Architecting System Solutions in a Volatile Environment


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Jim Robles’ view of the application of systems engineering to the development of open architectures for complex systems, and for life planning.

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Architecting System Solutions in a Volatile Environment

  1. 1. Architecting System Solutions in a Volatile Environment James A. Robes Senior Technical Fellow
  2. 2. Abstract <ul><li>This workshop will address the challenges and rewards of architecting balanced system solutions for applications with conflicting technical, financial, and political constraints. Examples from the presenter’s personal and professional lives will be illustrated. The effect of changing social, political, and technical environments on the development paradigm will be expatiated. </li></ul>
  3. 3. GP24200001.ppt Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. BOE 121003-491 / BOE 010207-001
  4. 4. Agenda <ul><li>Today’s definition of “aerospace” </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>What we mean by “systems engineering” </li></ul><ul><li>What it means to be an “architect” </li></ul><ul><li>How I ended up here today </li></ul><ul><li>What I used to do </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the aerospace environment </li></ul><ul><li>Where we’re going </li></ul><ul><li>Career paths and the Boeing Technical Fellowship </li></ul><ul><li>What I’m doing now </li></ul><ul><li>What I’ve learned </li></ul><ul><li>Why it’s rewarding </li></ul><ul><li>Process check </li></ul>
  5. 5. Some “Aerospace” Definitions <ul><li>From Random House, Webster’s College Dictionary : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aerospace – n. 1. the atmosphere and the space beyond considered as a whole. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aerospace – n. 2. the industry concerned with the design and manufacture of the aircraft, missiles, spacecraft, etc., that operate in aerospace. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From practice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aerospace – n. 1. what we do today: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network Centric Solutions / Systems of Systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air Traffic Management </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Future Combat Systems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homeland Security </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Missile Defense </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Platforms – commercial aircraft, fighters, tankers, C4ISR, Bombers, helicopters, unmanned aircraft, missiles, satellites. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enormous variety in each category </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Historical Perspective Individual Action <ul><li>The First Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Nascent Civilization </li></ul>More Complex Systems <ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul>Evolution of City States <ul><li>Public Works </li></ul><ul><li>Canals & Irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Technical & Social Complexity </li></ul>Today’s Architectures <ul><li>Unprecedented Size & Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Network Centric Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Air Traffic Management </li></ul><ul><li>Homeland Security </li></ul>The First Great Architects <ul><li>Imhotep </li></ul><ul><li>Vitruvius </li></ul><ul><li>Daedalus </li></ul>Collective Effort <ul><li>Craftsmanship </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization </li></ul>
  7. 7. Some “Systems” Definitions <ul><li>From Random House, Webster’s College Dictionary : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>system – n. 1. an assemblage of things or parts forming a complex or unitary whole. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>systems engineer – n. 1. an engineer who specializes in the design and implementation of production systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From practice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>system – n. 1. a collection of things working together to produce something greater. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. a set of different elements so connected or related as to perform a function not performable by the elements alone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>systems engineering – n. 1. an interdisciplinary collaborative approach to derive, evolve, and verify a life cycle balanced system solution that satisfies customer expectations and meets public acceptability. Systems engineering is a generic problem solving process that provides the mechanisms for identifying and evolving the product and process definitions of a system. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Systems Engineering at Boeing 1. A Process Defined , repeatable , with supporting assets 2. that ensures integration of Engineering disciplines Design, Manufacturing, Supplier Management, Test, Product Support, etc. 3. and ensures integration among Disciplines/Functions Requirements Development Disposal 4. to produce a System integrated among all systems and components 5. applied over and addressing the entire Life Cycle of the product Output (Phase Dependent) BOE 010207-001 Functional Analysis & Allocation Design Synthesis Verification/ Validation Loop Design Loop Requirements Loop Requirements Analysis System Analysis & Control (Balance) Control Loop Customer Customer Needs Needs Balanced Balanced Product Product
  9. 9. Systems Engineering Layered Context The Trade Space Top Level Requirements Functional Allocation Derived Requirements Technology Forecasts System Design Engineering Lower Level Requirements
  10. 10. Some “Architecture” Definitions <ul><li>From Random House, Webster’s College Dictionary : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>architect – n. 1. a person who engages in the profession of architecture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>architecture – n. 1. the profession of designing buildings, open areas, communities, and other artificial constructions and environments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From practice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>architecture – n. the science (analysis-based, factual, logical and, deductive) and art (synthesis based, intuitive, judgmental, and, inductive) of designing complex systems that meet the user’s need in the physical and social environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The ideal architect should be a man of letters, a skilled draftsman, a mathematician, familiar with historical studies, a diligent student of philosophy, acquainted with music; not ignorant of medicine, learned in the responses of jurisconsults, familiar with astronomy and astronomical calculations.” – Vitruvius, 25 B.C. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. How I ended up here today The Relocation <ul><li>The Boeing Company </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain the Right Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Work Content </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Emolument </li></ul>The Environment Changed <ul><li>More system integration </li></ul><ul><li>Far Less Hardware Design </li></ul>University of California at Berkeley <ul><li>BSME 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>MSME 1973 </li></ul>The Trade Study <ul><li>Ford Motor Company </li></ul><ul><li>Emolument </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting location </li></ul><ul><li>Job Security </li></ul>The New Trade Study <ul><li>LMSC </li></ul><ul><li>Get Back to Work </li></ul><ul><li>Work Content </li></ul><ul><li>Emolument </li></ul>The Reevaluation <ul><li>Watkins Johnson Co. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the Right Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Work Content </li></ul><ul><li>Emolument </li></ul><ul><li>The Arab Oil Embargo </li></ul><ul><li>Family & Home </li></ul><ul><li>Laid Off! </li></ul>The Environment Changed The Transition <ul><li>Transition to System Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>New Skills </li></ul>The Boeing Technical Fellowship <ul><li>Technical Path </li></ul>
  12. 12. What I used to do – Electronics Packaging <ul><li>Detailed hardware design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade studies/design analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detail design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flight Test </li></ul></ul>B-1B Pylon Control Unit
  13. 13. System Development Environmental Changes We Won the Cold War Control of the Electronics Industry Acquisition Reform New Generation of Users <ul><li>1994 Perry Memo </li></ul><ul><li>Streamline procurement of reduce cycle time and cost </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen technology/industrial base </li></ul><ul><li>Increased access to advanced technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Move away from the military specification system </li></ul><ul><li>Not My Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Better Educated and More Aware of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Not Willing to Tackle a Difficult Job With Obsolete Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Useful Life Reduced to Correspond to Desired Technology Refresh Cycle </li></ul>Defense Outlays As a Share of Gross Domestic Product 2 4 6 8 10 12 50 60 70 80 90 00 3.0 GDP (%) 4.4 4.7 11.9% 9.1% 6.3% Year
  14. 14. Aerospace Environment Demanding Change <ul><li>Past </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Driven </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Cold War Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Delivered Quality </li></ul><ul><li>1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Affordability Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Few Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Sharpened Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Consolidation </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive Competitions </li></ul><ul><li>21st Century </li></ul><ul><li>“ Time to Market” Focus </li></ul><ul><li>System-of-Systems Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Practices and Products </li></ul><ul><li>Global Market </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility/Agility </li></ul><ul><li>Quality at Each Step of Process </li></ul>FCS JTRS FAB-T GMD Fighters Transport Helicopters Surveillance Communication Command & Control Bombers Weapons Launch Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. How It Felt at the Time Ride the Wave or Die Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. BOE 121003-491 / BOE 010207-001 Industry Changes Cancelled MIL Specs Open Architecture Competitors Acquisition Reform Loss of Level Playing Field Parts Obsolescence Competitive Advantage RIP Military Develop- ment Paradigm
  16. 16. Geopolitical and Environmental Drivers <ul><li>Dwindling natural resources and environmental concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaner alternative fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced emissions </li></ul></ul>Hydrogen Fuel Airplane <ul><li>Globalization and leisure travel growth require safety and efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakthroughs in speed, range, and comfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New passenger convenience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe and affordable </li></ul></ul>Urban congestion and population growth will drive transportation integration and new modes of travel
  17. 17. Where Boeing is going Information Services Core Aerospace Products and Service Advanced Space Access and Orbital Services Uninhabited Systems Solutions Aviation Safety Systems & Services Resource Protection Systems & Services Large scale systems integration solutions Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. BOE 121003-491 / BOE 010207-001
  18. 18. System of Systems Architectures Definition System of Systems : A “super-system” built with components that are complex, independent systems which interact to achieve a common purpose <ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Independence of components </li></ul><ul><li>Geographically distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary growth </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent capability </li></ul><ul><li>Unambiguous exchange of information </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Urgency for NCO Solutions <ul><li>“… we must achieve: fundamentally joint, network-centric, distributed forces capable of rapid decision superiority and massed effects across the battlespace.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld </li></ul></ul><ul><li>&quot;In the future, we can realize tremendous leverage through a network by sharing information and capabilities by turning data into information, information into knowledge, knowledge into decision-making, and decision-making into action.&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James Albaugh, 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ I don’t want to wait for an 80% solution. What I need is a 20% solution now that gives me a 5% advantage over the enemy!” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Col John Coleman, USMC (Chief of Staff, First Marine Expeditionary Force, Operation Iraqi Freedom) </li></ul></ul>BOE 010207-001
  20. 20. Anticipating Customer Needs Yesterday Tomorrow Transformation Programs FCS JTRS GMD FAB-T Fighters Transport Helicopters Surveillance Communication Command & Control Bombers Weapons Launch Leverage systems integration and platform expertise Today BOE 010207-001
  21. 21. Information Needs are not just Military… What is the enemy’s intent? Where is the enemy? Where are my friends? Where am I? BOE 010207-001 Where are the kids? Where are we? What is the weather enroute? Where am I? Where are the airplanes? What is the best route? Where am I? When will I arrive? What is my schedule? What should I apply to my crops? How are the fields? What is the weather? Where am I? Where are my compatriots? What are the hazards? Where are the dangers? Where am I? <ul><li>Knowledge Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Comfort, Pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Support </li></ul><ul><li>Situational Control </li></ul><ul><li>Situational Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Safety/Protection </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Development Cycle The Past “ Design it and forget it” Pro-active continuous upgrades The Target Pro-active incremental upgrades The Near Future Reactive incremental upgrades The Present
  23. 23. The Technical Fellowship at Boeing <ul><li>A career path choice --- we don’t force good engineers to become poor managers to advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Leadership Path </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Associate Technical Fellow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Fellow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senior Technical Fellow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Well defined evaluation factors and scoring criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Communication Ability” and the others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business Leadership Path </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First level supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midlevel management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. A trend in technical workforce composition Technical Specialists/ Experts “ Breadth” of Technical Knowledge/ Experience Growth on this axis is necessary for all “technical path” individuals. “ Depth” of Knowledge/ Experience Log scale “ Deep Generalists” “ Breadth” of Technical Knowledge/ Experience <ul><li>“ Tool Makers” </li></ul><ul><li>Information/Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Gathers and Providers </li></ul><ul><li>System Integrators </li></ul><ul><li>Product/service “Architects” </li></ul>Minimum level needed to mastery Technical Workforce Currently Future (5-10 yrs +) Technical Specialists 80-90 % 60- 70 % ? “ Deep Generalists” 10-20 % 30- 40 % ? “ Breadth” of Business Knowledge/Experience
  25. 25. What I do now – Electronic Systems Packaging Architecture Development <ul><li>Mechanical/Electrical trade studies provide derived requirements and design baseline </li></ul><ul><li>Trade studies driven by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four Pillars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost as Independent Variable (CAIV) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>M/E trade studies establish “building codes” for an open architecture. Examples provided </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Power Module Form Factor / Cooling (For ICP and Array Electronics) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Line Replaceable Module (LRM) Connector System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICP power distribution </li></ul></ul>Affordability Lethality/Survivability Supportability DTC O&S Costs Weight Volume Performance Integrity/ Reliability Ease of Maintenance Ease of Upgrade
  26. 26. What I do now – COTS Assembly Integration Strategy Large Scale Systems Integration Lean Processes Detailed Customer Knowledge and Focus <ul><li>Common Processes and Tools to Assure Affordable, Safe, Reliable Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements Tailoring </li></ul><ul><li>Safety, Reliability, Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration Management </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Management </li></ul><ul><li>Market Shaping </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Common Lean Processes and Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Market Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Assessment Tool </li></ul><ul><li>Re-qualification </li></ul><ul><li>DMS </li></ul><ul><li>Support Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Contract Model </li></ul><ul><li>Useful Life Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Open Systems </li></ul>Accelerating Change <ul><li>COTS assembly integration to increase systems’ performance and affordability </li></ul><ul><li>Increased systems commonality and industry solutions </li></ul>BOE 121003-491 / BOE 010207-001 Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. What I’ve Done in the Last Few Years <ul><li>Phantom Works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COTS Implementation Guidance & Strategy Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry Standards Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tool Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University Relations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial Aircraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>787 Power Electronics Cooling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Derivative Airplane Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AWACS – Program Specific COTS Implementation Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B-1B – Program Upgrade Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BMC2A & MMA – COTS Implementation Guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C-32 & C-40 – COTS and the customer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ground Based Missile Defense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle Engineering Review Board </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. What I’ve Done in the Last Few Years <ul><li>Fighters and Bombers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B-1B COTS Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F/A-18 & F/A-22 – Liquid Flow Through Cooling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helicopters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RAH-66 – M/E Trade Studies Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V-22 – Accelerated Improvement Program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network Centric Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Future Combat Systems – M/E Trade Studies Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future Combat Systems – New Packaging Architecture Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical Fellowship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Interest Group (Community of Practice) Utilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outreach </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. What I’ve Learned – Scientia est Potentia <ul><li>Emphasize knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering; we’ll teach you the application specifics </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the “social” contract at work - Boeing example </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the “social” contract away from work </li></ul><ul><li>Read and develop in all three dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Develop your oral and written communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Never compromise on integrity issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work on what you believe in </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work on what you find interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Think about which career path you are interested in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate to a plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The underlying assumptions and the plan will change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Run to the fire </li></ul><ul><li>When something goes wrong, blame yourself </li></ul>
  30. 30. Why its rewarding to me <ul><li>Continuing opportunity to learn and expand skill set </li></ul><ul><li>Work on what is interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Enormous satisfaction in seeing product/system developed and fielded. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Process Check – Boeing List of “Desired Attributes of an Engineer” <ul><li>A good understanding of engineering science fundamentals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics (including statistics) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical and life sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information technology (far more than “computer literacy”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A good understanding of design and manufacturing processes (i.e. understands engineering) </li></ul><ul><li>A multi-disciplinary, systems perspective </li></ul><ul><li>A basic understanding of the context in which engineering is practiced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics (including business practice) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer and societal needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good communication skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High ethical standards </li></ul><ul><li>An ability to think both critically and creatively - independently and cooperatively </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility. The ability and self-confidence to adapt to rapid or major change </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity and a desire to learn for life </li></ul><ul><li>A profound understanding of the importance of teamwork. </li></ul>
  32. 32. BOE 121003-491 / BOE 010207-001