[著 者紹介 ] ¨期 え り 永 理 ¨ め庸 こ子 岡山大学国際セン ‐教授 タ 湘 か恭 茨城大学留学生セン ー准教授 タ 馴¨ こ子 カリ ォ ニア大学サン バーバラ フ ル タ 校東アジア学科講師 鵬一 か香 鋤織 曖敷 詢恭 関西外国語大学外 国語学部非常勤講師 臨¨ 関西外 国語大学外国語学部教授Copyright ③ 2009 1yE五 Bam6,Yoko lkeda,Chikako Shinagawa,Kao五 Taiima,and Kyoko Tokashk.All ri」 ltS rcservedo No part of this publication ma.y be reproduced,stored in a retrieval s,stem,Ortransnlitted in any fol...or by any lneans,electrOnic,mcchanical,photocopying,recor(五 ng,or otherwise,without the p五 or wrltten pennission ofthc publishc■First cdition:ヽ lay 2009111ustrations:No五 ko UdagawaLayout dcslgn and typesettmg:DER Inc.Covcr designi Nakayalna Design O伍 ce Gin― o Nakayama andKcnii SugiyamaP■lblished by The Japan Tmes,Ltd. }1鴫 Tokyo 108-0023,Japan5-4,Shibaura 4-chome,N血 麟Phone:03-3453-2013h中 ://7b00kclubjapantmes.∞ jp/1SBN978-4-78引 }1349-9 Printcd in Japan
Preface This book is a begillning¨ to interlnediatc― level kanJi textbook for Japancsc-languageleamers from cultures that do not use Chinese characters.It is designed for basically神 otypes ofstudents those who have alreadybegun to leam ktti but Wantto hⅣ e more fmin their studies,andthOSe without anybackground in kalゴ i WhO Walltto Startleaming thesecharacters. Katti callnOtbe mastcrcd ovemight,and many leamers ind thc characters to be illtimi―dating,tricky to memorize,and easy to forget.We,the authors ofthis book,have frequentlyworked with such leamers in our roles as Japanese… language instructors,so we deCided topooltogether ideas from our daily teaching experiences to create atool forhclping studentsto tacklc kanJi.By caremlly sclccting and rcflning our idcas,we came up with a book thatmakes kaゴ 1lCaming hl■ and casy through illustrations and llmemonic hints for each ofthe5 12 characters prescnted.We hope that this book will enable students to e珂 Oyあ ly leammany kanJi and that it will serve as a handy reference for Japanese-language instrllctorswhen they teach kanJi. We wish to express our dcep appreciation to cveryone who assisted us during the flvcyears it took to bring this book to completiono We espccially thank Chiaki Sckido of theJapan Tilnes Publications Department for painstakingly editillg our work,No五 ko Udagawafor drawing the illustrations,Yutaka Ono for aiding our developmellt ofthe lnate五 al,andour students for inspiring us to crcate this book. Apri1 2009 The Authors
1.Targeted Users and Purpose This book is designed priinarily for leamers from cultures that do not use Chinese characters.Itpresents 512 begilllling― allld inteFlnediate-level katti alongヽ ″ith illustrations and inncmonic hints thatmake it fm and easy to lcam the ёharacters.By stuけ ing with this textbook and practicing with thecompanion workbook,users should become able to comprehend beginning― and intennediate-levelkanii tl■ ey comc across in reading,and tO writc those characters■ om memory.2.Selection and Composition of Kanii Presented Thc 512 L崎 i preSCnted in this book wcre selected on the basis ofsetteral factors,such as tlleir inclu―sion in levels 3 and 4 oftlle Japanese Language Proicicncy Tcst(JLPT),and their usc as parts of otllcrkatti.This book is divided into 32 1essons,each ofwhich covers 16 kall.The characters are presentedh order of their JLPT classiicatiOn,sttting witl■ lcvc1 4 and gradually working up to lcvc1 2.Thelcssons are grouped into tlree parts according to their JLPT lcvel,as indicatcd beloⅥ l Lessons Kanil Part l l-10 160 characters,including all JLPT leve1 4 kaゴ i Part 2 11-20 160 characters,including all JLPT leve1 3 kanii Part 3 21-32 192 characters,lnainly from JLPT lcvc1 23.Features of This Book●Kanii can be easitt learned through fun illustrations and mnemonic hints Thc in illustrations and mnemonic hil■ ts that accolnpany the katti preSented in this book prO宙 de almk be■ /cen each charactcrs shapc and its meaning,making it casicr for uscrs to collunit tllc kaゴ i tomemory Some illustrations are based on pictograllls,、vhile others were freely creatcd with no relation―ship to thc charactcrs origin.●The book doubles as a kanii diCtiOmary This book is designed to allow users to readily look up the meaning,Icadings,stroke count,andstrokc ordcr ofkatti,aS well as thc kaゴ i that fOrln part of othcr characters,casily conised kalJi,alldwords incorporating particular kall」 i By referring to the various indexcs included atthe end ofthc book,begi“ ing leamers can use this book like a katti diCtiOnary.e Workbook helps users to gain a rFlrmer grasp ofkanii Using the companion workbook(sold Separateサ )in cOttllnctiOnwitllthis book enablesusers to leanlhtti nOt Only tt the lcvel ofcharacters and words,but also in tllc contcxt of scntences alld longer text.●Kanii can be learned efrlcientw The kaji vocabulaly in this book that should be smdied fOr particular levels oftlle JLPT have bcenshaded to make it easier for leal■ llers to focus on them.These expressions are also practiced in the work―book to allow beginning allld intermediate stlldents to eicientサ lcam the necessary L肛 ji.
4.Kanil Tables Each target kaul is presentcd in a table fbrIInattcd as follows. ① lrun even whenlm covered ② → 塁豊 走 風。 嘴 ⑤ ③ to run >そ う なる￨(`14■ ●轟 ￨ ぞく 暴 走 族 ofう そう ) ④ >は し ご馳 走 そう ち )fcast (ご nlcltorcydc gallg ル t(だ っ )cscapc nom a p五 sO. し そう 師走 (・ し )Dccclllb∝ わす ⑥ 逃走 (と う )・ ngぁvリ そう llll・ こ )・lmh3 mttng 走イ (そ う う 子 7> く キ ニ ￨キ ￨キ 1/― FI走 o撥 ￨ ￨ ￨ ￨ ￨ ￨ ￨ 1輪 土● 足o引 )定 o50 ⑦ ③ ⑨① Entry number The targct kattiarc nurnbercd in o■ dcr oftheir appearance in the book.② Kanii③ Meaning(ill Englis⇒④ Readings ″ο・Readings marlced with>are ρッ ,Or readhgs der市 ed from tl■ c Chinesc pronunci41on of thC 777ブ charactc■ Those marked with〉 are ttκ ッο ,Or readings that represellt the native Japanese word for IPO′ the conccpt expressed by the character.・ Both ο ο andた 2″ ′ 772ブ ο readings Fre arranged in the order of their appcarance in the vocabulary 777ブ =ァ =ノ liSt(⑥ )Ofthe tablc・Each table presents all readings includcd m thc J5y5 KattiliSt(a liSt Of l,945 standard kanJiissucd by Japans Ministry ofEd■ 10ation in 1981). 0 0κ ο z′ andた 傷 ο ブ adings sometilncs changc to assimilated or voiced sounds、 vhen the kanJi ″ lッ 77,ァ rё “ appetts in the middle or end of a compound.Such phonetically shited readings are also included if thc tables vocabulaり list contains words with those readings. 。Rcadings listed in bold are ones that slould bC Studicd as part ofthe lesson.Thesc arc readhgs that appear in the shadcd expressions(fOCus words)OfthC tあ les vocabula7 1ist.⑤ Mnemonic hint・ This is a short dcsc五ption or scenario designed to facilitate lnemorization ofthe characte■ The、 vord in bold indicates the kallJlS rneaning.Rcading the lnnemonic hint whilc looking atthc accolmpanylng illustration allows the user to fonm a lnental link be● veen the kanJls foflll and meaning,Inaking it easier to rcmember thcm.Also,kan」 i cnclosed in parcnthescs in the lllncmonic hillt are a part ofthe target kanJi,or are related to the target kttji.This feattre was added to malce new k雛 ゴ eaSier i to remembcrby tying tllem to kanil already leamed.・ A Japanese translation is providcd fOr each hint. ⑥ Vocabulary list This section lists exprcssiOns containing the target kan」 i that are frequentけ used Or represellt various readings of thc target kalゴ i.Shadcd expressions are focus words tl■ at should be memorized,and are included in the workbook drills.The levels ofthe shaded expressions are as follo、 vs.
Pat l(Lessons l-10): Mainly WOrds at JLPT leve1 4 Part 2(Lessons H 20):Mainly words atJLPT levels 3 and 4 Part 3(Lessons 21-32):Mainly words at Лン levels 2 to 4 PT Vocabulary marked with*arc words h which the target ktti haS anunusualreading nOtlistcd inthereadings scctiOn(④ )ofthe table⑦ Stroke cOunt()Stroke Order③ Addidomalinformatio■OR(力 ″ θι″力 ″ α ブ :Items markedwithttare kaIゴ l ′ο or COlnponents thtt foml part ofthe target kal■ Ji, “ “ “ or are kanil includcd in thc lllmemonic hint.Iftlle item is al■ indepcndcnt charactcち the entry number is g市 cn.If tllc item is a kalJi part,tl■ e corresponding kaゴ i part codc is listcd(scC the following section;``Ktti PartS,for details).・Jttsの ル 4ル Sι グ グ :Items marked with all exclamation mark(幸 )arc kanJi tl■ at are casily conhsed `ο with tlle target ka」 i due tO their similttity in forln.Its ilmportant to take notice ofthe differcnces in shape so in order to avoid using the、 vrong kal■Ji.5.Kanii Parts Pages― listkaljiparts,which are colmponents ofkaゴ ithat hold meaning oftheir own.Theyarc oftell referred to as``radicals."There are many radicals,b■ lt the kanJi parts list presentsjust sixtcen色atぬ ould be memOrized by users ofthis book.These sixteen kaゴ i partS are arranged according tostroke ordet and are coded with letters A to R Each is presented along、 vith its rneaning,stroke ordet anillustration,and all kttjiinthis bookthatincorportte the same part(the entt null■ bers ofthese kal」 i arealso given). A口 knife<2 strokes> ll 議一 1 → 一一 一隧 響¨一櫛 ￨￨ 一一 一 前 40 万1293 オ1376 側 4126.lndexes●Stroke Count lndex(pp 198-199) The target kanJi are indexed according to tlleir strOkc count,from lowest to highest.KanJi wiぬ thcsalne stroke comt are listed in their order ofappearance in the book.The entry number Ofeach kttjiisalso givcn so that uscrs can look up a charactcr■ vhcn they know its stroke count.Oθ 均 【 Reading lndex op 200-208) “ “ “ This index contains kaゴ iredings arrallged h αブ ― ordet ー ―2-ι ο so it can be used to look up a particularhtti WhenyOuhow atleast onc ofits rcadings.The corresponding katti and its entry numbcr are listednext to each reading.●Kanii Shape lndex rpp 209-216) Ktti are made up various parts.This index arrallges the target kan」 i according to tl■ eir key parts.Tolook up a particular kanJi,flrst flnd its keypartinthektti parts listpreceding the kaji shape index(theparts arc listcd in strOkc― colmt ordOう .Next,look forthe tti b itS kttji part group in thc index Kaゴ i [131
hぬe salne goup tte hsted in tte order of meir entry nunlbe■ This index dlows learners t6 use tti l parts as a referencc t001 for flnding speciflc kaji.￨ ●Vocabulary index(pp 217-244) .I ThiS index lists all katti voCabulary prcsentcd in this book,in α″ ―ο ―γι orde■ ― The details of the li WOrdS ktti Can be loolccd up by retring to ic entry number usted dongside貴 . 1 7.Methods for Studying with This Book (1)Learning kanii shapes and llleanings StLldy the shape and meaning ofeach kttji presented by going over the illustration and lllmemodc Lnt providcd for it.Even ka」 i that Seem daulatingly complex can be readily digestcd when brOken down into their vanous parts.恥 hen faced with a troublcsome kaJi,get a better idea ofits ovcrall forln by looking up its colmponents in this book and closely exalnining their features. A■ er learning a kaゴ i,practice w五 ting it while referring to its stroke order shown in tl■ is book.The workbook has rows ofsquares that are handy for writing practicc. 0)Studying kanii VOCabulary After leamil■ g a palticular kaゴ i,study tlle accompanying list of vocabulary.Many kaI」 i have mult● le readmgs,and the reading used va五 es withthe wordin whichthe kttji appears.This means that itis nccessary to leamthe accottanyingvocabulary in ordcrto gain a ill gr● On the characters dittf¨ entreadngs.The shadcd wordsin cach voc激 )ulary list arc frcquently used expressions made up ofkaゴ i that have been studied up to that point.Please be sllre to solidly leam them.Also,the shaded vocabulary ofcach lcsson are rccompilcd int0 1ists in thc workbook,so go ovcrtllc words oncc morc to■ rln up your understanding ofthem. o)Reading/writing kanil in COntext ln order to mlly mastё r the kttji vo9abulary studied,use the workbook to practice reading and wrlting thenl as part of sentences.The workbook lessons also include reading lnate● al for practicing htti reading and writing m thc contcxt oflongcrtext. )Re宙 ewing K血 ゴ can be easily forgottcn if not used regularly.While it is ilmportant to keep advancing to cach i “ llew lesson,it is equally essential to■ equently go back over past lessons.In the、vorkbook,previously studied kalji reappear in the drills oflater lcssons,enabling users to review those characters.´一 [151
What are kanii? Kttji are characters tllat werc crcated in China.Ⅵ ■ile therc arc various tlleories on their orlgln,thcgcneral conscnsus is thtt thcy wcre alrё ady in use by l,500B.C.Kallii(the chincsc charactcrs)differmm tl.e alphabet and Otl■ erphonographiC w五 ting systems in thatthey are logogralns,meaning tllat eachcharacter holds rneaning in addition to expressing sound.Thcy are believed to havc bccn introduccd toJapan via ICorca more than l,500 ycars ago.ハ it that timc,Japan did not have a w五 ting system Ofits o、 v■ ,50 the(Dhinese characters were adoptcd to、 vrite Japanese.Toda.y.Japanese is wHtten using a mixtllre ofL呵 i,力 ″α 4α ,滋 ″滋 ′ ,and gα α thc alphabctHow many arethere? Just how many kan」 i exist?Thcrc are(3hinese charactcr dictionaries that list roughly 50,000 charac―t】、,but most ofthem havc fanen out of comon use.Japanese ncwspapers and magazines elmployabout 3,000 katti.Of tllat numbeち 1,945 wcre designated by the Japalllese govemment as commonlyused ktti￢ 血 J5y5 Kttji.A total of l,006J5y5Kaji are taught at the elementary school level elreferrcd to as Ky5iku Kttjl),alld most ofthc rcmainder are taugllt injunior high school. Nearly 99%of the kalJi appearing in newspapers alld magazines are J5y5 Kttji.The 500 nlost缶3quel■ tly used kalゴ i aCCOu.t for almost 80%ofall,cwSpaperkalJi,and thc l,000 most frcqucntly used紬 i COVCr mOrc tl■ an 90%. 可Types of Kanii How wcre kaji created?They can bc largely divided into tlle following four types based on theirfomation●Pictograms Some kttji are pictograms,which are characters that pictorially represent ccrtain tllings.Ⅵ hile fcwin number,pictographic kaゴ i arc frcqucntly used as pats of othcr kttji,so they can bc consideredhdamclltal characters. Picture Ea‖ y kanil Modern kanil → 木。 簾 К。 崇 → 日 ω;sЩ γ ) → → 犬 (“ 9 [171
●Simple ideograms Thesc are ktti that use dots and lines to represent numbers and abstract conccpts that would bedirlcult to depict with pictograms. ‐ → 三 → 上 ω (血 → ↓●Compound ¨¨木¨¨ ideograms ｈ 呻 木 ω 十月ｍ 林 ０ ０ ｍ０ ｒ ¨ These are katti forlllled魚 )m the combination Ofけ o or more 明 К⇒ ¨一 ｍ ・ ・ 日 ］ 〓●Phometic― ideographic characters Thcsc kaゴ i arC made up of an elemel■ t that cxprcsscs mcaning and an clcmcllt thtt represents a ¨sound.It is said that lnore than 800/。 Ｍｅａ ofthe kanJl uSCd tOday fall into this category. ｓ 画 寺 ｏ ｕｎ 時 口 ¨ ＋ 寺 ブ 師 一 ︲ 一 ｃ＞ 持 才 刷 づ 帥 一 ＋ ︲ 一 ｃ＞ 寺 詩 嘲 き ブ 帥 〓 ロ ＋ ０ *Thb is an exmple oftlle many cases v″ here tlle sound part Of a phonetic‐ ideographc kaniiお used to represent a亜 ghtly dビ brent soundRadica:s Close inspecuon of even tlle most intrictte kaJi revcals tllat they are made up of sevcral simplerparts.In hct,the vast mttority Of kanJi are combinations Of various sublmits.The part that is mostclosely ticd to thc charactcrs mcaning is called a radical.Dependng ontheirpositionwithin akaJi,theFadiCals are classifled intO the seven catego五 es indicated belowl Some radicals can stand on their ownaS h導 ,Such as tt and木 ,whilc others likeイ andル are not used as independent characters. ① 勒 ０ 面滅 体校話 ② 写 字今答 ③ 隧 見買 然 ④ 鰈 国聞 医 ③ 吼 広病屋 ⑥ 舅 道建 起 ⑦ 蜻 別都 頭 [191
Kanii Readings Chinesc characters as used in China generally ha′ e one reading.In contrast,most」 apanese kaゴ ipossess multip19 readings,which are d市 ided into ο ッο (Chinese readings)allldん ィッο (Japanese ん 773′ ″ ″プFeadings). Oη ノ /2tノ : ο These readings are derived from the pronunciations used in China in the distant past, 「 more than a millellnilllm ago in some cases.The reason why certain ktti havc multiple οツ ブ κ ο iS tllat telmpOral and regional varianccs in thc Chinese pronunciation wcrc “ inΨ orted along with the characters For exal■ ■ ple,the οッ ″ Ofスヽ η ″οノ are tt andノ Jκ ;κ ブ ″ was thc rcading initially illtroduccd to Japall,whileJiiκ was adopted in a latcr cra. ″′ 「 κ″ ,ノ ο : Vヽ hen Chinese characters wcre transplanted to Japan, they were read with only the “ Chinese pronunciations at flrst.Since this limited the range ofexpression fbr the Japanese language,katti started to also bc uscd for wttting nttivc Japanese words corresponding to lhe charactcrsrneaning,lllttking the birth ofthcた 夕 ,ノ ο ノAs one cxalnple,the katti κ ・ “ 人 means lpersOn,"so it cal■ e to also be read asみ ノ ,the correspondhg Japanese word. ゎWriting Kanii●Basic stroke directions Ho五 zontal strokes are writtcn from lei to right.Vcrtical strokes arc writtcn from top to bOttOm. ① Lcftto nght 屯)Toptobottom l ↓●Basic stroke endings ち ① Stop(ゎ ι “ ) 甕 Thc pcn is stopped shη ly. C)Strctch(乃 α の rα 尾 The pen is gcntly lited tё create a swceping strokc cnd. ③ Hook(み α ) Thc pcn is stopped and then pullcd baclcward to lnakc a hook. “●Basic stroke order 三 ① Topto bo■ om 川 ( =二 ) ② Let to rlght 十 (リリ 11) ￨夕 ()Ho五zontal strokes prcccdc illtersecting vertical strokes 小 (一 十 ) ① Center strokes precede smaller side strokes 口 (1′ レ 1ヽ ) O Enclosurcs come irst,butthc bo世 om stroke is writen last 中 (lロ ロ ロ ロ ロ ) G)Piercing strokes are written last (ヽ ロ ロ 中 ) Thcrc arc some exceptions tO thc six■ 1les noted abovc.Thc stroke orders are considcrcd the casiestway to wnte kanii right― handed,and a proper knowledge of them is important for w五 ting well―mmcturcd characters and counting strokcs.Try to leam each L可 l in itS COrrcct stroke orde■ [211
Font‐ based Variations in Forrn The shape ofkttji mp五 nt。 ■ v面 cs according to the font used,sometimes to the pointthatthe same enkanii Can appeartobe acompletelydittrentcharact∝ Also,handu7rittcnlojimay diverge slightly飲 )mdlett pHnted forlll,as some Ⅵriters tend to use cursive styles or abbre宙 ate parts ofcharacters K/OkaSわ O fOnt Mirlc力 o font Gosわ ikktl fOnt Handw‖ ‖ng 道 道 道 道 〕 ヒ ヒ ゴ Jヒ ,し 長 長 長 長 入 入 入 入 ′ い ′ い ′ ｀ も `むUsing Kanil DiCtiOnaries Thcrc are threc keys for looHng up characters in a katti diCtionaryD as dcsc五 bed belo‐ 1.Reading lfyou know tt least one ofthe target characters reaて ヒgs(ο κ ο ノ ッ ″ Orんι ο め l κッ ,yO■ “ can use■ to fndthc aぽ ¨tcr ill tlle dicaonaryS readillg llldex. 2.Radical lfyou know characters radical,you can search for the target character in the dictio― narys listmgs ofkanJl with the salne radical. 3. Stroke count ln cases、vhere you dont know the target characters reading or radical,count its strokes and look for itin the dicaonaryS list壼 Es ofkanJi w仙 the same stroke count. Some electromc dicdonarlcs12vc a stylus that a1lows the uscrto lookup httjibyw■ 加 貴 葛 on the screelll.く0可 i Search example:Finding姓 > 1.Reading lf you know that ttL is rett s`ノ ,you can use this cluc to ind the character in the dictionarys reading indcx.Even if you dont know thc rcading of a certain kanJi, you may be able to guess it sometimes.In this Oxalmple,the right ptt of ttl is the same tt fOund in学 生 し 激 需 θ SinCё tt is usually read as sι ′ ブ )・ ,you could infer th誠 姓 is also read sι ′ . 2.Radical The radcal of tt is女 (ο ′ ― θ ),WhiCh consists of three strOkes.Look for this κ α力 ん radical in the dictionarys index ofthrec― stroke radicals in ordcr to locatc the listing ofall kttji with tlle οκ― ″ んα ι radical.Next,go λ to thtt group and scan for姓 . 3.Stroke count Colmtthe nul■ lber ofstrokes.姓 is made up ofeight strokes,so you would search for it among tl■ c dictionarys listil■ g of8-s廿 oke k〔 珂 i.Ok“ 百gana Attecavcs,verbs,and other conJugated words are w狙 儀n with kanJl andん ブ gα 4α .The λ gα 4α ё げ κ “po重 lon is called ttrigα れ .For instancc,the ο rな α Of食 べ ま isべ ま .恥 嘔 leaming Ltti, θ α た 4α す す en “ ι or as″ わ.Thisyou need to pay attention to tl■ e extent oftheir readings,such as whether ttris read as″pomt needs to be keptin mind for each kaji,since the extent ofthe Oた ′ α portion ofcottugated な 4α “words vanes with evely katti. 動詞 : 行く 行かない 形容詞 : 大 きい 大 き くない 食べ る 食べ ない 長い 長 くない [231
=￨￨IFIIII涯 議 騒 華 肇 難 欝 雲 華: 墨議撃撃華難≡三 1欝Reading Unfami:iar Kanii●Single kanii Most kttji combine a part tllat hdicatcs meaning and a part that rcprcscnts sollnd.Whencvcr you∞me across an unfamiliar kaゴ i,try to pinpoint its sound part.You lllight beあ le to flgure ollt tllecharacters feading ifyou know thc rcading ofother kallJi with the sal■ e part.CxaIIlples ofkanii￢ ith the same sound part> 生 姓 性 … All肛 in“ ッ″. 星 … …… c read sι ′ eir。 ″ οノ 1 寺 時 持 侍 … …… … An tte readノ h thei οッ″ κοム 青 晴 静 精 … …… … An are read sa h the■ οッ″ κοi●Kanii cOmpound Both charactOrs in a kaji compound arc usually read in their ο 4ッο ブ ,Such as tl■ e reading ο ― ′ ″gα 物 “of音 楽 ,so when you dont kllow the reading ofa corpollnd,flrst try tllc θ 4ッο ブ Ofits ka判 1.Howcvcち “note that therc arc compounds in which one or both kanii tte read with the滋 ′ ο ,as seen in the ッ ″ブexamples belo、vl 脇 +肋 ″ κ 名前 ・α θ)手 紙 (た 。 (4α “ "の ο 十肋 κ ″ 本屋 ・ヵ 駅前 cc・ α ι ) “ 脇 tt。 ″ κ "節脚 0)吉 本 ∽協・ 場所 (bα 。 z利Phonetic Shitts ln Compounds ln compound、 vords,thc colllpOnent words that do not come atthe start ofthe col■ pound sometilncs ■shin to vOiced sollllds― ―that is,tl■ e diactttical mttk(゛ )iS added tO tlle colЧ )onCllts ifst syllあ le.Also,certain sounds llke rs2,た 2,and 7ri sometinles become a small`sγ vhen they end a coll■ ponent word 、preceding al10ther colnponent word.Howevet thcrc arc no clear rules for when these phonetic shi■ socc‐ Most kaゴ i dictiOnarics do not list the shifted pronunciations among thc characters readings. Examples ofshifting to voiced sounds(゛ ) 旅行 廿avel (ッ 。 ゎ + 会社 company )→ @勧α 旅行会社 (7流移ぉα み travcl agcncy ) 勉強 (bι )+ のδ 机 (ぉ 滋) ″θ → 勉強机 (bθ の 2“ 脇θ ) Sttl● F dCSk study desk Examples of shiftillg to Smallお (つ ) “ 百 のα ) ル 十 口 百 口 の αルめ ルα “ one hundred ― tilncs onc hundrcd tiincs "の ,1(bι ぉ ) + 世界 (sι 滋め → 万 界 1世 (bι ssι 滋め “ diffcrcllt world anOther world [251