PSYC 1113 Chapter 7

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  • key words: functional fixedness; mental set; problem solving Some examples of overcoming functional fixedness include: 1. Using a dime to unscrew something when a screwdriver cannot be found. 2. Using a book to prop open a door when a doorstop cannot be found. 3. Before a baseball game, a rainstorm occurred. They wanted to dry the field a little before beginning play, so they had a helicopter hover above the field, and the rotating helicopter blades acted as a fan and helped dry up the field.
  • key words: mental sets; problem solving; nine dots problem
  • key words: mental sets; problem solving; nine dots problem
  • key words: functional fixedness, mental set; problem solving Although students can work on this problem by simply thinking and visualizing a solution in their heads, this demonstration works better by by bringing the actual materials to class and doing a live demonstration with your students, letting them attemtp to solve the problem through trial and error. To do this task you need the folllowing materials: 1. a cork bulletin board 2. a book of matches 3. a candle 4. a BOX of thumbtacks - make sure you keep the thumbtacks in a BOX - also make sure the thumbtacks aren't too big that they can pass through your candle. The smaller the thumb tack, the better
  • key words: functional fixedness; mental sets; problem solving
  • key words: availability heuristic
  • key words: representativeness heuristic
  • Hockenbury Discovering psy p257
  • figure taken from CD-ROM, Gray text, pg. 363, figure 10.5
  • I have already used digit span tests in my lectures during the memory chapter, but an instructor who has not done so may choose to include a demonstration of digit span/working memory here.
  • Discovering Psy Fig 7.7 page 263
  • Clearly, IQ is not the only psychological construct for which this debate applies, and instructors may wish to take a moment to name the other areas (i.e., personality, mental disorders, etc.) for which heritability is hotly debated.
  • MSClip art Discussion here about the higher correlation between identical twins’ IQ scores than fraternal twins’ and whether siblings were reared together or apart and the genetic role then in intelligence
  • MS Clip art Gallery
  • PSYC 1113 Chapter 7

    1. 1. Chapter 7:Thinking, Language, andIntelligence
    2. 2. Thought• Cognition—mental activities involved inacquiring, retaining, and using knowledge• Thinking—manipulation of mentalrepresentations to draw inferences andconclusions• Mental image—representation of objectsor events that are not present
    3. 3. Concepts• Concept—mental category of objectsor ideas based on shared properties• Formal concept—mental categoryformed by learning rules• Natural concept—mental categoryformed by everyday experience
    4. 4. Examples of Concepts• Formal concept—follows rigid rules,not usually intuitive (definition of apolygon)• Natural concept—results fromeveryday experience (name somevehicles)
    5. 5. Problem-Solving StrategiesAlgorithm∑y + ∑z = r2
    6. 6. Problem-Solving StrategiesHeuristic—strategy that involvesfollowing a general rule of thumb toreduce the number of possiblesolutions
    7. 7. Insight and Intuition• Insight—sudden realization of how aproblem can be solved• Intuition—coming to a conclusionwithout conscious awareness of thethought processes involved
    8. 8. Functional Fixedness• type of mental set• inability to see an object as having afunction other than its usual one
    9. 9. Nine Dots Problem• Without lifting yourpencil or retracingany line, draw fourstraight lines thatconnect all ninedots
    10. 10. Nine Dots Mental Set• Most people will notdraw lines thatextend from thesquare formed by thenine dots• To solve the problem,you have to breakyour mental set
    11. 11. Mounting Candle Problem• Using only the objectspresent on the right,attach the candle to thebulletin board in such away that the candle canbe lit and will burnproperly
    12. 12. Answer to Candle Problem• Most people do notthink of using the boxfor anything otherthan its normal use(to hold the tacks)• To solve the problem,you have to overcomefunctional fixedness
    13. 13. Mental SetQ: Why couldn’t you solve the previousproblems?A: Mental set—a well-established habitof perception or thought
    14. 14. Decision Making• Single-feature model—make a decision byfocusing on only one feature• Additive model—systematically evaluatethe important features of each alternative• Elimination by aspects model—ratechoices based on features; eliminate thosethat do not meet the desired criteria,despite other desirable characteristics
    15. 15. Availability Heuristic• Judge probability of an event by how easilyyou can recall previous occurrences of thatevent• Most people will overestimate deaths fromnatural disasters because disasters arefrequently on TV• Most people will underestimate deaths fromasthma because they don’t make the localnews
    16. 16. Representative Heuristic• Judge probability of an event based onhow it matches a prototype• Can be good• But can also lead to errors• Most will overuse this strategy
    17. 17. Language• Language and thinking• Language and social perception• Language and gender bias• Animal communication
    18. 18. Language and Thinking• Language is a system for combiningarbitrary symbols to produce an infinitenumber of meaningful statements• The linguistic relativity hypothesis is thenotion that differences among languagescause differences in the thoughts of theirspeakers
    19. 19. Animal Communication• Animals clearly communicate with eachother, but is that language?• Some trained primates demonstrate thesame level of language comprehensionas that of an average 2-year-old child• Nonprimates can also acquire somelanguage abilities (eg, dolphins, parrots)
    20. 20. IntelligenceThe global capacity to think rationally, actpurposefully, and deal effectively withthe environment
    21. 21. Measuring Intelligence• Alfred Binet• Mental age• Chronologicalage• IQ—comparisonof people insimilar agegroups
    22. 22. Alfred Binet (1857–1911)– Intelligence—collection of higher-ordermental abilities loosely related to oneanother– Did not rank “normal” studentsaccording to the scores– Intelligence is nurtured– Binet-Simon Test developed in France,1905
    23. 23. Modern Intelligence TestsThe Stanford-Binet Scale– modification of the original Binet-Simonafter it came to the United States– intelligence quotient (IQ)—child’s mentalage divided by child’s chronological age– still used widely in the United States, butnot as much as in the past
    24. 24. Modern Intelligence TestsThe Wechsler tests–used more widely now than Stanford-Binet–modeled after Binet’s, also madeadult test• WISC-III for children• WAIS-III for adults
    25. 25. Qualities of Good Tests• Standardized—administered to largegroups of people under uniform conditionsto establish norms• Reliable—ability to produce consistentresults when administered on repeatedoccasions under similar conditions• Valid—ability to measure what the testis intended to measure
    26. 26. Standardized Scoringof Wechsler Tests• All raw scoresconverted tostandardizedscores• Normaldistribution• Mean of 100• Standarddeviation of 15
    27. 27. How Valid Are IQ tests?• Validity—test measures what it’s intended to measure• Does test correlate with other measures of sameconstruct?• School achievement– IQ tests (ie, S-B and the Wechsler) correlate highly– BUT they were designed to test what you learn inschool• Prestigious positions• On-the-job performance and other work-related variables
    28. 28. What Do IQ Tests MeasureAbout Your Mind?• Mental speed and span of workingmemory– typically use a digit span test to measure this– more recent studies find significant correlationsbetween reaction times and IQ scores• Why is this important?– mental quickness may expand capacity ofworking memory
    29. 29. Theories of Intelligence• Charles Spearman—g factor• Louis Thurstone—intelligence as aperson’s “pattern” of mental abilities• Howard Gardner—multipleintelligences• Robert Sternberg—triarchic theory
    30. 30. Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
    31. 31. Robert Sternberg• Analytic intelligence—mental processesused in learning how to solve problems• Creative intelligence—the ability to dealwith novel situations by drawing onexisting skills and knowledge• Practical intelligence—the ability to adaptto the environment (street smarts)
    32. 32. Nature Versus Nurture in IQ• Are differences between peopledue to environmental or geneticdifferences?Misunderstanding the question– “Is a person’s intelligence due more togenes or to environment?”– both genes and intelligence crucial for anytrait
    33. 33. Heredity and Environment• Heritability– The degree to which variation in trait stems fromgenetic, rather than environmental, differencesamong individuals• Environment– The degree to which variation is due toenvironmental rather than genetic differences
    34. 34. Twin Studies and Family Influence• If trait is genetic:– closely related more similar than less closelyrelated• Many close relatives share environments, too• Types of studies to separate effects– monozygotic twins reared together– monozygotic twins reared apart– siblings/dizygotic reared together– siblings/dizygotic reared apart– adoptive siblings reared together
    35. 35. Racial Difference in IQ• Difference in average IQ among differentracial groups can be measured• More variation in IQ scores within aparticular group than between groups
    36. 36. Within and Between GroupDifferences• Each corn field planted from same packageof genetically diverse seeds• One field is quite fertile, the other is not• Within each field, the differences are due togenetics• Between each field, the differences are dueto environment (fertility)
    37. 37. Other Influences on IQ Scores• Cross-cultural studies show that theaverage IQ of groups subject to socialdiscrimination are often lower than thesocially dominant group even if there is noracial difference• Tests reflect the culture in which they aredeveloped; cultural factors also influencetest-taking behavior (culture bias)
    38. 38. Stereotype Threat• A psychological predicament in whichyou fear that you will be evaluated interms of a negative stereotype abouta group to which you belong; createsanxiety and self-doubt and can lowerperformance in a particular domainthat is important to you
    39. 39. CreativityTo enhance your creativity– Creativity as a goal– Reinforce creative behavior– Engage in problem finding– Acquire relevant knowledge– Try different approaches– Exert effort and expectsetbacks

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