Robles @ M&Eef 2008

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Thermal Management Challenges and Solutions - A Boeing Perspective

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  • Robles @ M&Eef 2008

    1. 1. Aerospace Thermal Management Challenges and Solutions, A Boeing Perspective Jim Robles Phn: 253-657-5663 Email: james.a.robles@boeing.com Reference Number: 07-045
    2. 2. <ul><li>The Aerospace Thermal Management Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Avionics / Vetronics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fighters, Helicopters, and Ground Vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More Electric Aircraft and </li></ul><ul><li>Directed Energy Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Need for Ultra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient Energy Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some Technologies that </li></ul><ul><li>Boeing is Investigating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems </li></ul></ul>Agenda Reference Number: 07-045 Graphic courtesy of Rengasamy Ponnappan, Ph.D., Senior Researcher, AFRL/PRPS
    3. 3. The Aerospace Thermal Management Challenge <ul><li>Avionics/vetronics functional density driven by inexhaustible demand for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater Processing Capability for Image Exploitation including Automatic Target Recognition, Moving Target Engagement, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COTS components and assemblies with lower temperature limits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More Electric Vehicles (MEV) for weight and power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substantial increase in vehicle requirements for electrical power and cooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote actuation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substantial energy to be delivered at low efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate on existing platforms: no desire for “DEW Platform” </li></ul></ul>Reference Number: 07-045
    4. 4. COTS Applicability Future More of the same “ office environment” Future More COTS VPX/REDI Graphic courtesy of Mercury Computing Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, PM FCS 26 JAN 2007, case 07-027
    5. 5. High Functional Density, Severe Environment Military Platform Needs <ul><li>Minimize Total Ownership Cost (TOC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit Recurring Flyaway (URF) Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation and Support (O&S) Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High functional density to minimize weight and volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal density (watts/cm) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perform reliably in harsh environment </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility with two-level maintenance for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reductions in life cycle cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reductions in logistic footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilitate insertion of new technology and mitigation of component obsolescence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal margin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open system standards </li></ul></ul>Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, PM FCS 26 JAN 2007, case 07-027
    6. 6. Customer Needs - The Challenge and the Opportunity The Challenge Thermal Management Continuing Loss of Control of the Electronics Industry Processing Requirements AKA Functional Density The Opportunity References: www.vita.com and http://www.busandboard.com/archive-index.html Open Architecture Standards & a Strong Industrial Base Two-Level Maintenance VITA 48 ERDI (Enhanced Ruggedized Design Implementation) IBM Cell Processor Technology <ul><li>Enhanced thermal management and functional density </li></ul><ul><li>Two-level maintenance compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Conduction and air cooling to 200 watts </li></ul><ul><li>LFT and spray cooling to 800 watts </li></ul><ul><li>Moving target engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic target recognition </li></ul>Graphic courtesy of Mercury Computing <ul><li>VITA 46 VPX </li></ul><ul><li>High speed serial interconnect switch fabric based architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Market driven selection of bus protocols </li></ul><ul><li>ESD protected connector </li></ul><ul><li>ANSI/VITA 47-2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Open architecture standard for environments </li></ul>Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, PM FCS 26 JAN 2007, case 07-027
    7. 7. The COTS Trade – Circa 1998 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, PM FCS 26 JAN 2007, case 07-027 Extremely Poor Poor Low 63 Eight (8) times Baseline Eight (8) times Baseline Higher Lower Lower Conduction Cooled COTS Extremely Poor Good Low 145 3.4 times baseline 3.4 times baseline High High No change from Baseline Conduction Cooled Custom Design High (100% thermal margin) Good Medium 333 1.5 times baseline + ECS effect 1.5 times baseline + ECS effect No change from baseline No change from baseline No change from Baseline Air Flow Through Cooled Custom Design High (100% thermal margin) Good High 500 Baseline Baseline Baseline Baseline Baseline Liquid Flow Through (LFT) Cooled Custom Design Ease of Technology Insertion Ease of Maintenance Integrity/ Reliability Performance (watts per inch of pitch) Volume Weight O&S Cost Design To Cost (DTC) Development Cost Supportability Survivability/Lethality Affordability Option
    8. 8. Advances in Conduction Cooling <ul><li>F-22 CNI/EW Power Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Circa 1993 to 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>SEM-E </li></ul><ul><li>~ 40 watts </li></ul><ul><li>Military Grade Temperature Components </li></ul><ul><li>No “special” technology </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE 1101.2 VME Card </li></ul><ul><li>2000 to 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>6U </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 90 watts </li></ul><ul><li>~ Industrial Grade Temperature Components </li></ul><ul><li>Extra conduction paths </li></ul><ul><li>VITA 48 Module </li></ul><ul><li>Circa 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>6U </li></ul><ul><li>200 watt capability </li></ul><ul><li>~ Industrial Grade Temperature Components </li></ul><ul><li>Heat pipes, extra conduction paths </li></ul>Graphic courtesy of CWCEC GRAPHIC NOT AVAILABLE <ul><li>Current Custom Module </li></ul><ul><li>Circa 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>6U </li></ul><ul><li>110 watt capability </li></ul><ul><li>~ Industrial Grade Temperature Components </li></ul><ul><li>APG Core </li></ul><ul><li>Large Wedge Clamps </li></ul>Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, PM FCS 26 JAN 2007, case 07-027
    9. 9. Advances in LFT Cooling <ul><li>F/A-22 CIP Power Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Circa 1993 to 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>SEM-E </li></ul><ul><li>~ 80 to 100 watts </li></ul><ul><li>Military Grade Temperature Components </li></ul><ul><li>Quick Disconnect (QD) Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Custom Design Processor </li></ul><ul><li>Circa 1996 to 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>SAM (6U-ish) </li></ul><ul><li>140 watts design / 300 watt capability </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Grade Temperature Components </li></ul><ul><li>QD Issues Worked </li></ul><ul><li>VITA 48 Module </li></ul><ul><li>Circa 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>6U </li></ul><ul><li>600 to 800 watt capability </li></ul><ul><li>~ Industrial Grade Temperature Components </li></ul><ul><li>QD Issues Being Worked </li></ul>Graphic courtesy of Mercury Computing Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, PM FCS 26 JAN 2007, case 07-027
    10. 10. The COTS Trade - Circa 2006 VPX/REDI => low total ownership cost, excellent weight, volume, performance, and good supportability. Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, PM FCS 26 JAN 2007, case 07-027
    11. 11. Future Combat Systems is using a VITA 46 COTS Solution Backplane (BP) – ruggedized circuitry for intra-rack power and signal distribution; includes backplane interconnect, I/O connectors, backplane to I/O connector harness, and backplane cover Backplane 6U 3U <ul><li>Circuit Cards – Per VITA 46 </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Density </li></ul><ul><li>High speed serial interconnect with switch fabric </li></ul><ul><li>matrix architecture </li></ul><ul><li>ESD protected connector </li></ul><ul><li>Environments – Per ANSI/VITA 47-2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Open architecture standard </li></ul>Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, PM FCS 26 JAN 2007, case 07-027
    12. 12. Future Combat Systems has committed to 2-Level Maintenance Utilizing VITA 48 Table 2. FCS Maintenance Levels Trade Study VITA 48 Module with ESD protected connector and covers Integrated Electronics Rack (IER) – the enclosure in which LRMs are installed; provides mechanical support, cooling and some measure of environmental protection to the LRMs; provides the physical interface to the platform; includes backplane interface 6U 3U <ul><li>Line Replaceable Modules (LRM) – Per VITA 48 </li></ul><ul><li>Covers for ESD protection also provide stiffening </li></ul><ul><li>and greater EMC </li></ul><ul><li>Meets the Army’s Needs </li></ul><ul><li>$4B operation and support (O&S) cost reduction for </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Computer System (ICS) alone </li></ul><ul><li>Greater than 50% reduction in logistics footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponding benefits for other systems. </li></ul>Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, PM FCS 26 JAN 2007, case 07-027
    13. 13. Cooling Capacity vs. Functional Density Requirements <ul><li>Key to survivability and effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>COTS vs. Custom advantages </li></ul><ul><li>The Future => 600 watt 6U card with four processor nodes </li></ul>Reference Number: 07-045 COTS LFT Functional Density Requirements COTS Conduction Custom Conduction Custom LFT
    14. 14. MEA and DEW Systems Require Ultra Efficient Energy Systems Need: Energy system technologies that provide dramatic improvements in capability and affordability <ul><li>Technologies : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Electric Vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient Electrical Subsystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Generation, Conversion, Distribution and Storage </li></ul></ul>Reference Number: 07-045 More efficient, cost effective, electrically powered systems Enable integration of Directed Energy Weapons Unprecedented requirements for energy generation, distribution, and storage accompanied by increased thermal management demands
    15. 15. Some Technologies that Boeing is Investigating Pulsating & Loop Heat Pipe Integration Spray Cooling CNT Thermal Interface Graphitized Graphitic Foam HiDRA - BRI Engine Power Extraction Compact Power Panels AC Matrix Controller Advanced Motor Controllers Adv Batteries Fuel Cells Rad Hard, High Temp Devices Liquid Flow Through Cooling Reference Number: 07-045
    16. 16. Lightweight Carbon Thermal Management Systems (LC-TMS) Commercialization Plan A high-conductivity carbon-carbon composite enclosure for the aircraft avionics enclosure <ul><li>Carbon Foam </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon/Carbon Composites </li></ul><ul><li>C-C Foam </li></ul><ul><li>High Conductivity Adhesives </li></ul><ul><li>Phase Change Material Thermal Planes </li></ul><ul><li>20% Weight Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>15% Extended Component Life </li></ul>High Conductive Carbon Thermal Management Material System Passive Cooling Aircraft Avionics Enclosure Derivatives Technologies <ul><li>Reduced Coolant Pumping Power </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Thru-the-Wall Thermal </li></ul><ul><li>Conductivity </li></ul>Enclosure Carbon Foam Cold Plate A high-conductivity carbon-foam thermal cavity for a thermally integrated, structurally embedded electric actuator. Structurally Embedded Actuator <ul><li>37.7% Acquisition Cost Saving </li></ul><ul><li>43.1% LCC Saving </li></ul>X-45 Electromechanical Actuator Long-Range Strike C-17 Nano Enhanced Composite Skin Reference Number: 07-045
    17. 17. Conclusions <ul><li>The aerospace thermal management challenge is driven by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More Electric Aircraft (MEA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Power and Heat Flux in Avionics/Vetronics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thermal Management is quickly becoming a limiting design factor for future military aircraft and satellites </li></ul><ul><li>The design of the thermal management system must address the ability to reject heat from remote electronics including their true operational duty cycle/s </li></ul><ul><li>Future cooling demands will require an integrated thermal management strategy at the platform, subsystem, and component levels </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced materials are being developed that will enable an integrated subsystem approach to thermal management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermally conductive carbon foam materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase change materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nano technologies </li></ul></ul>Reference Number: 07-045
    18. 18. Backup Reference Number: 07-045
    19. 19. Two-Level Maintenance - Radar - F- 22 Requires Two - Level Maintenance F- 22 Opportunity To Use COTS Based Graphic courtesy of CWCEC VITA 48 Radar Processor (RP) Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, PM FCS 26 JAN 2007, case 07-027 Processor
    20. 20. ANSI / VITA 47-2005 <ul><li>In 1996, COTS not available to an open standard for Mil/Aero application environments </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005, an open standard approved for environmental, design and construction, safety, and quality requirements for COTS plug-in units intended for mobile applications </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps the advantages of open systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower total ownership cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsolescence protection, backward compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency of common solutions across multiple applications </li></ul></ul>Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, PM FCS 26 JAN 2007, case 07-027
    21. 21. The Maintenance Level Trade - Circa 1998 <ul><li>Three Level and Two Plus Level maintenance rejected due to high cost </li></ul><ul><li>Two Level w/Protection rejected due to weight and volume increase </li></ul>Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, PM FCS 26 JAN 2007, case 07-027
    22. 22. Thermal Management Technologies Active Transport Elements Interfaces LFT Cooling Spray Cooling Conduction Cooling Passive Transport Elements HRU Global Solutions Module Solutions Liquid Metal Cooling Loop Phase Change Fillers for Liquid Loops Custom and COTS Design Improvements QDs Thermal Spreaders (Diamond, etc.) Heat Pipes Custom and COTS Design Improvements Vapor Chambers Micro-Channels Wedge Clamps Heat Pipes Wedge Clamps Thermal Spreaders (Diamond, etc.) Refrigeration Thermal Pads Composite Chassis Rarefied Air Thermoelectric Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, PM FCS 26 JAN 2007, case 07-027 Spacecraft Radiator

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