Community design and physical activityPresentation Transcript
Community Design and Physical Activity
Community Design Study by Addy et al. 2004 Data from predominantly rural south-eastern county Neighborhood characteristics Sidewalks Public recreation facilities Streetlights Pleasant walking Physically active neighborhood Traffic volume Unattended dogs Crime Perception of neighbors being untrustworthy
Community Characteristics Walking/bike trails Swimming pools Recreation facilities Parks Playgrounds Sports fields Schools Malls Places of worship Waterways Crime and safety concerns associated with recreation facilities
Measurement of Physical Activity Active = 30 minutes or more of physical activity on 5 or more days per week Insufficiently active = lower frequency of physical activity Inactive = no moderate or vigorous physical activity Regular walkers = 30 min. or more 5 days a week Irregular walkers = lower frequency of walking Nonwalkers = no walking for 10 minutes or more at a time
Addy et al. Findings Level of physical activity positively associated with… Street lighting Assessments that neighbors can be trusted Presence of community parks Walking behavior statistically associated with… People being active in the neighborhood Sidewalks Presence of community malls for physical activity
What about measures of the larger physical environment?Ewing et al., 2003 Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Multivariate analysis that controls for demographic and behavioral covariates Found residents of “sprawl” counties were more likely to… Spend fewer minutes walking Be heavier Have hypertension When compared to otherwise similar residents of compact counties
What about here in Salt Lake?Smith et al., 2008 Research Question: Are less “walkable” neighborhoods associated with greater risk of adults (25-64) overweight? Study Population: Salt lake County, 2005, N=243,330 Men and 223,552 Women Data Source: Utah Population Database (UPDB) that holds de-identified information on all persons with a Utah Driver License and 2000 U.S. Census. UPDB holds data on residential address and height/weight derived from Driver License information. All addresses were converted to UTM coordinates & linked to 2000 Census block groups.
Measures of Neighborhood Walkability – 3D’s Higher Population Density: measured by population per square mile More Diversity of Destinations: measured by Median age of housing in the neighborhood The proportion of adults who walk to work More Pedestrian Friendly Designs: measured by intersections in ¼ mile radius of residence
Variation in BMI in Salt Lake County
Variation in Obesity in Salt Lake County
Odds of Overweight for a 10 Year Increase in the Median Year in Which Homes were Built (Newer Homes) in a Block Group
Odds of Overweight for a 10 Point Decrease in the Percent of Working-Aged Adults in the Block Group Who Walk to Work
Odds of Overweight for a 10 Point Decrease in the Number of Intersections in a ¼ mile radius of the Resident’s home
Reviewing… Growing evidence that a community’s physical features may affect energy expenditures What has the design of new communities looked like over the past few decades? In Salt Lake County lower risk of obesity/overweight are associated with Greater diversity of destinations (as measured by housing age and % who walk to work) Design features that might promote walkability- higher intersection density. But what about the role of the food environment?