The curriculum

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  • 1. The Curriculum: SomePsychological, Social andHistorical Bases• Teaching and Learning• Recent Trends in Curriculum Development
  • 2. TEACHINGAND LEARNING
  • 3. TeachingWhat is teaching?
  • 4. Teaching Something taught
  • 5. Teaching is purposely, focused and intended to produce change in cognitive knowledge, interest, attitude, skill in producing a task and so on. (Javier et.al, 2009)
  • 6. LearningWhat is learning?
  • 7. Learning acquisition of knowledge or skill
  • 8. Teaching and Learning learning has occurred, teaching has occurred versus teaching has occurred, learning has occurred
  • 9. Teaching and Learning learning has occurred, teaching has occurred versus teaching has occurred, learning has occurred There can be learning where there has no teaching or self – learning
  • 10. Teaching and Learning learning has occurred, teaching has occurred versus teaching has occurred, learning has occurred There can be learning where there has no teaching or self – learning Teaching can result in little in or no learning at all
  • 11. Teaching and Learning each child learns much more, then he is taught as part of the curriculum
  • 12. Teaching and Learning each child learns much more, then he is taught as part of the curriculum School accepts responsibility
  • 13. Teaching and Learning each child learns much more, then he is taught as part of the curriculum School accepts responsibility Curriculum are planned sequentially so that many learner needs; social, spiritual, emotional, intellectual and physical will be satisfied.
  • 14. Teaching and Learning No one has ever seen another learn.
  • 15. Teaching and Learning No one has ever seen another learn. Iceberg theory - “we see only the tip of the iceberg”
  • 16. Teaching and Learning No one has ever seen another learn. Iceberg theory - “we see only the tip of the iceberg” Changed behavior is not learning; it is the result of learning.
  • 17. Teaching and Learning No one has ever seen another learn. Iceberg theory - “we see only the tip of the iceberg” Changed behavior is not learning; it is the result of learning.
  • 18. Teaching and Learning Learning occurs through experience, and since the result of this experience is manifest in modified behavior of the child, teachers cannot “pour in” facts, skills, attitudes and knowledge.
  • 19. Teaching and Learning Learning occurs through experience, and since the result of this experience is manifest in modified behavior of the child, teachers cannot “pour in” facts, skills, attitudes and knowledge. Children learn because they have a purpose or a goal.
  • 20. Teaching and Learning Curriculum is based on the recognition that maturation factors and experiential background conditions readiness to learn.
  • 21. Teaching and Learning Curriculum is based on the recognition that maturation factors and experiential background conditions readiness to learn. Rote learning is uneconomical
  • 22. Teaching and Learning Curriculum is based on the recognition that maturation factors and experiential background conditions readiness to learn. Rote learning is uneconomical Memorization and mere accumulation of information is a poor substitute for learning how to reason properly.
  • 23. Teaching and Learning Curriculum reflects concepts of child growth and development and psychology of learning.
  • 24. Teaching and Learning The child is not a passive recipient of stimulation. He reaches out for it according to the maturity of his total and partial growth and the energy at his disposal. He reacts selectively to the surroundings experience within them. He tends to reject the experiences for which he is not ready (Olson and Hughes, 1976)
  • 25. RECENT TRENDSIN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
  • 26. Recent Trends inCurriculum Development Curriculum reform seems to have followed a similar course in the paucity of understanding by the youth in each subject area precipitated by the curriculum changes. Pressures for reform first occupied in mathematics, then science, the social studies, language, arts and reading, foreign languages, and finally the fine arts. Conferences called by professional organizations and supported by national funds recommended needed changes. Seminars and workshops prescribed certain courses of action to accommodate such changes in order to cope up with changing times.
  • 27. ELEVENGENERALIZATIONS REGARDING THEHYPOTHESIS ABOUT LEARNING AND TEACHING
  • 28. Eleven Generalizations Regarding TheHypothesis About Learning And Teaching1. The traditional readinessconcept of deferment ofinstruction until children mature isrejected. It can be said that pupilscan be introduced to a subject asearly as desired, provided it ispresented properly and the pupilshave the perquisite background orexperience
  • 29. Eleven Generalizations Regarding TheHypothesis About Learning And Teaching2. Transfer of learning and futurelearning are enhanced whenemphasis is given to basicconcepts, generalizations, andprocesses of inquiry of wideapplicability.
  • 30. Eleven Generalizations Regarding TheHypothesis About Learning And Teaching3. The guided discovery ofrelationships by the studentsresults in more efficient andpermanent learning than dodidactic approaches in whichchildren learn about theconclusion reached by others.
  • 31. Eleven Generalizations Regarding TheHypothesis About Learning And Teaching4. Interest and motivation may begenerated through the lure ofdiscovery within the subject itself,not in peripheral matters, asstudents are guided to raisequestions, discover relationships,interpret findings, formulateprinciples and engage in otheraspects of inquiry.
  • 32. Eleven Generalizations Regarding TheHypothesis About Learning And Teaching5. Meaningful verbal learninginvolves the organizing orstructuring of facts into conceptualschemes or systems that can beused to generate ideas, raisequestions or make newinterpretations.
  • 33. Eleven Generalizations Regarding TheHypothesis About Learning And Teaching6. Inductive approaches arefavored because of their value inpromoting discovery, butdeductive approaches are evidentin experiences designed todevelop skill explaining new facts,formulating hypothesis, makinginference and interpretinginformation.
  • 34. Eleven Generalizations Regarding TheHypothesis About Learning And Teaching7. The study of selected topics indepths is more conductive to thediscovery of relationships than issuperficial coverage of masses ofmaterial.
  • 35. Eleven Generalizations Regarding TheHypothesis About Learning And Teaching8. Depths and breadth oflearning are attained throughrecurring encounters withconcepts, processes, theories,models and generalizations onhigher cognitive levels and innew context.
  • 36. Eleven Generalizations Regarding TheHypothesis About Learning And Teaching9. Learning is enhancedwhen there is conceptualand process continuityfrom unit to unit andthroughout a program ofinstruction.
  • 37. Eleven Generalizations Regarding TheHypothesis About Learning And Teaching10. The solving of problemsby students aides conceptdevelopment and enhancesthe ability to put principlesto use, and lead to thedevelopment of higher –order principles.
  • 38. Eleven Generalizations Regarding TheHypothesis About Learning And Teaching11. Emphasis on the organizing orstructuring of ideas helps studentsto develop a grasp ofrelationships, improves theirability to remember and retrieveideas, provides a basis forgenerating new ideas, andpromotes transfer of learning.
  • 39. What is the differencebetween life and school?
  • 40. “The difference betweenschool and life? In school,youre taught a lesson andthen given a test. In life,youre given a test thatteaches you a lesson.”TOM BODETT, American author, voiceactor and radio host
  • 41. REFERENCE Javier, Rodrigo B., et.al. A Learning Packing in Developing a Curriculum, Malabon City, Jimczyville Publication, 2009, pp. 19 -24 www.google.com/images
  • 42. DOWNLOAD LINKhttp://www.slideshare.net/jaredram55 E-mail: jaredram55@yahoo.com
  • 43. THANK YOU VERY MUCH!Prepared by:JARED RAM A. JUEZANMAEd – Educational ManagementNovember 20, 2012