UNIVERSITÀ CATTOLICA DEL SACRO CUORE                                 Sede di Milano                              Facoltà d...
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To my always loved father Nello                                  3
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ContentsChapter 1WEB 2.0: The truth about the internetsecond revolution…………………………………………….171.1 What is Web 2.0………………………………...
1.4.2.1 Blogosphere……………………………………………..……..51           1.4.2.2 Social Networks………………………………………..……...54           1.4.2.3 P...
2.3.1.5 Media and UGC Sharing……………………………………109          2.3.1.6 Virtual Meeting Place………………………………………..110          2.3.1.7...
3.2.1.4 Partysync……………………………………………………..143          3.2.1.5 Twitter………………………………………………………...143     3.2.2 Geolocalization &...
3.4.1.1 Design………………………………………………………...162         3.4.1.2 Infrastructure………………………………………………...163         3.4.1.3 Users’ us...
4.5.2 Fluid Environment…………………………………………………….194Chapter 5ENTERPRISE 2.0:Innovation trends behind companies’ firewalls………..1...
AcknowledgementsWith these few words I want to thank most of the people who let this work, thisimportant journey possible....
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IntroductionIn the last decade, people have known what will be most important invention ofthe 21st century: the Web. This ...
Social Networks and the consequent forms of social media, enlarge theattention form the individuals to his/her relations, ...
SummaryThe thesis dissertation is structured in the following way: in the chapternumber 1 will be analyzed what is the mea...
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Chapter 1WEB 2.0: The truth about theinternet second revolutionIn this chapter we will understand the meaning of the term ...
1.1 What is Web 2.0What about this new word rocketing the entire web community?Where did it come from and why?We can say t...
“ All of the action is in services. Web 2.0 is where the action is “ Marc Benioff, CEOSalesforce.com4“The participatory We...
"According to the experts, Web 2.0 is on its way to the workplace soon – its aninfrastructure thats decentralized and more...
"They dont see that the power of Weblications is that "simplicity and flexibility beatoptimization and power in a world wh...
1.1.1 Web as a platformIn the Web 2.0 the web is no more considered as only a broadband pipe20 inwhich flow all the bits a...
accessible 24/7. The emergence of platform for blogging, Social Networks andfree video and images uploading allowed extrem...
environment is considered as a platform where users, companies and webapplications coexist in a multiple evolution.1.2.1 W...
webtop with information updates and applets pushed to the webtop byinformation providers who would purchase Netscape serve...
Oracle, Microsoft, SAP while Google stay closer to other internet applications aseBay, Amazon, Napster.We understand that ...
on the open web, are now being applied within enterprise to enhanceperformance and achieve business outcomes. They take in...
which companies, web applications and users enter in contact and build theirweb experience. Than going deeper we have desc...
1.3.1 The User and the Net GenerationLet start by the user, his/her behavior in front of new tools of communication,produc...
Figure 2: Typology of content different user categories accessSource: Robert Peck, Bear Stearns Internet analyst What shou...
age group who use the Net in China than there are in the United States. This isthe collaboration generation for one main r...
arrive to communicate his or her being, his or her message? We introduce theinput.Our user or better Prosumer, is related ...
The UGC are the heart of the Web 2.0 because these contents express all thepower of the Prosumer, of his or her connection...
of creation of content and interaction between human and chips. To all this newkind of technologies we will give a brief d...
∗   Tag Cloud: a visual description of tags that have been used to describe a          piece of content, with higher frequ...
client. The ability to update and maintain Web applications withoutdistributing and installing software on potentially tho...
tier, an engine using some dynamic Web content technology (such as ASP,ASP.NET, CGI, ColdFusion, JSP/Java, PHP, Python, or...
So this three-tires car has in plus some optional we called widgets. When we aretalking about Web application/widget the f...
1.4 Three dynamics for the Web 2.0The Web 2.0 framework I built is characterized by the presence of three mainareas, which...
greater than the sum of its parts. In this open process of creation anddevelopment, standards and component’s modularity a...
This culture is the creative practice of appropriation and free sharing of foundand created content. Participants in the c...
diffusing releases fast and frequently, delegating to others all the possible andbeing open at the maximum level. Linus di...
contributes of users which produce all the product reviews so important todrive customers purchases; eBay is another examp...
display all of the latest news from the Fox News site and let you click to thestory. In addition to the more than 100 apps...
Google Calendar API - The Google Calendar API allows developers to buildapplications that let users create, manage, and de...
estate search. In addition to the API, Google also recently introduced Maplets,essentially allowing developers to place Go...
1.4.1.3 Perpetual BetaWe are accustomed to see in a huge number (and growing) of web applicationthe word “Beta” or “Beta v...
larger community group, usually the general public. The testers report anybugs that they found and sometimes minor feature...
legally to build upon and share. CC has released several copyright licensesknown as “CC Licenses” which restrict only cert...
∗   Portals, aggregation, and archives: Flickr, Internet Archive, Wikimedia         Commons, Ourmedia, deviantART, ccMixte...
effectively creating a possibility for a kind of creativity that otherwise wouldjust not have been allowed.Many not-just a...
was enabled by the emergence of web platforms such as blogging socialnetworks, free image and video uploading that collect...
makes easy to people to build their personal website in which they could talkabout whatever they want, to whomever they wa...
flowing stream of entertainment and news choices that individual users haveasked for, perhaps stripped of commercial messa...
8.   Daily Kos: State of the Nation                     9.   PostSecret - PostSecret is an ongoing community art project w...
∗   Share UGC – specially images, video, text and all the things you find           interesting when surfing the web      ...
Social Networking is older with an age between 35-54 years66. (appendix 2 )This segment of internet user count for an asto...
MySpace’s users, we understand the global impact and diffusion of SNdynamics. In 2006 Facebook had the 99,8% of users comi...
∗   Latin America: here dominate the Google employee’s creation named       Orkut with 48.9% of reached users; than follow...
∗   Facebook 29.88 ( 355% )       ∗   Bebo.com 11.2 M ( 415% )       ∗   Friendster 8.99M ( 311% )       ∗   Hi5 7.2 M ( 5...
becoming an act of creation69: all users have private benefits but also they createcollective benefits as well. These coll...
people action and tagging, systems like YouTube could organize all the content,del.icio.us organize my bookmarks or platfo...
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Enterprise 2.0, but also in general Web 2.0 are not a merely product
or a ready-to-buy solution: they represent a continue evolution, a continue
innovative path in the way to give people more power, more tools and more
sense to let theme enjoy better their and others lives.

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Innovation Trends: Web 2.0

  1. 1. UNIVERSITÀ CATTOLICA DEL SACRO CUORE Sede di Milano Facoltà di Economia Corso di Laurea Specialistica in Management per l’impresa Innovation Trends: Web 2.0Relatore:Chiar.mo Prof. Federico Rajola Tesi di Laurea di: Jari Ognibeni Matricola n. 3406067 Anno Accademico 2006/2007
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  3. 3. To my always loved father Nello 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. ContentsChapter 1WEB 2.0: The truth about the internetsecond revolution…………………………………………….171.1 What is Web 2.0…………………………………………………………………...17 1.1.1 Web as a platform…………..………………………………………......21 1.1.2 Collaboration, Network and collective intelligence.......................…21 1.1.3 Participation and Technology……..…………………………………..211.2 Web 2.0 Structure and definitions ……………………………………..……….22 1.2.1 Web as a platform. …………………………………………...………...23 1.2.2 The open web……………………………………………...……………25 1.2.3 The Enterprise 2.0…………………………………………...………….251.3 The Web 2.0 structure………………………………………………….………...26 1.3.1 The User and the Net Generation………………………….………….28 1.3.2 Input………………………………………………………………….......31 1.3.3 Technology………………………………………………………………32 1.3.4 Specific Tools: web application and widgets…………………..…….341.4 Three dynamics for the Web 2.0……………………………………..………….38 1.4.1 First Dynamic: Openness Standard……………………….…………..38 1.4.1.1 Open Source……………………………………..…………….40 1.4.1.2 Google APIs…………………………………….……………..42 1.4.1.3 Perpetual Beta…………………………………..……………..46 1.4.1.4 Creative Commons…………………………………….……..47 1.4.2 Second Dynamic: Decentralized Participation……………………....50 5
  6. 6. 1.4.2.1 Blogosphere……………………………………………..……..51 1.4.2.2 Social Networks………………………………………..……...54 1.4.2.3 Platform for participation……………………………………59 1.4.2.4 The Long Tail…………………………………………..……...62 1.4.2.5 But what is a wiki?....................................................................64 1.4.2.6 Hyperlinks: knowledge management in Wikis……………73 1.4.2.7 Trust…………………………………………………………...73 1.4.3 Third Dynamic: User data control……………………………………74 1.4.3.1 Control the content…………………………………………..75 1.4.3.2 Identity………………………………………………………...76 1.4.3.3 Open ID………………………………………………………..78 1.4.3.4 The Next Intel Inside…………………………………………80Chapter 2SOCIAL NETWORKS: How people decide to liveother lives on-line…………………………………………...852.1 From Virtual Community to Social Network………………………………….862.2 A brief history of Social Networks……………………………………………...912.3 Two pattern of analysis…………………………………………………………..94 2.3.1 First pattern: What people want to do in Social Networks?..............94 2.3.1.1 Leisure and entertainment…………………………………...95 2.3.1.2 The “F” factor of (in)success………………………………..100 2.3.1.3 Social Shopping……………………………………………...103 2.3.1.4 Professional Networking……………………………………1066
  7. 7. 2.3.1.5 Media and UGC Sharing……………………………………109 2.3.1.6 Virtual Meeting Place………………………………………..110 2.3.1.7 Specialized niche…………………………………………….115 2.3.1.8 Save time, manage information flow……………………...115 2.3.2 Second pattern: What people do on the SN Sites….………………116 2.3.2.1 Entrance……………………………………………………...117 2.3.2.2 Profiling……………………………………………………...118 2.3.2.3 Friends………………………………………………………..120 2.3.2.4 Social Matching……………………………………………...123 2.3.3 Trust……………………………………………………………………128Chapter 3SOCIAL NETWORK: goes mobile…………………….…1333.1 Mobile Social Networks………………………………………………………...134 3.1.1 Synchronous and asynchronous interaction………………………..134 3.1.2 Mobile applications of existing SNSs or Stand alone services……………………………………………...…………………135 3.1.2.1 Existing Platforms…………………………………………...136 3.1.2.2 Stand Alone Mobile Services……………………………….1373.2 Mobile Social Network: a perspective………………………………………...138 3.2.1 Status Upload………………………………………………………….139 3.2.1.1 Dodgeball…………………………………………………….139 3.2.1.2 Friendstribe…………………………………………………..140 3.2.1.3 Jaiku…………………………………………………………..142 7
  8. 8. 3.2.1.4 Partysync……………………………………………………..143 3.2.1.5 Twitter………………………………………………………...143 3.2.2 Geolocalization & Social annotation………………………………...144 3.2.2.1 Loopt………………………………………………………….144 3.2.2.2 Socialight……………………………………………………..145 3.2.3 Content Upload on-the-go……………………………………………146 3.2.3.1 Groovr………………………………………………………...146 3.2.3.2 Kyte…………………………………………………………...147 3.2.3.3 Radar………………………………………………………….147 3.2.3.4 3Guppies……………………………………………………..148 3.2.3.5 Rabble………………………………………………………...148 3.2.3.6 Vipera…………………………………………………………149 3.2.3.7 Sms.ac…………………………………………………………150 3.2.4 Download Content……………………………………………………151 3.2.4.1 Gotzapp………………………………………………………151 3.2.4.2 Mobango…………………………………….………………..152 3.2.4.3 Mozes…………………………………………………………152 3.2.4.4 mklix………………………………………………………….153 3.2.5 Mobile Social Network Providers…………………………………....154 3.2.5.1 Morf…………………………………………………………...154 3.2.5.2 Mobilemo…………………………………………………….155 3.2.5.3 AirG…………………………………………………………..156 3.2.5.4 Jumbuck………………………………………………………1563.3 Social coordination matters…………………………………………………….157 3.3.1 Three simple questions about freedom……………………………..1583.4 Understand the Mobile Social Network environment………………………160 3.4.1 Usability………………………………………………………………..1618
  9. 9. 3.4.1.1 Design………………………………………………………...162 3.4.1.2 Infrastructure………………………………………………...163 3.4.1.3 Users’ use of the platform…………………………………..165 3.4.1.4 Privacy………………………………………………………..166 3.4.2 Sociability………………………………………………………………168 3.4.2.1 Connected Sociability……………………………………….1693.5 Online community Framework………………………………………………..170 3.5.1 Policies………………………………………………………………….172 3.5.2 Purposes………………………………………………………………..172 3.5.3 Actions………………………………………………………………….1733.6 Object and Benefit……………………………………………………………….174Chapter 4DON’T CALL IT: “ just a phone!”………………………..1774.1 It’s all about mobility………………………………...…………………………177 4.1.1 Ubiquitous devices…...……………………………………………….1784.2 Connectivity……………………………………………………….…………….1814.3 Multimedia………………………………………………………………………1834.4 Communication…………………………………………………………………1864.5 Mobility Concept………………………………………………………………..187 4.5.1 Three dimensions of mobility………………………………………..188 4.5.1.1 Spatial Mobility……………………………………………...189 4.5.1.2 Temporal Mobility…………………………………………..191 4.5.1.3 Contextual Mobility…………………………………………193 9
  10. 10. 4.5.2 Fluid Environment…………………………………………………….194Chapter 5ENTERPRISE 2.0:Innovation trends behind companies’ firewalls………..1995.1 Origin of the term “Enterprise 2.0”………………………..…………………..2005.2 From “Web 1.0” to “Web 2.0 “ Era…………………………………………….2045.3 Enterprise 2.0: forces and components………………………………………..209 5.3.1 Forces for adoption……………………………………………………210 5.3.2 Enterprise 2.0 components…………………………………………...213 5.3.3 Benefit and future issues to address………………………………...2255.4 A survey and “what’s next” for Web 2.0 in 2008…………………………….228Conclusions ……………………………………..…………………………………..233Bibliography………………...………………………………………………………237List of Figures……………………………………………………………………….247Appendix…………………………………………………………………………….24810
  11. 11. AcknowledgementsWith these few words I want to thank most of the people who let this work, thisimportant journey possible.First of all I want to deeply thank Professor Rajola which with his hints,opinions and encouragement has let me approach such a wonderful subject.Going on I have to thank Paolo Marenco for the opportunity to visit for the firsttime the Silicon Valley and the chance he gave me to meet the smartest peoplein the world. At these people working there many thanks for time and themany question they answered. Thank Michele, Marco, Flavio, Ettore, Vittorio,Professor Foster, Raffaele.The warmest thanks go to my family, my mother Paola, my brother Jgor andmy always loved father Nello, who have always been pushing me forward,encouraging me in keep going and believe in the things I was doing; theirsupport and humanity in these months will last forever, as my love for theme.And you, dear Sonia I thank you for all your kindness and love even the mymistakes has separated us.Last, but not least, all the bunch of my great friends and let me thankparticularly Nicolò for all the hospitality and support in my days passed inMilan and the Trentinnovation co-founder Andrea.Before ending, I don’t want to cite famous people or famous words, but asimple sentence one days before starting this work, I saw printed on a studentt-shirt:“ The thesis is not the destination, it is a journey. It’s not essential where you willarrive, but how you will arrive there “This idea has been my companion for this beautiful journey. 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. IntroductionIn the last decade, people have known what will be most important invention ofthe 21st century: the Web. This incredible platform continued its evolution sincearrive today in all its power and possibilities, directly in the hand of commonpeople. The web has become a platform to entertain people with a bounce offunctionalities, information, content which let people stay on the platform andshape their daily life around it.Today this platform became more accessible to people thanks to technologicalinnovation such as laptops, broadband wireless connections and advancedprotocols but also because people understood that in this platform the havepower, to create, share and explore. People are at the centre of the platform asthe main player and they can count on open and accessible technologies, onparticipative tools and on a broad control on data and information they create,share and manage.This power coming from the web platform and individuals need, give peoplethe chance to contact and organize their life around groups of people.In this way Social Networks represent the quintessential form of humanaggregation and community building, putting together people from all aroundthe world with different languages and culture but linked by the desire theyhave to “Say something”. People merge together because the desire to findsomeone similar or only some people with same interests, hobbies orcharacteristic which attract theme. Social Network are biggest Agora of thehistory, a continuum 24/7 creation, share and use of information, data and offcourse connections. 13
  14. 14. Social Networks and the consequent forms of social media, enlarge theattention form the individuals to his/her relations, to the connection theindividuals have with other people, friends, acquaintances.Ever more people argue the importance of their connections and the constantneed to cultivate these precious links with others; specially this issue is crucialin the way people are becoming more nomads, in the meaning that theirrelations, their knowledge and also their life is mobile.Individuals are facing this mobilization of their relations by using advancedubiquitous hardware: guess what? The mobile phone. Mobile devices arebecoming an extension of our activities in the web platform, letting us bringwhere we want our network of people, our interests and knowledge . In ourhands we have incredibly powerful devices which are transforming our dailylife. It’s from these changes that the biggest issues for individuals and off coursefor business take off; we need to embrace this evolution, this change. Probablybecause it is too late to jump off the train or because this revolution let us enjoyour way to live our life and other lives along the pervasive presence of thenetwork. Chances are in our hands, tools are ready and off course potentialitiesof this live connected are only waiting our choice.My choice is “Yes”, I want to live connected with this beautiful world.14
  15. 15. SummaryThe thesis dissertation is structured in the following way: in the chapternumber 1 will be analyzed what is the meaning of the Web 2.0; will beconsidered all the components and dynamics forming it. The three dynamicswill regard the open standards, the decentralized participation and at the endthe user’s data control. All the critical components of the Web 2.0 willapproached giving examples and precious data about theme.The chapter number 2 is dedicated to the Social Networks phenomenon and itwill enter in deep into the framework the first chapter has delineated aboutWeb 2.0. In this part after a brief digression about the evolution from VirtualCommunities to Social Networks, a large space will be give to all the differenttypologies of Social Networks, their characteristics and what users act on suchgreat platforms. The chapter number 3 will bring Social Networks on mobilephones. Here will be cited the main realities of Mobile Social Network presentaround the world, their characteristics. The mobility concept will be addressedwith a particular analysis which will consider two crucial variables like“Usability” and “Sociability”. Chapter number 4 complete the work of theprevious chapter three, going deeper in the mobility concept and dimensions,specially for what concern mobile phone ubiquitous functionalities.In the end the chapter number 5 will approach the Enterprise 2.0 concept,describing the evolution form a “2.0 to a 1.0 era” and the resulting components.The role of the enterprise inside the Web 2.0 revolution will be illustratedaccording to forces, benefits, issues to address; a dedicated survey on theEnterprise 2.0 concept will help to better understand future innovative trends inthis scenario. 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. Chapter 1WEB 2.0: The truth about theinternet second revolutionIn this chapter we will understand the meaning of the term “Web 2.0” and allthe components that compose it. The analysis will follow three main directionin the way to highlight the main structural characteristic of the concept: web asplatform, collaboration, network and collective intelligence and at the endparticipation and technology.The purpose is to represent the complete Web 2.0 enviroment, a realitycomposed by three main areas ( Openness standards, DecentralizedParticipation and Used Data control ) with, at the centre of the framework, fourinhabitants which are the User, the Input, the Technology and the Webapplication. 17
  18. 18. 1.1 What is Web 2.0What about this new word rocketing the entire web community?Where did it come from and why?We can say that everything became more public and explicit during aconference in which Tim O’Reilly talked the first time about the new word:“Web 2.0”.1 Thanks also to the book of Dale Dougherty, from that day anythingwould be the same: thinking at this word like some promotional strategy is notall wrong, but the key point is that now everyone use this word to talk at thenew things happening everyday in the internet world. With this new word, TimO’Reilly tried for the first time to give a sense using a simple and “eyecatching” definition, to the entire growing revolution the web was experiencingafter the bubble of the year 2000. But first read a few citation of importantplayers of the web about this new technology and social revolution; than takingout some key word, we will continue to analyze the web 2.0 landscape in all itsshapes.“ The business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move of the internetas a platform and an attempt to understand the rules of success on that new platform.Chief among those rules is this: build application that harness network effects to getbetter the more people use them” Tim O’Reilly2“ An emerging network-centric platform to support distributed, collaborative andcumulative creation by its users” John Hagel31 oreilly.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html2 radar.oreilly.com/archives/2006/12/web_20_compact.html3 edgeperspectives.typepad.com/edge_perspectives/2005/09/what_is_web_20.html18
  19. 19. “ All of the action is in services. Web 2.0 is where the action is “ Marc Benioff, CEOSalesforce.com4“The participatory Web” Brad Decrem5“ Distributed technologies built to integrate, that collectively transform massparticipation into valuable emergent outcomes” Ross Dawson, Future ExplorationNetwork6“A collection of technologies that leverage the power of always on, high speedconnections and treat broadband as a platform and not just as a pipe” Om Malik7“The new Web is about verbs, not nouns” Ross Mayfield, Socialtext founder8 "eTech is where the seeds of new and interesting technologies are first discovered,whilst Web 2.0 is where they take root in the soil of business." John Battelle9 (talkingabout upcoming conferences)"...a Point of Presence on the Web for exposing of invoking Web Services and/orSyndicating or Subscribing to XML based content." Kingsley Idehen 104 networks.silicon.com/webwatch/0,39024667,39161662,00.htm5 blog.web2fordev.net/2007/09/25/is-the-participatory-web-really-in-parallel-with-participatory-development/6 h20325.www2.hp.com/blogs/garfield/archive/2007/06/06/3601.html7 gigaom.com/2005/09/28/what-is-web-20/8 businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_39/b3952401.htm9 battellemedia.com/archives/001220.php 19
  20. 20. "According to the experts, Web 2.0 is on its way to the workplace soon – its aninfrastructure thats decentralized and more open than that which exists today."Wirearchy 11"Dont think of the Web as a client-server system that simply delivers web pages to webservers. Think of it as a distributed services architecture, with the URL as a firstgeneration "API" for calling those services." Jon Udell 12 (as quoted in a classicessay by Tim OReilly 13) "The conference will debut with the theme of The Web as Platform, exploring how theWeb has developed into a robust platform for innovation across many media and devices- from mobile to television, telephone to search." The World 2 Come14"The next generation of web applications will leverage the shared infrastructure of theweb 1.0 companies like EBay, Paypal, Google, Amazon, and Yahoo, not just the "barebones transit" infrastructure that was there when we started"Deep Green Crystals 15"web 2.0...is about making the Internet useful for computers." Jeff Bezos16"Yesterday’s challenge of producing elegant and database-driven Web sites is beingreplaced by the need to create Web 2.0 points of presence" computeruser.com 1710 openlinksw.com/blog/%7Ekidehen/index.vspx?id=37311 blog.wirearchy.com/blog/_archives/2005/1/27/286582.html12 weblog.infoworld.com/udell/13 oreillynet.com/lpt/a/25114 divedi.blogspot.com/2004/10/web-20.html15 martinandalex.com/blog/archives/2004/10/initial_thought.html16 readwriteweb.com/gems/jeff_bezos_web2.txt17 computeruser.com/articles/daily/8,10,1,1011,04.html20
  21. 21. "They dont see that the power of Weblications is that "simplicity and flexibility beatoptimization and power in a world where connectivity is key", as Adam Bosworth putit." Adam Rifkin 18"The web browser and the infrastructure of the World Wide Web is on the cusp ofbettering its aging cousin, the desktop-based graphical user interface for common PCapplications." Mitch Kapor 19These are only a few definitions about the Web 2.0 but if we pay attention wecan look at some important key word in the way to understand better the newWeb: ∗ Web as a platform ∗ Collaborative network of collective intelligence ∗ Participation ∗ Technology innovationFrom this citations we underline some key words which will be very importantin the next steps of the work.18 ifindkarma.typepad.com/relax/2004/12/weblications.html19 blogs.osafoundation.org/mitch/000812.html 21
  22. 22. 1.1.1 Web as a platformIn the Web 2.0 the web is no more considered as only a broadband pipe20 inwhich flow all the bits and contents from a user to a server and back. Internet isa new place, is a new level and dimension in which people can live their livesand companies can do their business. This new dimension led people to buildnetworks with other people in which share their pieces of life was it music,images, videos or writings.1.1.2 Collaboration, Network and collective intelligenceIn this platform people live sharing their life and interests with other users.Internet now is a plain platform where there is no limitation and obstacles tofile transferring; we can throw a ball from one side to the other of the platformand we are sure it will hit the other side in a millisecond: the time to digit on thekeyword the enter button. People put their life on the table and start play cardswith it. The desire to contact people with our same interest and hobbies isbigger and now people have the tool to do it.1.1.3 Participation and TechnologyIn the web platform people can communicate with everyone only pushing a fewbuttons. People also can produce their content and information using images,videos, text thanks to simple tools ever more based on internet platform20 gigaom.com/2005/09/28/what-is-web-20/22
  23. 23. accessible 24/7. The emergence of platform for blogging, Social Networks andfree video and images uploading allowed extremely easy content creation andsharing by anyone.Summarizing all the key words in a single definitions of “Web 2.0” will be ahard work because this web has many aspects and it’s changing every day,every second, every user’s click. These key words will help us to trace the roadto understand the Web 2.0 and all its main aspects. To begin we can say that:“ The Web 2.0 delineates the internet as a platform in which users, linked together bynetworks and collaborative experiences, participate in the production of contents andinformation thanks to new technologies and new tools ” I said.The work will describe the Web 2.0 as a mutating world defined by itsdynamics and forces; by its citizens and the effect of their living, contentproduction and evolution of their relationships.1.2 Web 2.0 Structure and definitionsNow we will describe the structure and framework of the Web 2.0 approachingthis new world from its basis, dynamics and forces moving then to the centre tounderstand what is the fulcrum of the new web.The Web 2.0 description will start considering the web as a platform.21 As wesad before with the evolution to the Web 2.0 the broadband and the internet21 readwriteweb.com/archives/web_20_definiti.php 23
  24. 24. environment is considered as a platform where users, companies and webapplications coexist in a multiple evolution.1.2.1 Web as a platformInternet in the last 5 years became a platform for innovation across many mediaand devices22. Web is not more considered as the service itself but as a placewhere all services and products became commodities23 spreading over millionof users. To understand the raise of the web as platform we will do acomparison of two company and their positioning: Netscape and Google24. IfNetscape was a standard bearer for the “old Web” from now called Web 1.025,Google on the other side is most certainly the standard bearer for Web 2.0. Butlet start from the past.Netscape framed “ the web as platform” in term of the old software paradigm:their flagship product was the web browser, a desktop application and theirstrategy was to use their dominance in the browser market to establish a marketfor high-priced server products. Control over standards for displaying contentand applications in the browser would in theory give Netscape the kind ofmarket power enjoyed by Microsoft in the PC market. Summarizing Netscapepromoted a “webtop”26 to replace the desktop and planned to populate that22 divedi.blogspot.com/2004/10/web-20.html post by Dimitar Vesselinov23 oreilly.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html24 oreilly.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html25 digital-web.com/articles/web_2_for_designers/26 wp.netscape.com/newsref/pr/newsrelease385.html24
  25. 25. webtop with information updates and applets pushed to the webtop byinformation providers who would purchase Netscape servers. At the end bothweb browser and web servers turned out to be commodities and value movedup to services delivered over the web platform. And here start the most recentstory of Goggle success.27 Google started as a native web application, never soldor packaged but delivered as a service, with customers paying directly orindirectly for the use of that service. No one of the old software trappings arepresent: continuous improvement, no licensing or sale but just usage. Noporting to different platforms so that customers can run the software on theirown machines and equipment, just a massively scalable collection ofcommodity PCs running open source operating systems plus home-grownapplications and utilities that no one outside the company ever gets to see.Google isn’t just a collection of software tools, it’s a specialized database. Andthis is the difference from Netscape: Google requires database management,something Netscape never needed. Without data, the tools are useless; withoutthe software the data are unmanageable. Now software licensing is irrelevantbecause the software never need be distributed but performed, and becausewithout the ability to collect and manage the data, the software if of little use. Infact the value of the software is proportional to the scale and dynamism of thedata it helps to manage.Google’s service is not a server and nor a browser. It happens in the spacebetween browser and search engine and destination content server, as anenabler/middleman between the user and his or her online experience.Both Netscape and Google could be described as software companies where thefirst belong to the same revolutionary software world of the 80’s28 as Lotus,27 Vise, D. and Malseed, M. The Google Story EGEA 2005, pp. 33-4528 electronics.howstuffworks.com/80s-tech.htm 25
  26. 26. Oracle, Microsoft, SAP while Google stay closer to other internet applications aseBay, Amazon, Napster.We understand that in today internet, the platform is the battle camp wherecompanies, web applications and user enter in contact and build their webexperience. Going deeper in the framework we are developing, we see that theweb platform is divided into two important parts: the open web and theenterprise 2.0.1.2.2 The open web29For open web we mean the entire space of the World Wide Web open to anyoneto access and participate. The open web has been the initial domain in whichWeb 2.0 technologies, applications, attitudes have developed. That’s why it is soimportant: the open web represent our knowledge of what is internet, and whatwe can do in and with it. In opposite at this free-access area where all has beendeveloped, we found the second part.1.2.3 The Enterprise 2.030There’s a piece of the entire open web that we can find in relation withenterprises: this is the space inside the firewalls of organizations and theirpartners. The power and efficacy of Web 2.0 technologies, originally developed29 rossdawsonblog.com/weblog/archives/2007/05/launching_the_w.html30 rossdawsonblog.com/weblog/archives/2007/03/post_12.html26
  27. 27. on the open web, are now being applied within enterprise to enhanceperformance and achieve business outcomes. They take inside and ledprofitable what was outside and was “only” functional. This term linkedtogether the word “enterprise” with the 2.0 number to underscore theconnection between the business world and the amount of creative applicationand services of the open web.311.3 The Web 2.0 structure Figure 1: The Web 2.0 StructureUntil now we have put the basis of what is the environment in which the web(re)evolution take off. Summarizing we sad there’s the web as a platform in31 theobvious.typepad.com/blog/2007/03/the_100_guarant.html 27
  28. 28. which companies, web applications and users enter in contact and build theirweb experience. Than going deeper we have described the open web whereWeb 2.0 technologies, applications, attitudes have developed. We approach theWeb 2.0 configuration by building a simple structure composed by three areasconverging to a central core. This three parts are representative of the mainforces and dynamics of the Web 2.0: ∗ Openness standards ∗ Decentralized Participation ∗ User data controlThese three parts are the flavor of the actors at the centre of the Web 2.0configuration: user, input, technology and web application. The Opennessstandards, the Decentralized Participation and User data control are theexpression of user’s interactions with information across web platforms anddedicated applications.At the centre of this structure defined by the three parts above, we find the coreof all the web: the user which interact with inputs thanks to technology andweb applications. In this core we have 4 inhabitants all connected with eachother by logical processes of interaction and information management. Let startdiscover this 4 players: User, Input, Technology, Web Application28
  29. 29. 1.3.1 The User and the Net GenerationLet start by the user, his/her behavior in front of new tools of communication,production and collaboration. The user we want to describe is defined by his orher interaction with friends and people, by the desire to emerge, of being part ofa mass, community of people like him or her. Thinking about the Web 2.0 userwe have heard many words like: big consumer, voyeur, producer, specificinterested, tastemaker, trend-maker. But the one word which describe at thebest the new shape of the Web 2.0 user is: Prosumer.32 What’s the meaning ofthis word?33 This word represent the essence in which a user could be calledobserving his or her “Web Life”. 34 The word “Prosumer” has been used the firsttime by Don in his book of 1996 called “ The digital Economy “.35 He introducedthe term “prosumer” to describe how the gap between producers andconsumers was blurring. So could we accept this answer? From our point ofview it is satisfying.This word embrace the evolution started at the end of the ‘90s36 in which theinternet permitted to people to communicate better and faster, shareexperiences an emotions using the emails; where the bits and the informationstarted run fast across the globe and where the boundaries didn’t meansanything more. So with this term the object is to underscore that there arefewer differences between consumer and producer and that this two kind ofpeople are colliding in a new thrilling and powerful entity: the prosumer.32 worldwidewords.org/turnsofphrase/tp-pro4.htm33 techcrunch.com/2007/06/15/the-rise-of-the-prosumer/34 boston.com/business/globe/articles/2005/06/13/are_you_a_prosumer35 newparadigm.com/default.asp?action=category&ID=8836 corante.com/amateur/articles/20030211-3564.html 29
  30. 30. Figure 2: Typology of content different user categories accessSource: Robert Peck, Bear Stearns Internet analyst What should Yahoo! do regarding Social Networks?Bear Stearns Report August 2007However a new generation of youngsters has grown up online, and they arebringing a new ethic of openness, participation and interactivity in workplaces,communities and markets. They are the demographic engine of collaborationand their power will gather force and efficacy as they mature. Demographerscall them the “ baby boom-echo “37, but I prefer the Net Generation38, as DonTapscott dubbed them in his 1997 book “ Growing Up Digital “. Thisgeneration, born between 1977 and 1996, is bigger than the baby boom itself.Internationally the Net Generation is huge, numbering over two billion people.This is the first generation to grow up in the digital age and that makes them aforce that will dominate the 21st century. Is amazing how they are growingbathed in bits. In America 90% of teenagers say they use the Net. The same istrue in a growing number of countries around the world specially in thedeveloping and emerging ones. For example there are more youngsters in this37 msnbc.msn.com/id/9929332/site/newsweek/38 riverdeep.net/current/2000/10/100400_netgen.jhtml30
  31. 31. age group who use the Net in China than there are in the United States. This isthe collaboration generation for one main reason: unlike their parents in theUnited States who watched passively twenty-four hours of television per week,these youngsters are growing up interacting. They spend time searching,reading, scrutinizing, authenticating, collaborating and organizing. They arenot passive receiver of mass consumer culture. While their parents were passiveconsumer of media, youth today are active creators of media content andhungry for interaction. They are also a generation of scrutinizers because theyare more skeptical of authority as they sift through information at high speedby themselves or by their network of peers. They have greater self confidenceand they are nevertheless worried about their futures.Research shows that this generation also tends to value individual rights,including the right to privacy and the right to have and express their ownviews.39 Throughout adolescence and later in life, they tend to opposecensorship by governments and by parents. They also want to be treated fairlybecause they have a strong sense of common good and of collective social andcivic responsibility.But after all this reasoning, there is one thing that emerges which need ourattention. This is the first time in human history when children ( Net Gen ) areauthorities on something really important. Young people are authorities on thedigital revolution that is changing every institution in society. This means thatwhat this generation create, think, share, remix and reject are the key factor thatwill rewrite the rules of communities, markets and workplaces. And now wemiss only to understand how people use the web to do all this kind of“magical” things. How this user interact with the web and the technology to39 educause.edu/FirstStepsTowardUnderstandingtheNetGeneration/6058 31
  32. 32. arrive to communicate his or her being, his or her message? We introduce theinput.Our user or better Prosumer, is related with the web by these elements: his orher inputs permitted by a supporting technology and specific tools behind thescene.1.3.2 InputThe user generates, in his or her interaction with technology and the webplatform, different kind of inputs. We can divide the user’s input in two types:active and passive inputs. For active inputs we mean all the kind of activeinteraction a user could have also called user generated contents. The usergenerated contents are contents created directly by the user and publishedonline using specific web applications.40 In the list of user generated contentswe find: ∗ Text ( messages or all the written things a user could write and post ) ∗ Image ( huge amount came from digital cameras ) ∗ Video ( mostly self-produced and shared with platform like YouTube ) ∗ Interactive media ( all creation which involved a cut and copy of different media sources are these image or video or text ) ∗ Virtual architecture ( all content created for virtual environment ) 4140 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User-generated_content41 secondlifeblog.it/index.php/2006/11/19/virtual-architecture-intervista-con-mario-gerosa/32
  33. 33. The UGC are the heart of the Web 2.0 because these contents express all thepower of the Prosumer, of his or her connections and interests. Let have a lookto the passive inputs that are the complementing part of the total user’s inputs.The passive inputs are essentially the so called opinions which are the normalanswer of the user to active inputs of other users. The opinions are: ∗ Links (establishing an hyperlink from an item to another item/page of interest) ∗ Clicks (opening content and exploring throughout links and pages) ∗ Tagging (attaching descriptions to information or content) ∗ Rating (giving a rate in a common scale to a content or information) ∗ Social connection (connections built by surfing pages, clicks, links with users)We created a circle built by active and passive inputs which alternate each otherin a positive dynamic of collaborative and participative creation of informationand connection between people. Here is the turn for technology which allowinputs collide and create networks, structures and information. Technology isthe skeleton of the entire web platform specially because in the last five yearsemerged innovations, implementations and new technology approaches whichtoday permit to the Web 2.0 to explode in all its stunning features.1.3.3 TechnologyWith the Web 2.0 revolution we are living a huge growth of pop-uptechnologies, usually remixed by older ones and oriented to develop new way 33
  34. 34. of creation of content and interaction between human and chips. To all this newkind of technologies we will give a brief description and in the following of thework we will give example of their real use in services and products.Here are the most important technologies42 involved in the structure and life ofthe Web 2.0 with a brief description: ∗ Ruby on Rails: an open source web application framework that is frequently used in Web 2.0 website development ∗ AJAX: Asynchronous Javascript and XML, a combination of technologies that enables highly interactive web applications ∗ XML: eXtensible Markup Language, an open standard for describing data, which enables easy exchange of information between applications and organizations ∗ API: Application programming Interface, a defined interface to a computer application or database that allows access by other applications ∗ Mashups: combination of different types of content or data, usually from different sources, to create something new ∗ Remixing: extracting and combining samples of content to create an new output ∗ Aggregation: bringing multiple content sources together into one interface or application ∗ Embedding: integrating content or an application into a web page, while the original format is maintained ∗ Folksonomy: rich categorization of information that is collectively created by users, through tagging and other actions ( ex. Taxonomy )42 oreilly.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html34
  35. 35. ∗ Tag Cloud: a visual description of tags that have been used to describe a piece of content, with higher frequency tags emphasized to assist content comprehension and navigation ∗ Virtual architecture: the creation of avatars – alternative representation of people, buildings, objects and other artifacts inside virtual spaces. ∗ RSS: Really Simple Syndication, a group of format to publish-syndicate- content on the internet so that users or applications automatically receive any updates ∗ Tagging: attaching descriptions to information or content ∗ Widget: small and portable web application that can be embedded into any webpage1.3.4 Specific Tools: web application and widgetsTechnology is the energy and the Web application is the human-friendlyinterface machine. This machine is formed by three parts which permit alltogether to drive and enrich the user web experience. Web applications are theconclusion – or the beginning - of the interaction cycle we described before: acycle starting from the user which communicate with active and passive inputsthanks to a skeleton and invisible technology concretized in user-friendlyapplications.In software engineering, a Web application or webapp is an application that isaccessed via web over a network such as the Internet or an intranet43. Webapplications are popular due to the ubiquity of a client, sometimes called a thin43 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_application 35
  36. 36. client. The ability to update and maintain Web applications withoutdistributing and installing software on potentially thousands of clientcomputers is a key reason for their popularity. Web applications are used toimplement Webmail, online retail sales, online auctions, wikis, discussionboards, Weblogs, MMORPGs - Massive(ly) multiplayer online role-playinggame (MMORPG) is a genre of online role-playing video games (RPGs) inwhich a large number of players interact with one another in a virtual world -and many other functions. Web applications dynamically generate a series ofWeb documents in a standard format supported by common browsers such asHTML/XHTML. Client-side scripting in a standard language such as JavaScriptis commonly included to add dynamic elements to the user interface like inyour Gmail account. Generally, each individual Web page is delivered to theclient as a static document, but the sequence of pages can provide an interactiveexperience, as user input is returned through Web form elements embedded inthe page mark-up. During the session, the Web browser interprets and displaysthe pages, and acts as the universal client for any Web application. The Webinterface places very few limits on client functionality. Through Java, JavaScript,DHTML, Flash and other technologies, application-specific methods such asdrawing on the screen, playing audio, and access to the keyboard and mouseare all possible. General purpose techniques such as drag and drop are alsosupported by these technologies. Web developers often use client-side scriptingto add functionality, especially to create an interactive experience that does notrequire page reloading (which many users find disruptive). Ajax, a webdevelopment technique using a combination of various technologies, is anexample of technology which creates a more interactive experience. Thoughmany variations are possible, a Web application is commonly structured as athree-tiered application. In its most common form, a Web browser is the first36
  37. 37. tier, an engine using some dynamic Web content technology (such as ASP,ASP.NET, CGI, ColdFusion, JSP/Java, PHP, Python, or Ruby On Rails) is themiddle tier, and a database is the third tier. The Web browser sends requests tothe middle tier, which services them by making queries and updates against thedatabase and generates a user interface44. The Web application is the three-tirescar which allow the user to live his or her web experience. In this landscapewidgets are emerging marking their importance when we talk about Web 2.0and web applications in particular. A widget is an interface element that acomputer user interacts with, such as a window or a text box.45 Widgets aresometimes qualified as virtual to distinguish them from their physicalcounterparts, for example virtual buttons that can be clicked with a mousecursor, vs. physical buttons that can be pressed with a finger. Widgets are oftenpackaged together in widget toolkits. Programmers use widgets to buildgraphical user interfaces also known as GUIs.46 A graphical user interface is atype of user interface which allows people to interact with a computer andcomputer-controlled devices which employ graphical icons, visual indicators orspecial graphical elements called “widgets”, along with text labels or textnavigation to represent the information and actions available to a user. Theactions are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphicalelements. Widgets could be part of Web application like small windows whichoperates different task, receive update directly from internet, give specific toolsat users. Widget are the portable expression of the bigger and more completeWeb applications.44 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wui45 apple.com/downloads/dashboard/46 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphical_user_interface 37
  38. 38. So this three-tires car has in plus some optional we called widgets. When we aretalking about Web application/widget the first word coming out in mind shouldbe: freedom and customization. Web application and specially widgets birth inthe so called world of “Open source” which is a set of principles and practicesthat promote access to the design and production of goods and knowledge.47The term was initially and is most commonly applied to the source code ofsoftware that is available to the general public with relaxed or non-existentintellectual property restrictions. This allows users to create software contentthrough incremental individual effort or through collaboration. Open sourceculture is one where collective decisions or fixations are shared duringdevelopment and made generally available in the public domain, as made inthe successful example of Wikipedia. Some consider open source as one ofvarious possible design approaches, while others consider it a critical strategicelement of their operations. Before the term open source became popular,developers and producers used various phrases to describe the concept; theterm gained popularity with the rise of the Internet which enabled diverseproduction models, communication paths and interactive communities. Later,open source software became the most prominent face of open source practices.With this term we introduce the three main dynamics which characterize theWeb 2.0 and we need to analyze to understand at all the structure of the todayand future internet.47 firstmonday.org/issues/issue3_3/raymond/38
  39. 39. 1.4 Three dynamics for the Web 2.0The Web 2.0 framework I built is characterized by the presence of three mainareas, which represent the three main dynamics of the Web 2.0. Here thefollowing paragraphs will introduce each of the three part: Openness standards,Decentralized participation and User Data control.We can say that the dynamics are the main trends pervading the Web 2.0environment of tools, technologies and processes.1.4.1 First Dynamic: Openness StandardWeb 2.0 era writes a breakthrough page in the history of innovation andsoftware development. There is one word you have to keep in mind: openness.In the Web 2.0 structure we are describing, openness is the first of three majordynamics which influences the entire world of the web today. This openness ischaracterized also by aspects which describe its potential and importance:standards and modularity.For standards we mean that this openness is based on standards that provide anessential platform for Web 2.0. Common interfaces for accessing content andapplications are the glue that allow integration across many elements of theemergent web48. For modularity we underscore the fact that Web 2.0 is theantithesis of the monolithic. We have many components and modules that aredesigned to link and integrate with others, together building a whole that is48 rossdawsonblog.com/weblog/archives/2007/04/the_state_of_so.html 39
  40. 40. greater than the sum of its parts. In this open process of creation anddevelopment, standards and component’s modularity are the key factor for theWeb 2.0 success. 49The openness is considered the first dimension of this web revolution because itallows every user, every developer, everyone to enter in the developing processof a product or a service. During the last years this openness became more andmore wide and viral. Normal users became co-developer simply with theirnormal and daily use of the service, the software or the product. Companiesstart harnessing collective intelligence releasing no completed version of thesoftware or of the web application and led people using it reporting bugs anderrors.50The father of this “popular” openness is the open source which is a set ofprinciples and practices that promote access to the design and production ofgoods and knowledge.51 This word is associated most commonly with thesource code of software that is available to the general public with few ornothing property restrictions. This allow users to create software contentthrough incremental, collaborative and peering efforts with other users. Theopen source culture reside in the fact that collective decisions or fixations areshared during development and made generally available in the publicdomain, as done in the famous Wikipedia or Weblogs. Blogs are anothersignificant platform for open source culture: they make the “open sourcing”even more uncontrollable since it allows a larger part of the population toreplicate material more quickly in the public sphere.49 webmonkey.com/webmonkey/06/12/index4a_page8.html davidcrow.ca/article/708/web-20-as-modularity50 Eric S. Raymond, The Cathedral & the Bazaar O’Reilly, 200151 Steven Weber, The Success of Open Source Harvard University Press, 200440
  41. 41. This culture is the creative practice of appropriation and free sharing of foundand created content. Participants in the culture can modify those products andredistribute them back into the community or other organizations.There are three rules of the open source: nobody owns it, everybody use it, andanybody can improve it. They are simple ones but with an impressive power ofinnovation.“Cooperate on standards, compete on solution”. That is the IBM motto tounderscore the importance of being open and permit the “hackability” of theircodes, services and products. Companies understand the power coming frommerging together different users, developers and people inside company’sproducts.The open source’s dynamic points to use the workforce for realizing thecompany mission, which more and more identifies with individual’s dreamsawareness52. Take a step forward and see from where does the word “opensource” come from.1.4.1.1 Open SourceThe term “open source” had a big boost at an event organized in April 1998 bytechnology publisher Tim O’Reilly which name was originally “FreewareSummit” but later known as the “Open Source Summit”. The event broughttogether leaders of the most important open source projects, including LinusTorvalds, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Jamie Zawinski of Netscape and EricRaymond. In the personality of Linus Torvalds, founder of Linux, we found theessence of the openness. Linus Torvalds’ style of development stand for52 Ballard, J. G. Millennium People Feltrinelli Editore, 2004, pp. 215 41
  42. 42. diffusing releases fast and frequently, delegating to others all the possible andbeing open at the maximum level. Linus didn’t invent the Linux kernel, but heideated the development model of Linux characterized by the words above. Themagic key Linus Torvalds owned was to bring into play users as co-developersin the most efficiency way: Linus endorsed every co-developer for his or her jobto give them the sensation of being part of the result and success of the entiregroup.Establishing a wide base of testers and co-developers, every problem will bedefined fast and someone will find the right solution53. This is the so called byEric Raymond, author of “The Cathedral and the Bazaar”, the “Linus law”. Ericin his book highlight the difference between: a “Cathedral” style, characteristicof companies which build complex structures of developments in term ofprocesses, rights management and profits, in which the problem’s visualizationof bugs, programming, development represent complex and insidious events.From here the long period of time between one release and the other, and alsothe consequently delusions when the so long attended software versionsrevealed all their malfunctions.On the other side we have the “Bazaar” style, where users and developersexchange their creations with the common object to do something great anduseful for people: different and innovative approaches embedded in a creativedisorder similar to a bazaar. The bazaar is the stage in which users anddevelopers became the main character, contributing at company success. Barrfrom Amazon sad: “the more data we put in the hand of developers, the moreinteresting tools, sites, applications will be built, and the more of those thatexist, the greater the return to Amazon”54. Not only Amazon beneficiates by the53 De Marco, Lister Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams New York; Dorset House, 198754 Tapscott,D. and Williams, A.D. Wikinomics Portfolio Penguin 2006 pp.19642
  43. 43. contributes of users which produce all the product reviews so important todrive customers purchases; eBay is another example with all the comment ofusers which generate reputation and trust between sellers and buyers. Anothergiant like Google opened to developers and users its most popular servicesallowing people to mash-up, use and spread applications like Google Maps orGoogle Calendar. In all, Google currently offers more than two dozen APIs,which can be found on the Google Code site. Much like the Facebook platformor the APIs offered from widely-used startups like Flickr and Twitter, Google’sAPIs provide developers with an “in” to millions of potential users throughGoogle’s vast reach. In turn, creating applications that are both useful andprovide smooth integration with an existing Google service is an effective wayto spread your product through technology instead of relying solely advertisingor viral marketing. At the same time, as Google continues to add new APIs andexpand on existing ones, the company further expands its reach as thedeveloper community builds new products tailored to Google products andservices.1.4.1.2 Google APIsHere’s a list the Google APIs opened to people55:Google Toolbar API - The Google Toolbar is widely-used and comes standardwith Firefox. The Toolbar API allows developers to create buttons for GoogleToolbar, thus creating a way for you to add data from your web site to theuser’s web browser. For example, the Fox News – Latest Headlines button will55 Ostrow,A. A guide to Google’s APIs on mashable.com/2007/08/09/google-apis/ 43
  44. 44. display all of the latest news from the Fox News site and let you click to thestory. In addition to the more than 100 apps featured in the Google ToolbarGallery from mainstream names like CNN and YouTube, dozens ofindependently developed applications and mashups have also been created.For example, the Twitter Google Toolbar Button allows you to input Twitterfeeds and receive updates in your toolbar.Google Gadgets API - Perhaps the most important of the Google APIs for thoselooking to take advantage of Google’s massive user base, the Google GadgetsAPI allows developers to create applications that run on iGoogle (formerlyGoogle Personalized Home), Google Desktop, Google Page Creator, and the“Google Gadgets for Your Web Page” directory. For example, the CNN TVgadget streams live news, while Outlook Tasks imports your task list fromMicrosoft Outlook. Assuming you are able to get your application into Google’sofficial directory, the Gadgets API is a great way to gain exposure for yourcompany’s product.Google Base API - Google Base is Google’s service for listing things online –essentially a classifieds service integrated with the company’s other productslike search and Google Checkout.The Google Base API allows developers to both search the Google Basedatabase and input new listings. Thus, shopping sites, classifieds aggregators,and others are building applications that either expand their own listings orallow sellers to submit items to multiple sites at once. vFlyer is a service thatenables you to post to Google Base, Craigslist, and eBay, among others. For realestate listings, BaseEstate integrates Google Base listings into their service,which displays properties on a mashup of the Google Maps API.44
  45. 45. Google Calendar API - The Google Calendar API allows developers to buildapplications that let users create, manage, and delete events from theircalendars. Online task manager Remember The Milk has utilized the GoogleCalendar API to enable their users to sync their task list with their GoogleCalendar. For business users, there is a mashup on Salesforce.com that allowsyou to merge your events from salesforce.com with your Google Calendar. Ifyou want to sync your Google Calendar with your mobile phone, open sourceproject GCALSYNC allows you to do so. With dozens of startups focused onfinding and managing events, expect more mash ups with Google Calendar inthe future.Google Docs & Spreadsheets APIs - As announced earlier this week, theGoogle Documents List Data API allows developers to build applications thatcan upload documents to Google Docs, request a list of a user’s documents, orsearch content within a document. The Google Spreadsheets API performssimilar functions, allowing external applications to access and edit data withinthe company’s spreadsheet program. A good example of these relatively newAPIs in action is Swivel, where data can be pulled in from Google Spreadsheetsand then utilize Swivel’s community tools for analyzing and discussing data.Google Maps API - One of the most popular (and longest running) GoogleAPI’s is that of Google Maps. The API allows developers to built applicationsthat plot their own data on top of Google Maps. We recently took a look at 13Must-See Google Maps Mashups, but there are hundreds (if not thousands) ofapplications using the API, ranging from Frappr’s social maps to Trulia’s real 45
  46. 46. estate search. In addition to the API, Google also recently introduced Maplets,essentially allowing developers to place Google Gadgets on Maps.Google Desktop SDK - The Google Desktop SDK (Software Developer Kit)allows developers to build plugins that extend the functionality of Google’spopular desktop search software. Some plugins add capabilities to GoogleDesktop, while others are essentially widgets for other programs that you canplace in your Desktop sidebar. An excellent example of an application that addscapabilities is the Google Desktop Search Plugin for Windows Explorer whichlinks the “Search” icon that can be found throughout Windows to GoogleDesktop instead of the default Windows search tool. On the widget side ofthings, any Google Gadget can be quickly and easily added to your Desktopsidebar, thus making Gadgets an attractive method for developers to reach newusers.Openness is present mainly in the software development, that’s why we talkabout “Open source software” because all the operations and developments arein this area. So the software and the related web applications are at the centre ofmany developers’ action with the object to improve them participating at theirmarket and user success. In the Web 2.0 momentum, companies harnesscollective intelligence in development of the software and in plus the massiveuse of applications by users permit to innovate and improve features in less andless time.46
  47. 47. 1.4.1.3 Perpetual BetaWe are accustomed to see in a huge number (and growing) of web applicationthe word “Beta” or “Beta version” beside the logo application. This means that,that application is in a still development phase in which users collaborate withtheir normal use to get better and improve. The developing software progressmark two different levels: the alpha version and the common beta version. Foralpha version we mean a product’s version which satisfy all the softwarerequirements. This level can be considered approximately 35% complete andusually includes temporary material and multiple product-breaking issues. Inthis phase the testers are the main players - not more the programmers –usually people internal to the organization or community which develop thesoftware.Than we have the most visible beta version which is the next steps in term ofquality, stability and richness of the software. A beta version is the first versionreleased outside the organization that developed the software, for the purposeof real-world evaluation by users-testers. This process is called “Beta Release”where the software is between 60-70% of completeness, generally including allfeatures, but also issues and bugs of a less serious variety. In this phase peoplewho use the software are called “Beta Testers” and they are usually customersor potential ones. Beta versions test the supportability of the product, thelaunch on the market, the manufacturability of the product and the overallchannel flow or channel reach. Beta versions are not ready for a completerelease in fact they are considered as preview stage or technical preview (TP).Beta versions stand at an intermediate step in the full development cycle.Developers release either a closed beta or an open beta; closed betas versions arereleased to a select group of individuals for a user test, while open betas are to a 47
  48. 48. larger community group, usually the general public. The testers report anybugs that they found and sometimes minor features they would like to see inthe final version. An example of a major public beta test was when Microsoftstarted releasing regular Windows Vista Community Technology Previews(CTP) to beta testers starting in January 2005. Exploring new software and webapplications in the web, it seems that many of these versions maintain the Betastage longer than usual. For example Gmail and Google News, for example, hadbeen in beta for a long period of time and were not expected to drop the betastatus despite the fact that they were widely used; however, Google News didleave beta in January 2006. This technique may also allow a developer to delayoffering full support and/or responsibility for remaining issues. In the context ofWeb 2.0, people even talk of perpetual betas to signify that some software ismeant to stay in beta state.In the “Openness” dynamic we have observed a complete freedom in creation,share, use of software and web applications without talking anytime aboutcopyrights or “some” rights of producer, developers and programmers. Here Iwant to introduce the breakthrough energy of the complex world of copyrightsand licences: creative commons.1.4.1.4 Creative Commons56CC is a non-profit organization founded by Lawrence Lessig and launched in200157, devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others56 Lessig, L. Free Culture New York: Penguin Press 2004 chapter 848
  49. 49. legally to build upon and share. CC has released several copyright licensesknown as “CC Licenses” which restrict only certain rights of the work or none,depending on the one chosen by the creator. These licenses allow you to protectyour copyright ownership while allowing other to make derivative works, andstipulating whether you only want to non-commercial or commercial useamong many other options. For example if you have an audio track you’d liketo let other people post freely or sample, just affix a CC license and the world isnow free to use it58.The diffusion of this flexible and hassle-free option counter the effects of whatCC consider to be a dominant and increasingly restrictive permission culture; asCC founder Lawrence Lessig sad: ”…a culture in which creators get to create onlywith the permission of the powerful, or of creators of the past ”. Lessig maintains thatmodern culture is dominated by traditional content distributors in order tomaintain and strengthen their monopolies on cultural products as cinema orpopular music, and that CC can provides alternatives to these restrictions.The CC licenses’ intention is to avoid the problems current copyright lawscreate for the sharing of information; for this CC provides first several freelicenses that copyright owners can use when releasing their works on the weband for second the organization makes available a “Founder Copyright”contract intended to re-create the effects of the original U.S. Copyright createdby the founders of the U.S. Constitution.Nowadays several millions pages of web content use CC licences and here afew examples:57 Lessig, L. Creative Commons and the Remix Culture (mp3). Talking with Talis Retrieved, 7 April200758 ccmixter.org/ 49
  50. 50. ∗ Portals, aggregation, and archives: Flickr, Internet Archive, Wikimedia Commons, Ourmedia, deviantART, ccMixter ∗ Formal publications: Public Library of Science, Proceedings of Science, Sino-Platonic Papers ∗ Instructional materials: MIT OpenCourseWare, Clinical Skills Online, MIMA Music, Second Life Open SLedware ∗ Collaborative content: Wikinews, Wikitravel, Memory Alpha, Uncyclopedia, Jurispedia, Microsoft Developer Network, Open Architecture Network and many other wikis ∗ Blogs, Videoblogs, and Podcasts: Groklaw, This Week in Tech, : Rocketboom, Jet Set Show, newspaperindex ∗ Journalism: 20 minutes newspaper, Blast Magazine, lifestyle magazine ∗ Cartography: OpenStreetMap ∗ Progressive culture: Jamendo, BeatPick, Revver, GarageBand.com, blip.tv ∗ Counterculture: Star Wreck ∗ Movies: Elephants Dream, Bumper stickers, Bumperactive ∗ Photos and images: Everystockphoto.com - Search engine and member bookmarking for Creative Commons Photo, Open Clip Art Library ∗ Porn: The Good Girl ∗ Record labels: BeatPick, Comfort Stand Recordings, Jamendo, Kahvi Collective, Krayola Records, LOCA Records, Magnatune, OnClassical, Opsound, Small Brain Records, Quote Unquote Records, Thinner/Autoplate, Vosotros MusicBeside CC Licenses, the organization has spawn a new mash up platform called“ccmixter.org” where participants can remix CC-licensed content and share itwith the community. The site offers the access at different content and this is50
  51. 51. effectively creating a possibility for a kind of creativity that otherwise wouldjust not have been allowed.Many not-just amateur band are getting involved such as Beastie Boys, Nineinch Nails and many others. These bands see fan-created remixes as a way toconnect with their audience encouraging mash ups and new creations. This isonly a little step in the direction to led people being co-producers of the contentcreated and it is significantly important because the direction point to thedemocratization of content and production tools. An example are the BeastieBoys that on October 2004 they decided to get their fans involved to helpmaking a documentary film and upcoming concert. The group recruited fiftyfans selected by internet, equipped with Hi8 video cameras and set them loosein Madison Square Garden with the instruction to film all the concert from thebeginning until it was over. The resulting product was an amazing collage ofamateur videos - called “Awesome: I fucking shot that!” – produced using morethan one hundred hours of footage. That was the “democratization offilmmaking”: led people free to engage, interact and remix content thanks toeasy to access productive tools such as a video camera. The Beastie Boysexample introduces the second dynamic which studies the power ofparticipation, of sharing content and use of participative productive tools; infew words we introduce the “power to people” paragraph.1.4.2 Second Dynamic: Decentralized ParticipationDP is one of the three main forces of the Web 2.0 ( in add at web applicationsand user identity/data ) and in my opinion is the most important. Every aspectof Web 2.0 is driven by participation. The transition and evolution to Web 2.0 51
  52. 52. was enabled by the emergence of web platforms such as blogging socialnetworks, free image and video uploading that collectively allowed extremelyeasy content creation and sharing by anyone. But this participation isdecentralized. Web 2.0 is decentralized in its usage, participation andarchitecture. From distributing applications and content over many computersand systems emerges power and flexibility. This potential come frommaintaining them not on centralized systems59.Talking about participation the first aspect of this powerful dynamic is the hugeamount of inputs ( active and passive ) the user share between each others. Theshare is the connection between active and passive inputs. Imagine when youupload a video for example on YouTube there are many people who watchyour creation and give a rate or a comment on it: this is the perfect “share cycle”in which there is an active inputs which is followed by an opposite passiveinput. This connection between two inputs is possible thanks to the shareplatform in which the UGC is placed. Sharing is the glue of the inputsinfrastructure of participation. The perfect example of this share of content,information, profiles comes from two creation of Web 2.0: blogs and SocialNetworks.1.4.2.1 BlogosphereA skyrocketing example of this sharing experience between users and theirinputs is made by the blogosphere: a self organized network of over 50 millionpersonal commentary sites that are updated every second of the day60. Blogging59 rossdawsonblog.com/weblog/archives/2007/05/launching_the_w.html60 technorati.com/pop/blogs/52
  53. 53. makes easy to people to build their personal website in which they could talkabout whatever they want, to whomever they want in the outside world61. Itneeds only ten minutes a day to publish contents and information. At a highlevel we can say that blogs represent a simple publication system by which anindividual or small group can rapidly and regularly distribute content via theinternet with little oversight62. Today the blogging phenomenon points the wayto the most profound changes the new web will wreak on the economy. Blogshave been described as the biggest coffeehouse of the earth. In their simplicitythey capture a moment-to-moment picture of people’s thoughts and feelingsabout things happening right now, turning the web from a collection of staticdocuments in to a running conversation. This “face to face” structure interest alot enterprises which are building their own company-blog talking aboutinsight news or products releases. Firms use blogs as focus groups “listeningin” on what people are saying about their company or products. Only somenumbers: 50 million blogs registered, 1.5 million blog posts daily and a newblog created every second. Though the majority of blogs are not yet of a qualityto compete with commercial media, they point to the increasing ease withwhich end users can create their own news and entertainment and bypassestablished sources. Hundreds of communities of interest are forming wherepeople engage in lively exchange of information and views around everythingfrom knitting to nanotechnology. The potential for blogs to become richer andmore engaging will only grow as people build audio and video into their posts.Blogs and recently other forms of media, are aggregated using a technologycalled RSS. This turns the web into something programmable like TiVo – a61 Greg Reinacker, Founder and CTO of NewsGator Technologies62 Axup, J. Methods of Understanding and Designing for Mobile Communities InformationTechnology and Electrical Engineering Ph.D. Thesis July 2006 53
  54. 54. flowing stream of entertainment and news choices that individual users haveasked for, perhaps stripped of commercial messages. With RSS the informationcome directly to you usually in an aggregator called RSS Aggregator likeNetvibes or Mozilla Thunderbird: no lose of time surfing dozens of websites toread and catch the last news, but a single web application which aggregate fastand all the updates of your interests. To have an idea here will be mentionedthe top ten most viewed Italian non-commercial blogs and in the second figurethe top ten most viewed blogs worldwide63: 1. Pandemia ( Pandemia.info ) 2. Blog di Beppe Grillo ( beppegrillo.it ) 3. Manteblog ( mantellini.it ) 4. Macchianera ( macchianera.net ) 5. Andrea Beggi ( andreabeggi.net ) 6. Wittgenstein ( Wittgenstein.it ) 7. Edit 8. Sw4n ( sw4n.net ) 9. Daveblog ( daveblog.net ) 10. Blog Italia Blog ( blogitalia.it ) Figure 3: Top 10 most viewed Italian Blog Source : Technorati on August 2007 1. Engadget - technology, gadgets and electronic 2. Boing Boing - weblog of cultural curiosities and interesting technologies. Its the most popular blog in the world, as ranked by Technorati.com, and won the Lifetime Achievement and Best Group Blog awards at the 2006 Bloggies ceremony 3. Gizmodo - the gadget guide 4. Techcrunch 5. Breaking News and Opinion on The Huffington Post 6. Lifehacker - tips and downloads to get things done 7. Ars Technica the Art of Technology - News, analysis, and in depth coverage of technology63 technorati.com/pop/blogs/ August 200754
  55. 55. 8. Daily Kos: State of the Nation 9. PostSecret - PostSecret is an ongoing community art project where people mail in their secrets on one side of a homemade postcard 10. Tmz.com Figure 4: Top 10 most viewed Blog Worldwide Source : Technorati on August 20071.4.2.2 Social NetworksThe second amazing example of how people create content and share it thanksto the web platform are the Social Networks.A list of the major social network websites in the world here divided accordingto name, description of the main purpose, members and registration policies64give us the idea that we are “not alone”.For Social Networking we mean different abilities to manage and useparticipative tools the web is offering, building community in which peoplemeet each others, share profiles, interest, contents, images and videos. Is clearthat in Social Networks people manage a lot of information, tools and contents;they share their inputs and build connections with friends and people withsame hobbies or interests. The first thing you have to do entering a socialnetwork is creating your public profile. In this section you build the “image”the other users will have of you inside the network. Than when you are inside,a world of actions will open in front of you. You can: ∗ Invite or be invited at seminars, meetings and parties ∗ Manage a lot of online relationships with people from all over the world ∗ Find information about people, events and data from the web world64 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_networking_websites - Remixed 55
  56. 56. ∗ Share UGC – specially images, video, text and all the things you find interesting when surfing the web ∗ Meet new friends and get in touch with people you didn’t now directly ∗ Doing business and start collaborationsWhat’s the object of being part of a social network? First receive endorsementby other users and friends; cross profiling; enlarge personal knowledge andbeing upload of what is happening; exchange opinions and contents; influencedifferent audiences. Phenomena like MySpace, Facebook, flickr, 43 Things,Technorati, and del.icio.us aren’t just web sites, they are dynamic onlinecommunities where sprawling and vibrant web of interaction are forming. Nowthis generation of youthful users is bringing the same interactive ethos intoeveryday life, including work, education, and consumption65.Social Networks are growing much faster than the traditional “portals” such asYahoo! for example. A good question here is nice to answer is if the SocialNetworks will became the new portals: this is known as the portal paradigm. Inthe portal paradigm we underscore the difference between “companygenerated content” – the portal - and “user generated content” – the socialnetwork.Majority of youngster users are spending more domestic time ( 51% ) on user-generated sites vs. traditional sites; users with age between 25 and 41 spend35% of their time on UGC sites; last users between 42-60 spend 27% of theirtime. ( appendix 3 )Sometimes people thinks, Social Network as phenomenon for kids or youngweb users, but the data and studies demonstrate that the largest user group of65 See note 54 pp. 3656
  57. 57. Social Networking is older with an age between 35-54 years66. (appendix 2 )This segment of internet user count for an astonishing 38.9% of the entireinternet traffic on the top 5 Social Network sites. In MySpace for example on thehuge number of more than 70 millions unique visitors, the 42.3% of theme arepeople pertaining at this middle age category. Until now we have understandthat Social Network phenomenon is not only a “Kid affair” but it is a global andcross ageing revolution: but how big is this social revolution? Starting toconsider the total internet users in the world: we arrive at the number of 772 Mwhich recognizes a YoY growth of 9%. In this total number of internet surfers,the Social Network traffic attracts 454 M users (59% of the total). To do acomparison, in US on a total number of more than 170 M domestic internetusers, the 64% ( 115 M users ) use and be on SN sites. Also Social Networkenvironment growth in a tremendous way; here the year 2006-2007 growthregistered from the first and most important Social Networking sites: ∗ Facebook 47M users – 235% of growth ∗ Bebo.com 17.2M users – 181% of growth ∗ Flickr 26.8M users – 102% of growth ∗ MySpace 109.5M users – 78% of growth ∗ Orkut 23M users – 77% of growth ∗ Hi5 28.5M users – 37% of growth ∗ Friendster 24.7M users – 74% of growthTo underscore the amazing growth of the SN sites, if we consider thegeographical shift of mix happened to realities such as Facebook’s and66 Robert Peck, Bear Stearns Internet analyst What should Yahoo! do regarding Social Networks?Bear Stearns Report August 2007 57
  58. 58. MySpace’s users, we understand the global impact and diffusion of SNdynamics. In 2006 Facebook had the 99,8% of users coming from the US; now in2007 this percentage decrease to a 56,45% for domestic traffic and a 43,55% ofoutside US traffic. The same speech denote MySpace’s users composition: in2006 MySpace users were divided for a 83,46% on US and a small 16,54%outside US; now in 2007 MySpace counts a 62,94% of US users and a 37,06% ofoutside US users. According of comScore June 2007 report about SN, we canprovide the visualization of the region in which each SN is going better orworst, among internet users with an age of 15+.Figure 5: Domestic vs. International traffic on MySpace and FacebookSource : Robert Peck, Bear Stearns Internet analyst What should Yahoo! do regarding SocialNetworks? Bear Stearns Report August 2007For each Worldwide region we see a different structure of percentage and SNusers. ∗ North America: there’s a strong battle between MySpace (62.1%) and Facebook (68.4%) for the dominium of the US SN market; than follow Tagged an Bebo with percentage close to 20% each.58
  59. 59. ∗ Latin America: here dominate the Google employee’s creation named Orkut with 48.9% of reached users; than follow Hi5 with a 24.1% and the other SN players with miserable percentages under 5%. ∗ Europe: here comes the truth; in Europe the market is fractioned in percentage from the 62.5% of Bebo, 31% of Hi5, 24.7% of MySpace, 23.4% of Tagged and 16.8% of Facebook. ∗ Middle East – Africa: here the market is not so crowded caused to the lower internet access capabilities of these countries and the low level of GDP; the underscore the 10% of Tagged, 8.7% of Hi5 and the 5.7% of Facebook. ∗ Asia Pacific: Friendster is dominant with 88.7% of SN users followed by Orkut with 43%, Tagged with 29.2%, Hi5 20.8% and Bebo with 13.9%. In this region the two stronger player of SN challenge are positioned on percentage respectively of 8.1% for MySpace and 7.1% for Facebook.Another important data to consider when we talk about SN, are the “PageViews” - PVs. The PVs represent the number of pages visited and surfed byusers in a defined period of time; also this “value” could be translated into theappeal of the site, the interest and fun generated into users, the time spent byusers: in few words the PVs indicate how the level of interest, use and share ofSN site’s contents. At May 2007 the total number of page viewed were close to 2BN ( 1.944.666.000 ) PVs, signing a YoY growth of the 6%; the total number ofpage views in SN site were 222 M. But let see more in specific the PVs in eachSN site at May 2007 with the relative growth from the year 2006: ∗ MySpace 50.6 M ( 76% ) ∗ Orkut 34.5 M ( 70% ) 59
  60. 60. ∗ Facebook 29.88 ( 355% ) ∗ Bebo.com 11.2 M ( 415% ) ∗ Friendster 8.99M ( 311% ) ∗ Hi5 7.2 M ( 51% )1.4.2.3 Platform for participationWeb 2.0, in particular the second dynamic of “Decentralized participation”underscore the importance of a platform. With these platforms, people have adestination and a “common” place where “hang out” to find their friends, talk,share and spend a good time. Having a good place to go in the Web is theperfect recipe to allow people to enjoy in deep their time, interact and createvalue like content, posts, video. UGC contribute to the single satisfaction butalso, considering a higher level, to people Web shared experience. Consideringthe term “Peer Production”67 in its purest form, it is a way of producing goodsand services that relies entirely on self-organizing, egalitarian communities ofindividuals who come together voluntarily to produce a shared outcome68. Thisis the peer-oriented approach coming from the academia, of researchers anduniversities and it is spreading to the Web 2.0 and its inhabitants. Users andpeople living in the web platform create, produce and share their ownproduction without imagine the final structure that all the user’s contributionswill draw. In this new era every act of consumption ( watching a video orsharing a picture, bookmarking a webpage or comment a post in a blog ) is67 Yochai Benkler, Linux and the nature of the firm Yale Law Journal vol.112, 200368 See note 54 pp.6760
  61. 61. becoming an act of creation69: all users have private benefits but also they createcollective benefits as well. These collective benefits yield a richer Webexperience and enhance “the wisdom of crowds”70. Platforms like Google,Technorati, Flickr or del.icio.us merely borrow this power to create value fromthe single to all the users71.Don Tapscott was the first Web analyst to call it “collective intelligence” withthe following meaning: “…the aggregate knowledge that emerges from thedecentralized choices and judgements of groups of independent participants” 72.As the author James Surowiecki says: “The ability to pool the knowledge of millions( if not billions ) of users in a self organizing fashion demonstrates how masscollaboration is turning the Web in something not completely unlike a global brain”.73A perfect example could be the one of Amazon that harnesses the collectiveintelligence to provide better services and increase its revenues. When you shopon Amazon you don’t benefit only from the distributed rating system thatenable customers to review books but also from a sophisticated system thatsearches for similarities among the purchases of all Amazon customers in orderto suggest books that probably you’ll like to discover and read. To give anothersimple example, think about tags: as Wired cofounder Kevin Kelly describes asa “public annotation”. Tags allow people to classify and organize the Webcontent, simply affixing descriptive labels or keywords on content. This is whatin Web 2.0 dictionary is called “metadata”, or data about data. Collecting all the69 See note 54 pp. 20870 Surowiecki, J. The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter than the Few and How CollectiveWisdom Shapes Business, Economies, Societies and Nations Doubleday 200471 Jarvis, J. Who owns the wisdom of crowd? Buzzmachine.com, 26 October 200672 Don Tapscott, The digital economy: promise and peril in the age of networked intelligence NY:McGraw Hill, 199673 See note 70 61
  62. 62. people action and tagging, systems like YouTube could organize all the content,del.icio.us organize my bookmarks or platform like Flickr allow my mom toeasily find pictures about interior design.People participate with great results to other’s success and satisfaction in theirweb experience. We saw that participation is feasible thanks to the easy-to-access productive tools and the presence, upon all the stuff, of a platform whichmanage user’s interaction and permit applications to run. In this environmentthere’s no physical limitation although the time. Information and content areavailable 24/7, with infinite shades and typologies. Every user can contribute togenerate, share and assimilate information thanks to a platform which allowspeople to match their interests, passions and curiosity. Thanks to this, peopleare not fragmented, disconnected: but they are linked together in differentdimensions; these dimensions can be infinite and people can merge in multiplecategory of interests. The Web 2.0 era is characterized by the idea of “The LongTail”74, a culture not filtered by the economic scarcity. We talked that people re-organize in different dimensions, with information available and alwayssharable; with Web 2.0 we have to forget the idea of Mass Market, and embracethe revolutionary theme of a market made by a mass of niches. A person canbuilt his or her niche of interests because there’s better, faster and more efficientaccess to sources of information, sharing and creation of content. Users followtheir interest segmenting by themselves the market and giving up the idea thatin the web platform one size product fits all.75This theory is confirmed by the same Web 2.0 environment, formed by smallsite-companies which make up the bulk of the internet content and traffic. Inthe figure we can appreciate the idea that the web platform has small citizens,74 Anderson, C. La coda lunga Codice Edizioni, 200775 See note 74 pp. 3162

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