweapon state party, we have an obligation under the treaty to discourage and
prevent all transfer of nuclear explosives throughout the world, although
primarily to non-nuclear weapon state parties (11). It is our job to only promote
peaceful scientiﬁc nuclear exploration.
2. Do you think the US should be a party to this Treaty?
I do think the US should be a part of the Non-Proliferation treaty. I support the
experimentation of scientiﬁc nuclear explosives but do not believe it should be
used as a way of violent destruction. I think many wars and worldly disputes
could be put to an end if it weren't for the threat of nuclear weaponry. I believe
in order to develope more peaceful relationships within the world, it is
necessarily to put an end to the transfer, distribution, and easy access to nuclear
3. According to your understanding, is the US meeting these obligations?
Based on CBC news reports and my understanding of current threats, the United
States is not doing a very good job of following through with the treaty. As a
result of a threat from countries such as North Korea, the US has begun to
conduct and carry out nuclear explosions (20). we have unfortunately gotten
ourselves in the middle of disagreements between both North and South Korea,
which has forced the potential use of nuclear explosives.
Pedro Arrupe's Religious Point of View-partVIII
1. How did Arrupe's experience at Hiroshima impact his view of violence?
On August 6, 1945, Pedro Arrupe's life changed forever. He was a Jesuit man who
was sent on a catholic mission to Japan resulting in a shocking reality. Arrupe
explains how he felt loneliness, poverty, and depression when he arrived in Japan
and regardless of his attempts to assimilate with the Japanese culture, it never felt
right. It was the day of the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion that allowed
Arrupe to discover his real feelings on violence. As his life ﬂashed before his eyes
(he only a short distance away from where the bomb landed), he realized that in
times of violence is when "God is most near to us" (Arrupe). The explosion left
an enormously large negative footprint of his life. Ever since that morning,
Arrupe wanted nothing to do with violence and thought it should be prevented
no matter what the cost.
2. How do you think this experience contributed to his call for Jesuit schools to educate
for justice and form form men and women for others?
I think that because Arrupe got to experience such horriﬁc violence taking place
literally right in front of him, it allowed him to realize how valuable life was. It is in
times of such weakness that God is able to give us strength. Arrupe used his
pervious medical knowledge to assist those who were suffering with pain from
the attacks. He reached out to be a man for others and grow with them in their
time of hardship. His attempt to work towards justice and equally became
apparent through his healing deeds in a time of defeat for Japan. His actions are
what inspired men and women to be with and for others.
The Morality of Nuclear Deterrence
1.What does it mean to have a policy of deterrence?
A policy of deterrence allows for the ownership of nuclear weapons but only to
serve as a preventative action against the practice of nuclear weaponry from
others (16). Although, under the Catholic Bishops, they base the policy of
deterrence on very speciﬁc criteria. They do not believe the policy could serve as
a long-term premises for peace, they will only allow for maintenance of nuclear
weapons in the interim if it will prevent discourage others from nuclear weapons,
and they state "the deterrence is just a step on the way toward a progressive
2.What dangers do the US bishops connect to a policy of deterrence?
The US bishops connect a potential threat of the policy of deterrence failing. If
the policy were to fail, nuclear weaponry would be put to use in violent and
harmful ways which is not allowed by the church (16).
3.What moral conclusions do the US bishops make regarding a current policy of
The US bishops are disappointed in the lack of recognition that the policy of
deterrence is receiving. They state that "nuclear deterrence is being
institutionalized" and is becoming a societal norm. We have witnessed the use of
destructive nuclear explosions in World Wars and Cold Wars. The United States
insists that they keep their nuclear weapons as a threat to others in the future.
This insurance of nuclear weaponry demoralizes the policy of deterrence (16).
4. Do you agree or disagree with the position expressed by the US bishops and Pax
I do agree with the US bishops point of view. I think that a steady elimination of
all worldly nuclear weapons would be a large step towards world peace. I think
that without the constant threat of nuclear weapons we could reduce the overall
worldly violence that is present today. Nuclear war not only destroys innocent
human lives but gives us no hope for peace.
Who Really Matters- Hearing from the Scientists-partIX
The scientists believe that the aggressive role that the US is taking in terms of
multiplying our nuclear supply rather than eliminating it, is becoming a major
threat to our country. The rapid development of nuclear weapons, is posing a
threat on other countries (especially those who are less stable) and are making
us more vulnerable to surprise attacks. Other nations feel competition with the
US and feel as if they must keep up with our production of nuclear arms. The
scientists sum it up perfectly, calling for " prohibition on nuclear weapons in order
to enhance both national and international security" (17).
I think the nuclear weapons policy that the scientists want to enforce is
extremely beneﬁcial to the well-being of our country. I think it would avoid all
unnecessary violent threats from and on other countries. It would promote
world peace and allow for worldly communication. I believe the only reason the
US should have nuclear weapons is to discourage other counties from harming
Nuclear War on the Home Front?-part X
On April 3, 2013, Mail Online reported that North Korea threatened to drop
some type of nuclear bomb on the US. Since February, North Korea has been
conducting underground nuclear testing in preparations for an attack on the
United States (18). The US is taking aggressive action, as our soldiers construct
bomb disposal robots in order to avert all threats from North Korea. The robots
have the ability to destroy the chemical makeup of any type of bomb and
ultimately deactivate it (19). Although, this technological advance may not be good
enough. As the US maintains an alliance with South Korea, the North Korean
government begins to get more feed up. North Korea has threatened to send in
missiles which can travel over 1,800 miles into South Korea and if necessary, the
United States. The relationships between the countries are deteriorating rapidly.
Peace is hard to come by and nuclear weapons are rapidly taking over.
Robotic Bomb Disposer (19)
**link to article:http: //www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2303725/North-Koreanuclear-war-threat-US-troops-poised-respond-madman-Kim-Jong-Un-says-attackauthorised.html
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