Hard Rock Hallelujah
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Diat ECPR General meeting/Pisa 2007, artikkleli ilmestyy kesällä 2008 Journal for Cultural Research-lehdessä

Diat ECPR General meeting/Pisa 2007, artikkleli ilmestyy kesällä 2008 Journal for Cultural Research-lehdessä

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Hard Rock Hallelujah Presentation Transcript

  • 1. HARD ROCK HALLELUJAH POLITICKING ON THE INTERNET WITH MONSTERS TAPIO HÄYHTIÖ & JARMO RINNE
  • 2. Politics emerging from the monstrous band
  • 3. Anticipated miracle : The Finnish Victory of Eurovision song contest
    • Eurovision as a part of Finnish identity constructing
    • From zero points to overwhelming victory
    • New national heroes
    • How the monster rock band Lordi became a political topic?
  • 4. From conservative comments to apotheosis
    • March 2006 winning of the Finnish Eurovision televoting selection: accusation of satanism and sacrilege against Finnish reputation
    • May 20th 2006 the victory of Eurovision song contest’s final – new direction of Lordi-politics
  • 5. Politicised pictures A
    • Mr. Lordi’s strong appeal to media for not publishing unmasked pictures of the band
    • Commercial photo hunt: within few days unmasked photos published in European media. In Finland: 23.5. Aamulehti (daily newspaper) , 24.5. Seitsemän päivää ( 7 days: gossip magazine) , Hämeen Sanomat (daily newspaper) , and 26.5. Katso ! (LOOK!:gossip magazine) ,
  • 6. Politicised pictures B
    • Shock reaction among the citizens – expressions of disappointment and anger on the Net.
    • Online discussions raised a web movement targeting the press
    • Gossip magazines and their publishers attacked more intensively than daily papers
  • 7. Political action
    • emerges in time and spaces
    • action = set of intended acts in certain space with temporal dur é and direction
    • Meanings and direction of action unfold through time – from now/present towards future (Objective time)
    • What has been passed through nothingness and emerges into being and through becoming manifests into real being Action takes place in temporal-spatial reality
  • 8. PASSING OF THE OBJECTIVE TIME (Hegel)
    • BEING (Sein)
    • BECOMING (Werden)
    • BEING (Sein) EMERGING BEING THERE
    • (Entstehen) (Dasein)
    • PASSING
    • (Vergehen)
    • NOT-THING
    • (Nichts)
  • 9. Subjective time and political action A
    • Action is not just a single, atomistic act, but interconnected set of acts in time through which actors are promoting their preferences, priorities, goals, and values
    • The essential feature in acting politically is to conquer the future (Arendt 1958, Lappalainen 1995) ; the purpose is to win peoples’ hearts
    • In subjective time experience related to political action the role of making political judgement is stressed directs the course of action
  • 10. Subjective time and political action B
    • In a subjective time experience political actor consider the direction, achievements and ends of their respective action in interplay in which the past experience history and future’s expectation horizons are fusing within the subjective consciousness. Thus, on the focus is the subject and the nature of her/his time experience in the past-present-future continuum. This happens in an objective now/ present, in which the decisive political judgement is conducted
  • 11. Subjective time experience: the moment of political judgement
            • PAST PRESENT FUTURE (TO COME)
            • RETENTION PROTENTION
            • lived time flows through subject (adapted from van Gelder 1999, changes JR)
    Subjective consciousness
  • 12. Time for political action
    • distinction between kronos -time and kairos -time. Kronos = chronological, measurable time (objective); kairos = a moment to act, auspicious/golden opportunity to achieve desirable outcomes
    • The kairos-moment in Lordi-case: repressed dislike towards gossip-journalism outbursted because of the publishing unmasked photos of the monster band
    • The defamation of Lordi offers an opportunity to express personal opinion and aversion about profit hunting commercial journalism
  • 13. New forms of action A
    • The online forum of the Hämeen Sanomat closed for a day because of exceptionally active discussion and contacting (Swarming); net petition against the paper approximately 1700 names. Aamulehti manage to avoid the attacks
  • 14. New forms of action B
    • Massive swarming on the Net: boycott 7 Days – petition
    • 220 000 names on the Net–petition in few days
    • Boycott 7 site: links to cancellation of the Aller magazine subscriptions; links to 7 days’ discussion forum, editorial email, and web feedback form, personal contact information of the editorial staff, a template how to refuse direct marketing
  • 15. New forms of action C:
    • VOTELORDI.ORG mobilised Turn the Seven Upside down / Turn the Allers Upside down
    • Site also encouraged people to send photos of their activity in this campaign
    • Yahoo’s Flickr site 153 photos submitted in votelordi’s photo folder
    • The campaing was succesful: Seven Days were turned upside down in their selling stands (the snowball-effect)
  • 16. New forms of action D:
    • VIRTUAL SIT-INS targeted to the sites of Seven Days and Look!
    • Constant page clicking and reloading, filling the discussion forums and feedback forms blocked user interfaces during few days after publishing the unmasked Lordi-photos
    • Public pressure towars the editorial staff of the Seven Days and advertisers of the magazine – filling up the e-mailboxes
    • Seven Days considered legal acts against Lordi-activists
  • 17. ACTION EMERGED ON THE NET
    • Appeal to join the demonstration against Seven Days were manifested on many websites: 3 people showed up
    • Most intensive phase of the protest was in the end of May. In June protest passed away
  • 18. Temporal aspects of Internet-politics A
    • In real world acting or sharing something together requires co-presence, i.e. sharing the same space simultaneously in the company of others (Nowak & Biocca, 2003)
    • The computer mediated technology extends both spatial and temporal limits/boundaries of co-presence. The emergence of a virtual social realms and domains provide individuals a chance to establish new kind of we-relationships in a new mutually shared meaning context (Zhao 2004) The co-presence takes places from different locations and could be temporally not-coincidental, i.e. it happens in different times.
  • 19. Temporal aspects of Internet-politics B
    • The dislocation of space from temporality allows people to share a same virtual space without necessarily sharing real-time co-presence. That is to stay in certain place where their being there converge but their now diverge (especially this is the case in on-line campaigns and discussions). (Converted from Zhao 2004)
    • The nature of co-presence is extended: virtual nows may be asymmetrical respectively with objective nows; for instance remarks and commenting the online-discussion – latency in responses
  • 20. Temporal aspects of Internet-politics C
    • Blurred temporal boundaries and fragmented time constraints make the political action on the Net more fluid in comparison to the traditional political activity
    • On the Net-politics the present is extended; past and future are somehow overlapping (enables virtual time-travelling)
  • 21. Lordi protest as an example of the New Politics A
    • NEW POLITICS - activity by the people instead of activity for the people: action-oriented politics. DIY-Do it Yourself approach
    • Individualisation and globalisation: Political environment fractures into diverse, complex and multi-spatial networks
    • Course of action and consequences are not necessarily separable from the action - participative action itself might be the THING
    • Internet’s meet-up places - individuals come together to deliberate their public concerns and to oppose any arbitrary and oppressive exercise of power (‘ talk of the public’ John Keane)
  • 22. Lordi protest as an example of the New Politics B
    • DIY-elements of the Lordi-protest:
      • reacting and taking responsibility of journalistic choices
      • Personally felt offence – lack of respect of privacy and disparaging the national hero
      • Emerge of new carnevalist styles of political action
  • 23. Lordi protest as an example of the New Politics C
    • Targeted against commercial publishing policy of journalism – issue-specific politicking: Snowball-effect in spreading of the protest -emerged from micro-publics
    • Protest organised from swarming to an individualised collective network employing creative styles of resistance
  • 24. Political consumerism on the Net A
    • Lordi protest was succesful: Advertisers recalled ads
    • Unsubscrising the orders of Seven Days
    • The selling of the lordi-issue was low, and magazines were pulled out in some stores
    • Public opinion made Aller magazines, Seven days and LOOK! to apology from Lordi
  • 25. Political Consumerism on the Net B
    • A form of new politics: markets and consumption as a polical tool and arena
    • Narrow perspective: focus on single shopping decisions (boycott/buycott) based on political/ethical subjective judgements
    • Broad perspective: civic political action that politicises market practices (actors, consumption, market society). - Discursive consumerism: global-social justice, human rights, sustainable development, animal rights, ecological lifestyles etc. Also one-target campaigns.
    • Political consumerism refers also to alternative modes of consumption: open source movement, net piracy, fair trade movement, ethical banking system, environmental labels, dumpster diving etc.
  • 26. Political Consumerism on the Net C
    • The Lordi swarming as political consumerism: 7 Days’ Lordi-issue ”was the decisive act from the magazine that I have always detested. Say no to this kind of news- and money-making”. (Boycott Seven Days -petition.)
    • Critically judging citizen-consumers politicised the shopping of gossip magazines and the publishing practices of commercialised journalism on the micro-public spheres of the Internet
    • With the Internet public spheres the political consumerism has become more salient, because individualised citizen politics has become easier and traditional mass-media may also give attention to the net-publics.
  • 27. Political Consumerism on the Net D
    • The Lordi protest= individualized collective action (Michele Micheletti, 2003) emerging outside the formal organisations/institutions is characteristic to the political consumerism
    • Personal concerns, responsibility-taking and subjective choices motivate the projects of political consumerism
    • A precondition of the cumulation of consumerist conflicts are various public spheres -> enables loose networks around issues
    • Creative Lordi-campaigns manifests that ad hoc-publics on the Net may be crucial for the politicisation of everyday-problems attached to the consumption
  • 28. Conclusion A: Action emerges through time
    • World between subjects constitutes Interworld -> intersubjectivity, mutual tuning in, and sharing the same lived temporal horizon(Crossley 1996)
    • Internet mediated technology makes it possible for a n individual to enter on-line discussions or virtual space whenever she/he wants -> producing individualized collective action and virtual belongness -> individualized collective identity
  • 29. Conclusion B: Action through Internet-time
    • On the Internet-politics present is extended. Political judgements need to be made in short time.
    • Extended present enables rethinking the course of actions at the time of recursive present
    • Multiple asymmetrical now-times may cause the exponential cumulation of the political conflict: The case of Lordi-protest was a cumulative process in temporal sense, and also an examplary case of individualized collective consumeristic political action taking place on the Net-environment.