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PSYC 1113 Chapter 8
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  • 1. IntroChapter 8:Motivation andEmotion
  • 2. Motivation Concepts andTheoriesMotivation—factors within and outside an organism thatcause it to behave a certain way at a certain timeDrive—an internal condition or impulse that activatesbehavior to reduce a need and restore homeostasisIncentive—external goal that “pulls” or “pushes”behavior
  • 3. Theories of MotivationInstinct—motives are innateDrive—biological needs as motivationIncentive—extrinsic things push or pull behaviorArousal—people are motivated to maintain optimum level ofarousal (A person high in sensation seeking tends to look forexciting, perhaps risky activities)Humanistic—hierarchy of needs; psychological and cognitivefactors
  • 4. Drives as Tissue Needs•Homeostasis—the constancy of internal conditions that thebody must actively maintain•Drives may be due to an upset in homeostasis, inducingbehavior to correct the imbalance•Animals do behave in accordance with their tissue needs(e.g., increasing or decreasing caloric intake, drive for salt)•However, homeostasis cannot explain all drives.
  • 5. Hunger Drive
  • 6. Eating Behavior•What are considered “normal” foodchoices depend on culture•Can be related to one’s mood
  • 7. Energy Homeostasis•Calories consumed=Calories expended•Food is broken down by enzymes, absorbed by intestines•Glucose, or blood sugar, is converted as a source of energy•Insulin helps control glucose and regulate eating and weight•Basal metabolic rate is resting rate•Adipose tissue (body fat) is main source of stored calories•Baseline body weight—cluster of genetic and environmentalfactors that cause a person’s weight to settle within a givenrange
  • 8. Hunger Drive: RegulatingEating•Physiological changes:-slight drop in blood glucose-Ghrelin: internal “signal” stimulates secretion ofgrowth hormone by pituitary gland in brain-increase in body temperature-decrease in metabolism•Psychological changes:-stimuli can be associated with anticipation of eating(operant conditioning)-preference for certain tastes (positive incentive value)
  • 9. Hunger Drive: RegulatingEating•Satiation signals:-stretch receptors communicating sensory information-signals from the stomach (CCK)-sensory-specific satiety-appeal diminishes•Long-term signals:-leptin, a hormone indicating the amountof fat in the body-signals indicating the amount of foodmolecules in the blood (insulin)-Neuropeptide Y (NPY), neurotransmitter regulated by leptinand insulin
  • 10. Changes over Lifespan•Set-point theory: body has optimal bodyweight•Settling-point models: body weightsettles balance between energy intakeand expenditure
  • 11. Excess Weight andObesity•Body mass index (BMI) —numerical scale indicatingheight in relation to weight•Obesity—condition characterized by excessive bodyfat and a BMI equal to or greater than 30.0•Overweight—condition characterized by BMI between25.0 and 29.9•More than 1/3 of adult U.S. population considered to beoverweight
  • 12. Factors in Weight Gain•Lack of sleep•Highly palatable foods•Overeating•More variety=more consumed (“Cafeteria diet”)•Sedentary lifestyle•Variation in Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)•Weight cycling (“yo-yo dieting”)—repeated dieting,weight loss and weight gain tends to result in higherweight and reduced BMR.
  • 13. Basal Metabolic RateThe rate at which the body uses energy for vitalfunctions while at restFactors that influence BMR:•Age•Sex•Size•Genetics•Food intake
  • 14. Factors Involved inObesity•Genetic susceptibility•Environmental conditions•Leptin resistance•BMR resistance to maintaining weight loss•Role of Dopamine receptors (cause or consequenceunknown)
  • 15. Research on Weight Regulation andDieting•Body better at defending against weight loss than weight gain•Fat cells are determined by genetics and food intake.•They increase with weight gain, but merely shrink with weight loss;may stimulate hunger•Weight loss causes a decline in basal metabolism.Fat cellsNormaldietHigh-fatdietReturn tonormal diet
  • 16. Effects of Culture and Habits onBody Weight•In America, focus is on the “thin ideal”•Reality: the “expanding waistline”•2/3 of Americans are not at the weight they should be
  • 17. Humanistic TheoriesAbraham Maslow suggested that motivesare divided into several levels from basic survival needsto psychological and self-fulfillment needs
  • 18. Self-Determination TheoryOptimal human functioning can occur onlyif the psychological needs of autonomy,competence and relatedness are met.Proposed by E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan
  • 19. Self-Determination Theory•Autonomy—need to determine, control, andorganize one’s own behavior and goals•Competence—need to effectively learn and masterchallenging tasks•Relatedness—need to feel attached to others
  • 20. Self-Determination Theory•To satisfy one’s needs for autonomy, competence,and relatedness:•Intrinsic Motivation: engaging in tasks inherentlysatisfying, novel, or challenging to the person•Extrinsic Motivation: Internalizing and integratingoutside reinforcers (rewards, social evaluations)
  • 21. Competence and Achievement•Competence motivation—behavior aimed atdemonstrating competence and exerting control in asituation•Achievement motivation—behavior aimed at excelling,succeeding, or outperforming others at some activity•Henry Murray (1935) developed ThematicApperception Test (TAT) to test human motives
  • 22. Culture and AchievementMotivation•Individualistic cultures more focused onpersonal, individual success rather thansuccess of group, closely linked to success incompetitive tasks•Collectivistic cultures orientation is toward thesocial, promoting one’s group and/or family
  • 23. Concept of Emotion•A complex psychological state that involves subjectiveexperience, a physiological response, and a behavioral orexpressive response.•Emotion moves us to act, to set goals, make rationaldecisions•Emotional intelligence involves the ability to manage andunderstand one’s own emotional experiences as well asbe attuned to that of others
  • 24. The Evolution of Emotion•Darwin argued that emotions reflect evolutionaryadaptations to the problems of survival and reproduction•Emotions help us to solve adaptive problems•Move us toward resources and away from danger•Emotions are crucial to human relationships
  • 25. Basic Emotions•Fear, surprise, anger, disgust,happiness, sadness•Basic emotions are innate and “hard-wired”•Complex emotions are a blend of manyaspects of emotions
  • 26. Gender differences•Both men and women tend to viewwomen as more emotional•Men and women do not differ in their selfratings of experience of emotions, butthey do differ in their expression ofemotions
  • 27. Culture and Emotion•General agreement across culture about basicemotions•Classified along two dimensions•Pleasant or unpleasant•Level of activation or arousal associatedwith the emotion•But cultural variations do exist in the presenceof a third dimension: interpersonal engagement
  • 28. Physical Arousal and Emotions•Sympathetic nervous system is aroused withemotions (fight-or-flight response)•Different emotions stimulate differentresponses- Fear—decrease in skin temperature (cold-feet)- Anger—increase in skin temperature (hotunder the collar)
  • 29. Brain and EmotionsAmygdala•evaluate the significance of stimuli and generateemotional responses•generate hormonal secretions and autonomic reactionsthat accompany strong emotions•damage causes “psychic blindness” and the inability torecognize fear in facial expressionsand voice
  • 30. Emotion and Facial Expressions•Each basic emotion is associated with a unique facialexpression.•Facial expressions are innate and “hard-wired.”•Innate facial expressions the same across manycultures•Display rules—social and cultural rules that regulateemotional expression, especially facial expressions.
  • 31. Theories of EmotionCommon sense might suggest that theperception of a stimulus elicits emotionwhich then causes bodily arousalPerception(Interpretationof stimulus—danger)Stimulus(Tiger)Emotion(Fear)Bodilyarousal(Poundingheart)Common-Sense Theory
  • 32. James-Lange Theory
  • 33. Two-Factor Theory
  • 34. Cognitive-Appraisal Theory•Emotions result from the cognitive appraisal ofa situation’s effect on personal well-being•Similar to two-factor, but cognitive mediationaltheory’s emphasis is on the cognitive appraisalas the essential trigger for the emotionalresponse