Rhetorical Modes

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rhetorical modes, essays , writing

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  • 1. The Rhetorical modes Academic Writing Unit EW 3 classes Ms. A. Rodriguez High School for World Cultures Bronx, New York
  • 2. What does the five-paragraph essay look like?
      • INTRODUCTION: The first paragraph contains the summary of topic, three supporting ideas, and the thesis statement .
      • BODY : The second paragraph contains the first supporting idea with evidence. The last sentence of it leads into the next idea.
      • BODY : The third paragraph contains the second supporting idea with the same structure as the second.
      • BODY : The fourth paragraph contains the third supporting idea and the same structure as the second and third with the last sentence leading to the conclusion.
      • CONCLUSION: The last paragraph restates the thesis, three supporting ideas, and gives the reader something to think about.
  • 3. What is a thesis statement?
    • A thesis statement is a section of text which clearly outlines the argument that will be presented in a paper.
      • Ex: It is a great idea for schools to implement a policy on school uniforms because statistics show that students who wear uniforms earn better grades , the male students aren't as distracted by what the female students are (or aren't) wearing, and students feel a sense of equality with one another.
      • Thesis statements include the points that will be supported in the argument.
  • 4. Why do we need to know this?
    • Rhetorical modes are the kinds of writing and their purposes.
    • Knowing the rhetorical modes helps us recognize them in essay questions and writing exams.
    • Knowing the styles and the techniques helps us create polished pieces of writing .
  • 5. What are the four most common rhetorical modes?
    • Argumentation: The purpose of argumentation is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view.
    • Description: The purpose of description visually present a person, place, event, or action .
    • Narration: The purpose of narration is to tell a story or narrate an event or series of events .
    • Exposition: The purpose of exposition is to explain and analyze information.
  • 6. Argumentation
    • The purpose of argumentation (sometimes also called persuasive writing ) is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader.
    • Persuasive writing is a type of argumentation with the additional aim to urge the reader to take some form of action .
  • 7. Examples of argumentation writing
    • Critical review
    • Editorials
    • Job evaluation
    • Letter of recommendation
    • Letters to the editor
    • Résumés/Cover letter
  • 8. Descriptive
    • Descriptive writing is characterized by sensory details, which appeal to the physical senses, and details that appeal to a reader’s emotional, physical, or intellectual sensibilities
    • A description is usually arranged spatially but can be chronological. The focus of a description is the scene.
    • Description uses tools such as figurative language, metaphor, and simile to arrive at a dominant impression.
  • 9. Description
    • The purpose of description is to re-create, invent, or visually present a person, place, event, or action so that the reader can picture that which is being described.
    • Descriptive writing can be found in the other rhetorical modes.
  • 10. Examples of description writing
    • Poetry
    • Journal writing
    • Witness statements
    • Lab reports
  • 11. Narration
    • The purpose of narration is to tell a story or narrate an event or series of events.
    • This writing mode frequently uses the tools of descriptive writing.
    • Narration is an especially useful tool for sequencing or putting details and information into some kind of logical order, usually chronological.
  • 12. Examples of narrative writing
    • Anecdote: a short tale narrating an interesting or amusing biographical incident
    • Autobiography : a biography written by its subject (or sometimes, in modern usage, composed conjointly with a collaborative writer , styled "as told to" or "with").
    • Memoir - Closely associated with autobiography , difficult to precisely distinguish from it, is the form of memoir. As a literary genre, a memoir , forms a subclass of autobiography
    • Biography: a description of someone's life, usually published in the form of a book or essay, or in some other form, such as a film.
    • Novel: "short story of something new" is today a long narrative in literary prose.
    • Oral histories: can be defined as the recording, preservation and interpretation of historical information, based on the personal experiences and opinions of the speaker.
    • Short stories: The short story refers to a work of fiction that is usually written in prose, usually in narrative format.
  • 13. Exposition
    • The purpose of exposition (or expository writing) is to explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion.
  • 14. What are some types of expository writing?
    • Cause and Effect
    • Classification and Division
    • Comparison and Contrast
    • Definition
    • Process Analysis
  • 15. Examples of expository writing
    • How-to essays, such as recipes and other instructions
    • Business letters
    • Personal letters
    • News stories
    • Press releases
    • Reports
    • Scientific reports
    • Wikipedia entries
    • Term papers
    • Textbooks
    • Wills
  • 16. Cause and effect
    • The defining features of a cause and effect essay are causal chains , careful language, and chronological or emphatic order .
    • This rhetorical mode is often required on History exams.
      • Ex: What led to the outbreak of World War I?
      • Ex: What led to the Japanese Internment?
  • 17. Classification and division
    • Classification is the categorization of objects into a larger whole ,
    • Division is the breaking of a larger whole into smaller parts.
    • Classification essays are often used in the sciences including sociology and psychology.
  • 18. Comparison and Contrast
    • Compare and contrast is characterized by a basis for comparison, points of comparison , analogies, and either comparison by object (chunking) or by point (sequential).
    • Comparison highlights the similarities between two or more similar objects while contrasting highlights the differences between two or more objects.
    • Ex: Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic
      • Basis for comparison: both geographic areas
        • Comparison point by point- Caribbean cultures, former Spanish colonies, racial mixture due to historical events,
        • Contrast point by point- Size, relationship to the United States, level of development, Citizenship and migration patterns.
  • 19. Block Arrangement (four paragraphs)
    • I. Introduction in which you state your purpose which is to discuss the differences between vacationing in the mountains or at the beach
    • II. Mountain A.  Climate B.  Types of Activities  C.  Location 
    • III. Beach A.  Climate B.  Types of Activities  C.  Location 
    • IV. Conclusion
  • 20. Point-by-Point or Alternating Arrangement (five paragraphs)
    • I. Introduction in which you state your purpose which is to discuss differences between vacationing in the mountains or at the beach
    • II. First difference between mountains and beaches is climate A.  Mountains B.  Beach
    • III. Second difference between mountains and beaches are types of activities A.  Mountains B.  Beach
    • IV. Third difference between mountains and beaches is the location A.  Mountains B.  Beach
    • V. Conclusion
  • 21. Definition
    • Definition essays explain a term's meaning. Some are written about concrete terms, such as trees, oceans, and dogs, while others talk about more abstract terms, such as liberty, happiness, and virtue.
      • What does it mean to be Latino?
      • What is cultural diffusion?
  • 22. Process Analysis
    • Process analysis essays explain the “process” of how to do something, or how something was done.
    • An action is broken down into steps and explained.
  • 23. References
    • www.wikipedia.com
    • http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080901114401AAFpmXD