PSYC 1113 Chapter 13


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Include discussion in class about ways in which feelings of alienation and loss of identity can occur when one is adapting to a new culture. How does this impact the person’s home life? School life? Social life?
  • PSYC 1113 Chapter 13

    1. 1. IntroChapter 13:Stress, Health, andCoping
    2. 2. Stress• A negative emotional state in responseto events that we perceive as taxing ourresources or our ability to cope• Stressors—events that are perceived asharmful, threatening, or challenging• Daily hassles—everyday minor events thatannoy and upset people
    3. 3. Biopsychosocial Model of Health• Biopsychosocial model—the belief thatphysical health and illness are determinedby the complex interaction of biological,psychological, and social factors• Health psychology—the study of howpsychological factors influence health,illness, and health-related behaviors
    4. 4. • Change is stressful.– For example, death, marriage,divorce, loss of job, having children,retirementLife Changes
    5. 5. •Annoying events in everyday life• We all have “bad hair” days; theseminor things can add up to lots of stressDaily Hassles
    6. 6. Unpredictable, large-scale events can beextremely stressful and change our lives;can lead to PTSDCatastrophes
    7. 7. ConflictPull between two opposing desires or goals• Approach-approach conflict– choice between 2 appealing outcomes– easy to resolve, low stress• Avoidance-avoidance conflict– choice between 2 unappealing outcomes– more stressful than approach-approach• Approach-avoidance conflict– one goal with both appealing and unappealingaspects– most stressful type of conflict– often see vacillation
    8. 8. Social and CulturalSources of Stress• Social conditions that promote stress– poverty, racism, crime– lowest SES tend to have highest levelsof stress• Culture clashes lead to stress– company owned by different culture– refugees, immigrants suffer– acculturative stress
    9. 9. Social and CulturalSources of Stress• Acculturative stress—the stress thatresults from the pressure of adaptingto a new culture
    10. 10. Health Effects of Stress• Indirect effects promote behaviorsthat jeopardize physical well being;use of drugs, lack of sleep, poorconcentration• Direct effects promote changes inbody functions, leading to illness suchas headaches and other physicalsymptoms
    11. 11. Endocrine Responses to Stress• Fight or flight preparation of body• Stress hormones—produced byadrenal glands– Adrenal medulla—catecholamines• Epinephrine and norepinephrine• Increases respiration, BP, heart rate– Adrenal cortex—corticosteroids• Release stored energy• Reduces inflammation and immunesystem responses
    12. 12. General Adaptation Syndrome• Hans Selye• Three-stage processAlarm—intense arousal, mobilization of physicalresources (catecholamines)Resistive—body actively resists stressors(corticosteroids)Exhaustion—more intense arousal but this leadsto physical exhaustion and physical disorders
    13. 13. General Adaptation SyndromePhase 1:AlarmReactionPhase 2:Resistance(cope)Phase 3:ExhaustionStressResistance
    14. 14. Stress and the Immune System• Psychoneuroimmunology—studies interactionbetween nervous system, endocrine system,and immune system• Stress leads to suppressed immune function• Chronic stress tends to have more influence• A stress-weakened immune system increaseslikelihood of illness
    15. 15. Your immune system battlesbacteria, viruses, and otherforeign invaders that try to setup housekeeping in yourbody. The specialized whiteblood cells that fight infectionare manufactured in the bonemarrow and are stored in thethymus, spleen, and lymphnodes until needed.
    16. 16. Response to Stress• Psychological Factors– Perception of control– Explanatory style– Chronic negative emotions– Hostility• Social Factors– Outside resources– Friends and family– Positive relationships
    17. 17. Perceived Control• Sense of control decreases stress,anxiety, and depression• Perceptions of control must berealistic to be adaptive
    18. 18. Explanatory Style• Optimism– use external, unstable, and specificexplanations for negative events– predicts better health outcomes• Pessimism– use internal, stable, and globalexplanations for negative events– predicts worse health outcomes
    19. 19. Stress, Personality,and Heart Disease• Coronary heart disease is North America’sleading cause of death• Habitually grouchy people tend to havepoorer health outcomes• Chronic negative emotions have anegative effect on immune system
    20. 20. Type A vs. Type B Personality• Type A– time urgency– intense ambition and competitiveness– general hostility– associated with heart disease• Type B– more easygoing– not associated with heart disease
    21. 21. Research on Type A Personality• Time urgency andcompetitiveness notassociated with poorhealth outcomes• Negative emotions,anger, aggressivereactivity• High levels of hostilityincrease chance of alldisease (eg, cancer)
    22. 22. Social Factors Promoting HealthSocial support—resources provided byothers in times of need• Emotional—expressions of concern,empathy, positive regard• Tangible—direct assistance, such aslending money, providing meals• Informational—such as making goodsuggestions, advice, good referrals
    23. 23. Social Support• Improves ability to cope with stress and benefitshealth– person modifies appraisal of stressor’ssignificance to be less threatening– helps to decrease intensity of physicalreactions to stress– make person less likely to experience negativeemotions• Pets as social support– especially for elderly and people who livealone• Gender and social support
    24. 24. CopingBehavioral and cognitive responsesused to deal with stressors; involvesefforts to change circumstances, or ourinterpretation of them to make themmore favorable and less threatening.
    25. 25. Coping• Problem-focused coping– managing or changing the stressor– use if problem seems alterable– confrontive coping– planful problem solving• Emotion-focused coping– try to feel better about situation– use if problem out of our control
    26. 26. Emotion-Focused Coping Strategies• Escape-avoidance—try to escapestressor• Distancing—minimize impact ofstressor• Denial—refuse to acknowledgeproblem exists
    27. 27. Emotion-Focused Coping Strategies• Wishful thinking—imagining stressor ismagically gone• Seeking social support—turn to friends,support people• Positive reappraisal—minimizenegative, emphasize positive• Downward comparison—compare selfwith those less fortunate
    28. 28. Culture and Coping– Individualist• less likely to seek social support• favor problem-focused coping– Collectivist• more oriented toward social support• favor emotion-focused coping
    29. 29. Active Coping Strategies• Aerobic exercise can reducestress, depression, and anxiety.• More effective than relaxationtreatment
    30. 30. Relaxation• Meditation can lower bloodpressure, heart rate, and oxygenconsumption.• Possibly helps stress-relatedsymptoms