Genki i integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)

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Genki i integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)

  1. 1. ピーターのスキャン
  2. 2. PrefaceProducing the materials for this textbook involved a long process ofsurveying students needs, writing up the results, making detailedrevisions to the material based on the surveys, and responding to thereactions and comments of students who used a trial version of thistext. It has taken more than four years to complete this project. Ourlabor has been rewarded, however, because this book is based on ouroriginal plan to produce the ideal textbook-one that will enablestudents to learn Japanese smoothly, while also enjoying lively gamesand helpful illustrations.We have an extensive list of people to thank for the completion of thistextbook. First, our sincere thanks to Chiaki Sekido of the Publica-tions Department of The Japan Times for seeing this book through thepublishing process. Particular acknowledgment goes to Kyoko Toka-shiki who helped in the production of Lesson 1 and following, to our 1colleagues and trainees in the Asian Studies Program of Kansai GaidaiUniversity who attempted the triaI version and made invaluable sug-gestions, to Kaori Tajima for her illustrations in the trial version, toJudy Okawa for translating, and to the teachers whose heartfelt guid-ance encouraged us throughout the process. Finally, we would also liketo express our gratitude to the foreign students at Kansai GaidaiUniversity for providing us with the opportunity to write this book.
  3. 3. IkbV33 Greetings 6&rlawtw&?~5 b t.26 Lwt: N ~ W Friends 10 Shopping 30 Making a Date The First Date A Trip to Okinawa 96 &iE a& !39a z5%~zF@** PI$- b 3 /v@--H LjS I Z b A Day in Roberts Life x 14 Family Picture f32 Barbecue 150 Kabuki 170a~lo~~~%#&@?s 60 BT & T L ~ Winter Vacation Plans 190% l l ~ + # & D& 2 W Bb After the Vacation 210 Feeling Ill
  4. 4. Hiragana 2 52 Katakana 257 Daily Life 262 Travel 270 My Favorite Restaurant 276 Marys Letter 282 Japanese Off ice Workers 287 Sues Diary The Folktale Kasajizo 298%] 2% % s@ 1s ~ F ~ E ?Ef ? -5 Looking for friends 304 Tanabata Festival 3 103< b V d Japanese-English 316 <3 b>/v2 Eng lish-Japanese 329 Numbers 342%83% Conjugation Chart
  5. 5. *-.& >*.a_ &&k l 3 * €3~%(~&Y3~Japanese $$&(+&%k~ty) & (=;t; Y > Japm Mr./Ms. Yarnamoto(book; basis) - (5) $ $ , : $
  6. 6. Introduction i . . * Aim and purposeGENKI: An Integyuted Course i E L m m z t u ~ n Japa~ese a textbook for beginners in isthe study of the Japanese language. Students can complete the elementary-level studyof Japanese in the 23 lessons of this text, which is divided into two volumes. The bookis designed mainly for use in university and college courses, but it is also effective forhigh school students and adults who are beginning to learn Japanese either at school oron their own. Hopefully, students will have at least a basic knowledge of English,because grammar explanations are given in English. GENKI: An Idegrated Cogrse i Elementary Japalzese is a comprehensive approach nto developing the four basic language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing)in order to cultivate overall Japanese-language ability. Much emphasis has been placedon balancing accuracy, fluency, and complexity so that students using the materialwould not end up speaking accurately yet in a stilted manner, nor fluently yet employ-ing only simple grammatical structures. Structure o the textbook fThis textbook basically consists of three sections: Dialogue and Grammar, Reading andWriting, and the Appendix. A detailed explanation of each part follows.AbDiaIogue and G r a m m a rThe Dialogue and Grammar section aims at irjnproving students speaking and listeningabilities by learning basic grammar and increasing vocabulary. The Dialogue- andGrammar section of each lesson is comprised of the following components:@DialogueThe dialogues revolve around the lives of foreign students living in Japan, their friends,and their families, presenting various scenes that students are likely to face in their dailylives. By practicing natural expressions and ulizuchi (responses that make conversationsgo smoothly), students are able to understand how sentences are connected and howsome phrases are shortened in daily conversation. Because the Dialogue section of eachlesson covers a lot of new grammar and vocabulary, students may feel it is too difficult
  7. 7. to understand at first. Dont be overly concerned, however, because the grammar andvocabulary will gradually take root with practice. Dialogues are recorded on the accompanying CD. Students are encouraged to practiceregularly by listening to the CD and carefully noting pronunciation and intonation.*VocabularyThe Vocabulary section presents all the new words encountered in both the Dialogueand Practice sections of each lesson. Words that appear in the Dialogue are markedwith an asterisk ( * ). Words are listed according to their function in Lessons 1 and 2,and by parts of speech in Lesson 3 and following. In addition, all words presented in thetext are also found in the Index at the end of each volume. Words found in the VocabuIary section of each lesson appear frequently in subse-quent lessons, thus students are encouraged to learn them little by little each day. AfterLesson 2, commonly used kanji equivalents of some words (Joyo Kanji) are aZso listed,but students are not required to memorize them. This textbook does not indicate a words accents. The accent of a Japanese wordvaries considerably, depending on the region, the speakers age (including the genera-tion gap between speakers), the words paradigmatic form, and its connection withother words. Therefore, dont be overly concerned about the accent, but try to imitateas closely as possible the intonation heard on the accompanying CD.*GrammarGrammar explanations are detailed, so that students can easily study them on theirown. Students at school are expected to read the grammar explanations before eachclass. This section also fully explains the items found in the Practice section that follows.Necessary explanations for the grammar and vocabulary that are not found in thePractice section can be found in the Expression Notes at the end of each Grammarsection.@PracticeThis section includes questions related to what was taught in each section of the lesson,providing students with both basic practice and application. By answering the ques-tions sequentially, students can naturally build up their Japanese-language ability. Theexercises with only one answer are marked with @ and recorded on the^^, allowingstudents the opportunity to practice on their own. The last part of the Practice section contains Review Exercises, which incorporateaspects of the lesson as a whole. For example, some questions combine various topicscovered in the lesson, and some call for the creation of new phrases based on what waslearned in the Dialogue section.
  8. 8. Introduction 4 Q) @Supplement Finally, some lessons include additional or supplementary information, This includes expressions related to the topic of the lesson, as in "Time and age" in Lesson 1, or expressions suitable at certain times or places, as in "At the station" in Lesson 10. Words introduced in the Supplement section are found in the Index of each voIurne. B b Reading and Writing The Reading and Writing section aims to foster comprehension and writing ability by learning Japanese characters and by providing opportunities to practice both reading and writing. Hiragam is introduced in Lesson 1, followed by k a f a k a ~in Lesson 2, and a kanji in Lesson 3 and following. From Lesson 3, each lesson contains the following components: .Kanji list Each new kanji introduced in a lesson is contained in a list, each with about 15 kanji. This makes it easy to memorize a few each day, rather than be overwhelmed with so many at once.Q serial number * (2)kanji (4)reading (5) compounds including the kanji $.-> I (*2) . ka ci&k~ Japan I Japanese (~&=/d) A L L * ~ (9& 6 2 2 A) Mr./Ms. Yamamoto i5z (book; basis) (2)meaning i 6) order stroke (6) total strokes Among the readings shown in (4) and (5), himgunla indicates the kwtyomi, or Japanese readings for a kanji, while katakana indicates the onyomi, or Chinese reading. Both kunyomi and o ~ y o m i sometimes altered in compounds of two or more kanji. For are example, the ordinary pronunciation of % is "gaku," which becomes "ga(k)" when the kanji is used in the word $45. Such derivative readings are also included in.(4)and () 5. Although some kanji have many readings, only those readings that are useful at an eIernentary level are included. Shaded readings and words in each lesson should be memorized. The others are for reference, so students dont need to memorize them. A practice sheet for each kanji is provided in the Reading and Writing section o the Workbook. Students should practice f
  9. 9. writing the kanji repeatedly, according to the stroke order shown on the kanji list in thetextbook..PracticeGENKI 1 consists of kanji practice, readings for comprehension, questions about thecontent of the readings, and writing practice. Kanji practice indudes various types ofquestions, such as having students reconstruct a kanji from its various parts or makenew words by combining kahji. By tackling these problems, students will realize thegoal of practice-to become more proficient in their use of kanji. Basically, the readingsare short and deal with subjects familiar to the students. They are easy to understandif the student has learned the vocabulary and grammar taught previously in theDialogue and Grammar section. When readings include new words, a correspondingword list is provided. Finally, composition topics are given for writing practice. GENKI 1 contains readings for comprehension, questions about the content of the 1readings, and writing practice. The readings employ various styles of Japanese, rangingfrom letters and fables to essays and advertisements. With a knowledge of the previous-IY learned vocabulary, grammar, arid kanji, the readings are easy to understand butgrow longer and more difficult in later lessons. Word lists are provided for newlyintroduced vocabulary. Finally, composition topics are introduced.C b AppendixVolumes 1 and 2 both contain an Index. The Japanese-English Index, in hiraganaorder, lists words found in the Vocabulary and Supplement section of each lesson. Thenumber next to a word indicates the lesson in which the word was introduced. In theEnglish-Japanese Index, English equivalents to Japanese words are arranged in alpha-betical order. Also included in the Appendix are tables of verb conjugations as well as soundinflections of the expressions related to numbers. Orthography and fontThe basic text is written in kanji and biragum. Kanji is used for the most commonlyused characters, those that appear in the official list of Joyo Kanji. Hiragma is usedinstead, however, when the Joyo Kanji equivalent would not be necessary for beginningstudents of Japanese.
  10. 10. Introduction 4 lo So that students can easily study the Dialogue and Grammar section, the pronuncia-tion of every kanji is indicated in hiragam. However, to lessen the burden on thestudents and allow them to study on their o m , Greetings and Lessons 1 and. 2 arerepresented in hiraganu and kutakam, as well as by romanized forms. It is best not torely too much on the romanizations, but use them only as a learning aid. Students studyhirugam and kutakum in Lessons 1 and 2, respectively, of the Reading and Writingsection. Students study kanji from Lesson 3 in the Reading and Writing section, wherepronunciations of the kanji already presented are not indicated in Riyuguna, in order topromote t h e students increasing acquisition of kanji.The Japanese in the basic text is set mainly i the Textbook font, which resembles nhandwriting and serves as a good model for students. Students will encounter a varietyof fonts used for Japanese materials, however, arid should be aware that the shape ofsome characters differ considerably, depending on the font used, Note especially thatwith some characters, we find two separate strokes in one style are merged into a singIestroke. Example: Textbook font Mincho font Gothic font Handwriting
  11. 11. ( Japanese Writing SystemThere ark three kinds of charactersin Japanese: hiragam, htakana, and kanji. AU threecharacters can be seen i a single sentence. n kHiragcam and k a f a k ~ m i e the alphabet, represent sounds. As you can see i the above l,k nexample, hiragam has a roundish shape and is used for conjugation endings, functionwords, and native Japanese words not covered by kanji. Kafakunu, which has ratherstraight fines, is normally used for writing loanwords and foreign names. For example,the Japanese word for "te~evision" written in kcafaku~ F L t+(terebi). Kanji, or is asChinese characters, represent not just sounds but also meanings. Mostly, kanji are usedfor nouns and the stems of verbs and adjectives.1. Basic Hiraana SyllablesThere are forty-six basic hiraganu syllables, which are listed below, Once you memorizethis chart, you will have the skill to transcribe all of the Japanese sounds.There is another writing sgstem c l e ald (Roman lettend which is used for station names, signs, and so on.
  12. 12. Japanese Writing System 4 I@ "ThesybbIes L , G , and 7 are romanized as shi, chi, and ha, respectively, which is closer to the English pronund- ation. * * % is d o pronounced as "wo." sThe romanization is given fox general pronunciation reference.2. Hiragma with Diacritical MarksYou can transcribe 23 additional sounds by adding diacritical marks. With a pair of shortdiagonal strokes ( * 1, the unvoiced consonants k, s, t , and h become voiced consonants g,z, d , and b , respectively. The consonant h changes to p with the addition of a small circle(7. *G (ji)and 3 b u ) are pro- nounced the same as -t Gi} If zP A: 4 1% and Y Cm), respectively, and pa Pi Pu Pe PO have limited use.
  13. 13. 3 Transcribing Contracted Sounds .Small -P, @, and 1 follow after letters in the second column (i-vowel hiragam, except I)and are used to transcribe contracted sounds. The contracted sound represents a singlesyllable.4. Transcribing Double ConsonantsThere is another small letter 9,as ff and pp. Examples: 75.7 5 7 is. ? t i - 1 s.9 L 3 = kaBa sa&u hama zaghi (won) (writer) (leaf) (magazine) cf- 6 if which is used when transcribing double consonants such kata (shoulder)Note that double consonant ns, as in sanfielz (3 years), are written with h, + a hiraganuwith an initial n sound ( 3,, G a,h,or @). Examples: : 3 h kt h s a z m (3 years) & k, h L t anmi (guide)5. Other Issues Relating to Transcription and Pronunciationk Long VowelsWhen the same vowel is placed one right after the other, the pronunciation of the vowel
  14. 14. Japanese Writing System 4 I@becomes about twice as long as the single vowel. Be sure to hold the sound long enough,because the length of the vowel can change one word to another. .k;C$& 3 X/ o b m a n (grandmother) cf. S I T ? obasun (aunt) j LL % 3 ojijsan (grandfather) cf. 6 3 X/ ujisan (uncle) 33c sMi (number) The long ee sound is usually transcribed by adding an to an e-vowel him- gma. There are a few words, however, in which 2 is used instead of &.. &~hf ggu (movie) 3 oncaan (big sister) The long oo sound is in most cases transcribed by adding an . to an i u-vowel hiragam. There are, however, words in which the long vowel is transcribed with an %, for historical reasons. h&hu (law) (ten)B. Pronunciation of XIA, "n" is treated like a full syllable, in terms of length. Its pronunciation varies, however,depending on the sound that follows it. Japanese speakers are normally not aware of thedifferent sound values of h. Therefore, you do not need to worry too much about itspronunciation.C. Vowels to Be DroppedThe vowels i and u are sometimes dropped when placed between voiceless consonants (k,s, f, p , and k), or at the end of an utterance preceded by voiceless consonants. Example: T3TT s(u)krdes(zl) (I like it.)20ne variety of the h pronunciation merits discussing here. When it is followed by a vowel or at the end of an utterance, X, indicates that the preceding vowel is long and nasalized. (Nasalized vowels are shown here with a tilde above vowel letters. You hear nasalized vowels in French words such as "bon," or the English interjection "uh-uh,"as i "no.") n kLh&~ rZai (romance) 13A ha (book) Fallowed by pz, t , d, s, and z sounds, A is pronounced as "n." f;LP mna (woman) Followed by m, p , and 6 sounds, A, is pronounced as "m." 2X1I3 sampo (stroll) Followed by k and g sounds, /v is pronounced as "ng" as in "song." 2 &;?* nacagga (comics)
  15. 15. D. Accent in the Japanese LanguageJapanese has a pitch accent: all syllables are pronounced basically either in high or lowpitch. Unlike the English stress accent in which stressed syllables tend to be pronouncedlonger and louder, in Japanese each syllable is pronounced approximately in equal lengthand stress. The pitch patterns in Japanese vary greatly, depending on the region of ~ecountry. Examples: & 2 .a_._ - . sa (morning) 32% ._--m@--e na (name) , -kiXka-.. tu z (high) The syllables Y , 4 , and Y are romanized as ski, chi, and tsu, respectively, to give a closer English pronunciation.
  16. 16. Japanese Writing System 4 1 6 *9Gi) and Y Czw) are pro- ! - nounced the same as 9 Cid) and % b), rewectivel~1 and have limited use.The pronunciation of katakum and its combinations are the same as those of hiragam,except for the following points.( )The long vowels are written with -. 1 Examples: ;Ir- kaa b~) Zq- saki (ski) x- su,h (suit) 9 - keeki (cake) $-1t bamr (ball)
  17. 17. When you write vertically, the -- mark needs to be written vertically also. Example:(2) Additional combinations with small vowel letters are used to transcribe foreign sounds that originally did not exist in Japanese. Examples: 34 Tu?~-7 harowiin (Halloween) 3 . 2h4 9 x 4 1 haiwee (highway) 3$ ~ % 4 1 ~ 3 $ - 9 mineruruwoutua (mineral water) - 23 9x1)- sherii (sherry) 9~ YiL-AX jgemusu (James) ;f= .f-=YY chekku (check) 77 77.Y23> fasshm (fashion) 7 4 74)k0;/ firipi~ (Philippine) 7r 2771 kafe (cafe) 7 fi1)7$lb=7 kariforunia (California) 74 2f-7 4 - paatii (party) 4 7-423 disuko (disco) 71 73-7 dyuuka (Duke)(3)The sound "v" is sometimes written with T. For example, the word "Venus" is - sometimes written as E-f X or 3 4 3- 2 . "
  18. 18. Greetings - 1 New Friends 10 XkAYTT Question Sentences noun1 Q> noun2 @ . ~ & C, ~ h ~ 29 fiLI%a Shopping 30 2% Taz E;h ZD/~D/&~)/E@ noun + E h O noun z z * z &+Z FZ noun B noun L + & 9 -h/-ck-1 7-@ B<+< Making a Date 54 Verb Conjugation Verb Types and the "Present Tense" Particles Time Reference Word Order Frequency Adverbs The Topic Particle Id:
  19. 19. -1 a - The First Date 72 Describing Where Things Are Past Tense( 5 )ID +z j A Trip to Okinawa 4 1 ###RE 96 Adjectives E 3 (&)/S G b > ( a ) T Degree Expressions -3Lt k//--$t~-3& Counting1-( nlo-bahl~-a L1?51;%- A D ~ in Roberts ~ i f e Y 114 Describing Two Activities --&. 6;
  20. 20. 7-( SEa~qsFamily Picture &T< LQLh 132 %&q2 b 3 T-3- 1A $g Te-forrns for Joining Sentences + verb stem t ~ < 5 41 Counting People (-8 1 - 6 3- Barbecue 150 Short Forms Uses of Short Forms verb Q fis?@3 TT 3 t $3 fCTfih and f l 8 BE al: (T Kabuki ) 170 Past Tense Short Forms Qualifying Nouns with Verbs and Adjectives ) - ( ~ a a a Winter Vacation plans 3@Bf& s~ rl 190 Comparison adjective + a 25 zr3htz/k+ztzh
  21. 21. (m) ARM the vacation 210 -z ? -Tz 9-Tz 9 3 % -z kf?ql& noun A Je noun B @R*m@95x Inthe Japanese Class 225 L mu?( SSl-b -0d5Wfu ] Expression Notes @S42,%5/&!l;b-;k3 $ k 5 $ I ; t l b > R L ~ T T G LFL./ T , 9$ L ~ T %T/fzf.Ll&/X.h~R 3 b l T ~ 8 @ & 2/ 5 % 3 TTf-;Sl Pronunciation of M Numbers Giving ones telephone number + k h e b l "d Referring to the person you are talking to Japanese names 17 0(--%><?23t1 L (-$)Z5P On thepronuncia- tion of number words Big numbers 39 @E</%6 % & ~ k rl < 64 O X 0 3 2 . . IaSBEl+ L C d.A~aX, BLQt 82 @KL& *P#P(G) 104 $ g { / ~ k l 2-5 b 122 " 141 LF % @-*a 160 @%% kTfga)@hs& 9 % $&s------ 198 . L L L LGb L @ i2 in negative sentences $2 iZ F 4 /1 7* @ @& i id: Z 217
  22. 22. &L 1- 53 p JG r e e t ings
  23. 23. Ohayoo. Good morning.Ohayoo gozairnasu. Good morning. (polite)Konnichiwa. Good afternoon.Kon banwa. Good evening.Sayoonara. Good-bye.Oyasurninasai. Good night.Arigatoo. Thank you.Arigatoo gozairnasu. Thank you. (polite)Surnirnasen. Excuse me.; Im sorry.lie. No.; Not at all.Ittekimasu. Ill go and come back.Itterasshai. Please go and come back.Tadairna. Im home.0 kaerinasai. Welcome home.Itadakimasu. Thank you for the meal. (before eating)Cochisoosama. Thank you for the meal. (after eating)Hajirnernashite. How do you do?Doozo yoroshiku. Mice to meet you.
  24. 24. -I 61$.d;j/$g#&jb Ohaym is used between friends and family mem- ~ ~ between less intimate acquaintances, bers, while oleayoo g o z c is used~ similarly with Q&CI~OO and arigaioo gomimasu. The rule of thumb i : if you s are on a first-name b&is with someone, go for the shorter versions. If you would address someone as Mr. or Ms., use the longer versions. To give a concrete example, the social expectation is such that students are to use the longer variants when they speak with a professor. &&5%6)There are several good-bye expressions in Japanese, the choice among which depends on the degree of separation. Sayoomre indi- cates that the speaker does not expect to see ~e person spoken to before she "turns a page in her life"; not untiI a new day arrives, or until fate brings the two together again, or until they meet again in the other world. CJP&, % k e Jaa, mata (between friends, e z r p d h g ta see each other again fairly m n ) L 3 h t 1 L S 8, Shiiureeshimasu. (taking leave from a professors office, for exampIe) GagT 8 %-Po Ittekirnasu. k v i n g home) $&$eh S b u d e a means (1) "Excuse me," to get another persons attention, (2) "Im sorry," to apologize for the trouble you have caused, or (3) "Thank you," to show appreciation for what someone has done for you. L I L Z ) I i primarily "No," a negative reply to a question. In the k s dialogue, it is used to express the English phrase "Dont mention it," or "Youre welcome," with which you point out that one is not required to feel obliged for what you have done for them. L ~ = ~ : ~ . = , L + L I / L . = , ~ $ Z T / ~ ~ C L L I & / Sb ~ Z ~ % & C ~ Ittekbnasw and i t m h i i a common exchange used at home when a family member bwsa s leaves. The person who leaves says iftekimmu, which literally means "I will go and come back." And the family members respond with itt~mshaa, which means "Please go and come back." Ta-a and okare~ used when a person comes home. The person are who arrives home says tadaima (I am home right now) to the family members, and they respond with o M a s a e (Welcome home).
  25. 25. Act out the following situations with your classmates. 1. You meet your host family for the first time. Greet them. 2. It is one oclock in the afternoon. You see your neighbor Mr. Yamada. 3 . You come to class in the morning. Greet your teacher. Greet your friends. 4. On a crowded train, you stepped on someones foot. 5 . You dropped your book. Someone picked it up for you. 6. It is eight oclock at night. You happen to meet your teacher at the convenience store. 7. You are watching T V with your host family. It is time to go to sleep. 8. You are leaving home. 9. You have come back home. 10. You are going to start eating. 11. You have finished eating.
  26. 26. &k51/L %2 &t% New Friends Mary, an international student who just arrived in Japan, talks to a Japanese student. W h l L 1 7 - -j-A3*,L0 ~ 3 3kLrTT&xo Mearii Sumirnasen. Irna nanji desu ka.2 f z 1-j t: I 2 I= tl i A T T o Takeshi Juuniji han desu. b25 lit3 It711-: 9 t"S*L$-j-, Mearii Arigatoo gozaimasu.4 kc? L : bh~hj?& Takeshi lie.
  27. 27. I ?="tL.: A&, 9 1.p j -h3( -WITTjtra, Takeshi Ano, ryuugakusee desu ka. a h 8 j I ) I I i3 +-% I2 $7+: Z L 0 7 y ~ * - j - ? 3 ~ 6 q sa + l - b w - j - o $ { Mearii E. e Arizona daigaku no gakusee dew.3 t if t : = Ti ; T-j-hx, * A i B LC3 2 & T T h a , Takeshi Soo desu ka. Senmon wa nan desu ka. Mearii Nihongo desu. Ima ninensee desu. Mary: Excuse me. What time is it now? Takeshi: Its half past twelve. Mary: Thank you. Takeshi: Youre welcome. Takeshi: Urn . . . are you an biternational student? Mary: Yes. I am a strident at the University of Arizona. Takeshi: I see. What is your major? Mary: Japanese. I am a sophomore now.
  28. 28. ano urn.-. ima now eego English ~lansuage) Ee Yes gakusee student .-.go language ex. IT [3 t L" (mi&- & go) Japanese language kaokoo high school gogo P.M. gozen AM. . . . sai . . . years old . . . san Mr,/Ms. - . . ...j i oclock ex. L s% W (khiji) one oclock . . . jin people ex. l.2 EZ A U h.(aihore- jipz) Japanese people sensee teacher; Professor . . . senmon major soo desu Thats right. daigaku college; university denwa telephone tcrrnodachi friend namae name nan/nani what Nihon Japan . . . nensee . ..year student ex. t *l %I * L (&binwee) first-yearstudent hai yes han half ex. ?=lZki&(n&iAan) half past two foangao number ryuugakusee international student watashi I* Words that appear in the dialogue
  29. 29. ADDITIONAL VOCABULARYC o u n t r i e s Ameri ka US-A. lgirisu Britain Oosutoraria Australia Kankoku Korea Sueeden Sweden Chuugoku China kagaku science ajiakenkyuu Asian studies keezai economics kokusaikankee international. relations kon pyuutaa computer jinruigaku anthropoIogy seeji pslitics bijinesu business bungaku literature rekishi history job; work; occupation doctor kaishain office worker kookoasee high school student shufu housewife daigakuinsee graduate student daigakusee college student bengoshi lawyer okaasan mother otoosan father oneesan older sister oniisan older brather irnooto younger sister otooto younger brother
  30. 30. "It is 12:30." "I am a student." "My major is the Japanese language." These sentenceswill all be translated into Japanese using an appropriate noun and the word desu. @ 9 I= U 1.3A/ TT0 (It) is half past twelve. Juuniji han desu. $2 ( * L T - F O (I) am a studat. Gakusee desu. tc C3X. z*T-3-0 (My major) 6 the Japa~leselanguage. Nihongo desu.Note that none of these sentences has a "subject," like the "it," "I," and "my major"found in their English counterparts. Sentences without subjects are very common inJapanese; Japanese speakers actually tend to omit subjects whenever they think it isclear to the listener what or who they are referring to.What are we to do, then, when it is not clear what is being talked about? To make explicitwhat we are talking about, we can say: t3 b= G3h Z*TT, is the Japalaese kanguage. wa nihongo desu.Where stands for the thing that is talked about, or the "topic," which is later inthe sentence identified as nihowo. For example, +&XI SI h,4 . 3 :*TTa it t 3 h/ (My)major ds the Japanese langwzge. Senrnon w a nihongo desu.Similarly, one can use the pattern X wa Y desu t identify a person or a thing X as item oY. bk Lt2 t X- i Watashi wa Suu Kimu desu. - +AT?, I t - I am Sue Kim.
  31. 31. 9 3 L f i S " I 3 *L*~TTo Mr. Y a w h i f a i a teacher. k Yarnashita san wa sensee desu. n A 9 6 . $7)--3LlA 7%1)3FJ13b-c--Fo Mary i s an American. Mearii san wa arnerikajin desu.Wa is a member of the class of words called "particles." So is the word lzo, which we willturn to later in this lesson. Particles attach themselves to phrases and indicate how thephrases relate to the rest of the sentence.Note also that nouns like gakwee and sesee in the above examples stand alone, d i k etheir English translations "student" and "teacher," which are preceded by "a." InJapanese, there is no item that corresponds to "a,"nor is there any item that correspondsto the plural "-s" at the end of a noun- Without background situations, a sentence Iikegakusee desu is therefore ambiguous between the singular and the plural interpretations;it rnay mean "We are/you a d t h e y are students," as well as "I am/you are/she is astudent."It is very easy to form questions in Japanese. Basically, all you need to do is add kaat the end of a statement. 9 a =,PSf( * L ~ T T , Ryuugakusee desu. 9 < @ 3 5: - @ L Y F & ~ Ryuugakusee desu ka. (1 am) an iatemtGmnl sturEenf- (Are you) aH i ~ t e m a t i o ~ student? alThe above sentence, Ryzcugakusee desu ka, is a "yes/noW question. Question sentencesmay also contain a "question word" like nun2 (what). In this Iesson, we learn how to ask,and answer, questions using the following question words: nun.; (what time), namai(how old), nannensee (what year in school). Note.carefully that the order of words in asentence may be quite different from what you find in your language. * h % &la QahTT-h~, (+i?hS,&Ll) ;Z~Z*TT, Senmon wa nan desu ka. (Senmon wa) eego desu. What is your mior? (My major) is Eytglish.It is not customary to write a question mark at the end of a question sentence i Japanese. nThe Japanese question word for "what"has k v o pronunciations: =an and naai. Naa is used immediate- ly before dmu or before a "counter" like j (oclock). The other form, mmi, i used before a particle. i s Nani is also used in the combination nanl;jin (person of what nationality).
  32. 32. 2 faX/L*TTha, ( b w { CTTO Ima nanji desu ka. ([ma) kuji desu. What time i it now? s It is nilae oclock 97.j-3ctli Qx/%~~TT75~, 4rp3 9 T T , C:rgj Mearii san wa nansai desu ka. Juukyuusai desu. How old are you, Mary? Im nineitem years old. QPthk*~ - p ; t r a . h~ bchk*~T-$-, Nannensee desu ka. Ninensee desu. What year are yo= i college? n T & btfA 2" 9 t3 3 &TT75*, Ia 6 a 7 3 4 3 ~ ~ , Denwa bangoo wa nan desu ka. lchi hachi roku no nana san yon san desu. W7uat i your Eekpkose amber? i It is 186-7343.No is a particle that connects two nouns. The phrase Toozai daigaku nu gakusee means"(a) student at Tozai University." The second noun gukmes provides the main idea" daigdku makes it more specific (not a high(being a student) and the first one T ~ o z a ischool, but a college student). No is very versatile. In the first example below, it acts likethe possessive ("xs") in English, but that is not the only role no can play. See how itconnects two nouns in the following examples. f r l - f k S h a TLblXLt"? Tukeshis phone number Takeshi san no denwa bangoo f375${a * ~ L * L , a college profasor daigaku no sensee i t l 3 h r"n $75." ( * L a student o f fhe Japanese lamuage nihongo no gakusee l=i3L,Ql f s b ~ &{z @college i~ Japan nihon no daigakuObserve that in the first two examples, the English and Japanese words are arranged inthe same order, while in the last two, they are in the opposite order. Japanese seems tobe more consistent in arranging ideas here; the main idea always comes at the end, withany further description placed before it.3Here is what we mean by the "main idea." In the phrase Tukeshi san m dmwa Bangoo (Takeshis phone number), the noun &wa bawgoo (phone number) is the main idea, in the sense that if something is Takehis phone number, it is a phone number. The other noun Takeski san i not the main idea, s because Takeshis phone number is not Tak&.
  33. 33. noun, 03 noun, t T further restriction main ideaA phrase of the form "noun1 m noun? acts more or less like one big noun. You can putit wherever you can put a noun, as in the following example: id Z -+ / v - t t ~ l ~ ~ , ~ O Takeshi san no okaasan wa kookoo no sensee desu. Takeskis mather is a high school teacher. - Expression N o t e r a 1 8Db Ano indicates that you have some reservations about saying what you are going to say next. You may be worried about interrupting some- thing someone is currently doing, or soundkg rude and impolite for asking personal questions, for example. [3tl/ZZb Both Rai and ee mean "yes" in response to yes-no questions. Compared to hai, ea is more conversational and relaxed. In more informal situations, ula is used. Hai is also used to respond to a knock at the door or to the calling of ones name, meaning "Here," as follows. (Ee cannot be replaced in this case.) T A f Teacher: 7: 5 2 3 ? Mr. Smith? Sumisu san? Student: Mtl, Hwe. H ai E3TTljb Soo desu ka acknowledges that you have understood what was just said. "Is that so?" or "I see." Pronunciation of 1% b The particle t;t. is pronounced "wa," not "ha." It should be written with ki. All other instances of "wa" are written with b.
  34. 34. TI - c L@ bf Z 3 & 37-8667TB, Watashi no denwa bangoo wa san narra no hachi roku roku nana desu. M telephone wuwber i 37-8667. y iThere are a few exceptions, such as kow~~zkkim (good afternoon) andkmbomwta (good evening). They are usually written with 5, tv tZ It;- and 7 i2 -h,if&g.Plumbers b Many number words have more than one pronunciation. Referto the table at the end of this book for a general picture. tf 5 13 -ED and are both commonly used. I t~%,butpronouncedas I Y iIn b s 3 & & (oneminute)and t 1 ~ 2 ~ t l (one-year old). 2 tZ all the time- When you &e reading out each digit separately, as when you give your phone number, it may be pronounced with a lung vowel, as tZl.1. 3 "dX,all the time. The part that follows it may change shape, as in 3 A&&, instead of 3 A&&. 4 L h, is the most basic, but fourth-year student is k ; B a X i - F t h and four oclock i d; U. In some combinations that we will later s kam,it is read as L (as in L.fi%?, April). The part that folIows this number may hange shape too, as in k. &&A. 5 2 all the time. When read out separately, it may be pronounced with a long vowel, as c-3 . 6 ?3 < , but pronounced as 5 9 in 5 9 &A. 7 Q t is the most basic, but seven oclock is L Ei C. e 8 t3 G , but usually pronounced as 6% -7 in iA d:-;, &X. and $23 3 tl. 9 3 o 5 is the most basic, but nine o?clockis < C. 10 L@4, butpronouncedas C g q in Cv~&."X/and ~ 9 3 5 . 1 . UGiving ones telephone number b The particle .pro is usually placed inbetween the local exchange code and the last four digits. Therefore, thenumber 012-345-6789 is zero icki xi, saa yon go no, roku nana hachi kyuu.@hreLlbThe word s e ~ s e e usually reserved for describing somebody iselses occupation. Watashk wa s a m e desu makes sense, but may soundslightly arrogant, because the word semee actually means an "honorablemaster." If YOU (or a member of your family) are a teacher, and if you wantto be really modest, you can use the word kyooshi instead.&hr b Sun is placed after a name as a generic title. It goes both with a givenname and a family name. Children are referred to as chan (and boys in
  35. 35. ..-,:I .. . :. , pa&culaf as kurr), rather than as sax. Professors and doctors are usually referred to with the title sensee. S m and other title words are never used in reference to oneself. Referring to the person y w are talking to b The word for "you," anaba, is not very commonly used in Japanese. Instead, we use the name and a title like sun and sensee to refer to the person you are talking to. Therefore, a sentence like "Ms. Hart, are you Swedish?" should be: It & t r6 i f P b I-t. SLEk x ~ 3 - ~ Y L ~ T ~ ~ ~ , Haato san wa sueedenjin desu ka. I d k t 7 L i T / " instead of I- b 3 & , &;fcf..i3 ~ 3 z - r " Y V h / T ? h ~ ~ Haato sari, anata wa sueedenjin desu ka. Japanese names b When Japanese give their name, they say their family name first and given name last. Usually, they dont have middle names. When they introduce themselves, they often say only their family name. Here are some typical Japanese names. Family name Given name Men Women S t ? v5t w4 r Satoo Hiroshi Yuuko TT-3 4 ~ 1 % 4 &("a Suzuki lchiroo Megumi fz $1 1 L 2 i?;tXI c Takahashi Kenji m.5 3 Yuuki blk-5 2 341.4 BkSr Itoo Masahiro Kyooko
  36. 36. ii (Numbers) Q h -F~/+LL zero ree t"rg j L ~ S ; 3kL"@J5 juuichi sanjuu Uqji: LhU*? juuni yonjuu 3XI 3tL L*@j L*L+@j san juusan gojuu kk / L / ( 1 ) L L"r95LAJL@.9 &<C@3 yon shi (yo) juuyon juushi rokujuu ?-* C r*.p:* QQC*? nanajuu go juugo G roku { r@eJ?d juuroku !dGrt$? hachijuu QQ/L% t"@3QP,./L@?L G 3rs-iL"@3 nana shichi juunana juushichi kyuujuu 1.3 G t"*.s",& vs { hachi juuhachi hyaku Ct9-j 3 @ ? / C @ ? t juulcyuu juuku Izrt-P? nijuuA. Read the following numbers. @ (a) 5 (b) 9 (c) 7 (d) I (el 10 (f) 8 (9) 2 (R) 6 (i) 4 (j) 3B. Read the following numbers. @ (a) 45 (13) 83 (c) I9 (d) 76 (el 52 (f) 100 (8138 (h)61 (i)24 (d97C. What are the answers? (a) 5+3 tb) 9+I (el 3+4 (d) 6 - 6 (e) IO+9 ( f ) 8-7 (9)40-25
  37. 37. @ l;f (Time) @ 8 r a L>& t= U ShC 1I 2 z"U ichiji niji sanji yoji goji,I il: ?dl2 rokuji t&U shichiji tit% t" hachiji ( C kuji t*=lt juuji :">tEIi T (J @ L@;l~%t C@?tcU L% c l3tL juuichiji juuniji ichiji han A. Look at the following pictures and answer the questions. @ Example: Q : & 3 tdhL"TP$ko h a nanji desu ka. A :~~GLt&X,TTO Ichiji han desu.
  38. 38. B. Answer the questions. @ Example: Q : Z 1 3hhTThao Tookyoo wa irna nanji desu ka. A : r"*h 3 hL-lvT, Cozen sanji desu. 7:00 P.M. 7 Nnrr Vnrlr 3 :0 0 ~ ~ ~ . 1 :00 P.M. 5. Bangkok 3. Nairobi WL- 6. Sydney 4:OO A.M. 1/ 8. Rio de Janeiro 9: 00 P.M. 3:OO P,M.@ Thral%hZj (Telephone Numbers)A. Read the following peoples telephone numbers. @ Example: f: 283-9547 + E=Ga%$/v4, $ 4 3 ;11hQQ YarnasRita ni hachj san no kyuu go yon nana a , d j 7 1 1. $ 7 9 - 951-0326 Mearii 2. f z i t 3 L Takeshi f i 3. 2- Suu ? l I B Y 4. a/- p RobaatoB. Pair Work-Read the dialogue below with your partner. @ A : TX/b *: 3 63 Q hTTdxo Denwa bangoo wa nan desu ka. B : 283-9547T$, Ni hachi san no kyuu go yon nana desu.
  39. 39. A : 283-9547TTh0 Ni hachi san no kyuu go yon nana desu ne. B : i i t b l , +?I TTo Hai, soo desu.C. Group Work-Use the dialogue above and ask three classmates their telephone numbers. name telephone numberQ lzlzhzlD A$< (LlTranslate the following phrases into Japanese using (n (no).@ Example: student of the Japanese language -+ dL 13 t"Q < 21l L nihongo n o gakusee 1. my teacher 2. my telephone number 3. my name 4. Takeshis major 5. Marys friend 6. student of the University of London 7. teacher of the Japanese language 8. high school teacher . Look at the chart on the next page and describe each person using the cues @ in (a) through (e). Takeshi san Suu san Robaato san Yamashita sensee (a) nationality &, h I b 91 bj 7 i. A h ) + Example: % 7 1 - 3 b + % 7 J ) - S h i A 7 %) f i h L ? T 0 - Mearii san Mearii san wa amerikajin desu. (6) year in school g, %, ? 1. L + & ? L . Example: $ 7 )- 3 3 % 7 1 1 - I h t 3 GZ&~+?LTT, Mearii san Mearii san wa ninensee desu.
  40. 40. (c)age ar,& a h 1 r c@?J@ ?~ L ~ T T O 7 ~ 7 Example: % 7 " ] - $ h+ 9 7 1 * $ ! ~ ( 3 3 Mearii san Mearii san wa juukyuu sai desu. (d) school & 5 h 1 I h w A l r 3 & l F t a Example: % 7 1 J - 2 t L + %711-3A13 79 l*-?k.+~$~< Mearii san Mearii san wa Arizona daigaku no 75s ( ~ & c T - $ - ~ gakusee desu. (e) major h h 9 I h n b 1 i k Example: 7 - A + $ 7 -3 h 3 + X I $ 1 C CCC~~L~T?~ Mearii san Mearii san no senmon wa nihongo desu.I I ( ,4$"L;t;WL Kirnura Takerhi I Kim, Sue Korean Smith, Robert British L~:+-/,/%-L Yamashita sensee Nationality American Japanese (6.A z { U A) ( 4 71x u " ) Japanese kankokujin igirisujin Year 2nd year 4th year 3rd year 4th year Age 19 22 20 School U. of Arizona Tozai Univ. Seoul Univ. U. of London , Tozai Univ. history computer& business i t : : b r r z r r ? ? (Japanese Major Japanese ( j k 3 L) (xx=-y-) (r9;r.x) teacher) rekishi konovuutaa biiinesuB. Pair Work-Ask and answer questions using the given cues. 9 , d j 1 i > & a h ? $ . Example 1: 9 7 ) - 3 h / 7 9 I f i U L Mearii san amerikajin d h ~ q r * & & q h - Q : %rJ-L4,la 7%ltJ~:hil"Tdx, Mearii san wa amerikajin desu ka. A : 2 2 , %-jTTo Ee, soo desu.
  41. 41. w % r I i Example 2: % 71 -3 h / S h . h / v - @ ~ Mearii san sannensee h i , 1 r 3 Q : $73 -5ktd: 3 X , # 3 t L * b ~ T - T 7 5 * 0 Mearii san wa sannensee desu ka. A : LLZ, t=iklX/*~~T-$-* lie, ninensee desu. Mearii san Arizona daigaku no gakusee * & J t 2. $71--$h/~%;4a&*L Mearii san ichinensee 3. t2"z Cj L L / C = t S h C & Takeshi san nihonjin 4. kt?L s X//tct3/vtf~itr( a 6 " *b Takeshi san Nihon daigaku no gakrrsee 5. k"rLtS,L@531.s3 2L Takeshi san juukyuusai T i + ; i 5 2 - h 6. X - - 3 ~ / Z ~ . s - ~ 2 ~ ~ Suu san sueedenjin i 7. X - 3 A n L/if~3*."L (economics) SUU san no senrnon keezai Rohaato san no senrnon bijinesu . 3 U & Z 9. Up$- b ?!X//&&h+3~ Robaato sari yonensee z , i f h L : 10. U P T - ~ ~ X / / ~ C ~ @ ~ C ~ ~ ? ~ L ~ Robaato san nijuuissai 11. 9 3 tf~+hL+?~/~=iahCL, Yamashita sensee nihonjin Yamashita sensee Hawai daigaku no senseeA. Look at the chart below and describe each person with regard to (a) and (b). 1. i 5 h * & 3 i & 2. ~ E C L $ X , okaasan oniisan (a) occupation/school a d j l t s Example: f ; Z i 3,4, 4 z+I)-S/vO S L j $/,,I2 ;brLrb/vcl, otoosan Mearii san no otaosan wa kaishain desu.
  42. 42. h . 6 1 1 Example: + %711-Shag r - 5 ) / Y c ~ L / , L a i ~ a ~ $ W f , otoosan Mearii san no otoosan wa yonjuuhassai desu.Marys host family sr.isx/ 3h oniisan lrnooto otoosan okaasan (father) (mother) &%L t e k k t *"L L:? @{ L Z j Lj-@h Occupation/ kaishain shufu daigakuinsee kookoosee School (works for (housewife) (graduate (high school a company) student) student)6. Answer the questions using the chart above. 1. S Z j SXIt3 15a~te~X/To$75h, Otoosan wa kaishain desu ka. 2. s r 5. 2 A t i & F ~ ~ L T - T - ~ * ~ Otoosan wa nansai desu ka. 3. SiP& 3 /"4a *A+kcC$is., Okaasan wa sensee desu ka. 4. S+dj 3 5 2 ~hT-f-h*, % Okaasan wa nansai desu ka. 5. i tc~>$.X,bd % hxL t +WL:,-ebT~~, Oniisan wa kaishain desu ka. 6. sG=~shEa k S ~ ~ T - T h , Q Oniisan wa nansai desu ka. 7. L Z, j Z 13 EL$; ( -ktkhTTbx, lrnooto wa daigakusee desu ka. 8.- L% Ij Z tA ~ & S L T + - ? ~ ~ , lrnooto wa nansai desu ka.
  43. 43. @ 2 &@a fib b I$ 3 (Review Exercises)A. Class Activity-Ask five classmates questions and fill in the chart below. Example questions: ;f; 3 5 2 t i ? (What is your name?) Onarnae wa? * Z 33 f z hao (Where do you come from?) Doko kara kimashita ka. L rZ (occupation) id 2 A TTfi, Shigoto wa nan desu ka. fbCt/&lX,*~~Tj-~. Nannensee desu ka. Q ~ 3 ~ q - j - $ ~ ~ Nansai desu ka. * h i t hita QLT-F;S~, Senrnon wa nan desu ka. Occupation/ Name Nationality Age Major, etc. SchoolB. Self-introduction-Introduce yourself to t h e class. Example: h i i l L 3 ;1 X z I d C b 3 L T 0 %7Y- ~ h - bT T O Hajimernashite. Mearii Haato desu. A ) Z Q 7 1) 9 j f : ~ h $ z Arizona daigaku no < 5; { *LT& gakusee desu. L ~ Z Ima !~#~XI*LT-~-, *h/#,Al2 tcC3hz*Tj-, ninensee desu. Senmon wa nihongo desu. L:~P ~ Q ~ $ c T" . F .," k 5 L ( . ~ Z ?T Juukyuusai desu. Doozo yoroshiku.
  44. 44. C. Class Activity-Ask your classmates what their majors are, and find someone who has the following major. Example: Q : *h%hlafa&T$hao Senrnon wa nan desu ka. A : i:!3A Z*TTO Nihongo desu. name 1. Japanese 2. economics 3. English 4. history 5. business
  45. 45. ITime / A g e Time hours minutes khf; c I ~ h - 3 ~ : : ~ II Lr9j~-d."h ichiji lPPun juuippun 2 d=LaX, 12 Ct-Fji=LsA nifun juunifun 3ht 3 3 ,4,-.2X/ 13 b 3 StLwi:A sanji sanpun juusanpun Lr 4 k kli:h 14 C:rg 3k ttYi:X/ yoji yonpun Juuyonpun *: r goji t 5 <*,LA, gof un 15 Y@5z*eiatL juugofun 4 { C 6 57d:L 16 L"u9=75~+i."k rokuji roppun juuroppun LGU 7 322-X/ 17 ~ ~ 5 . ~ ~ v i ~ shichiji nanafun juunanafun 13% tJ 8 t d ~ d ~ t t / l d t : ~ L X , 18 C ~ ? l d ~ w i ~ A / hachiji happun hachifun juuhappun (t" 9 ,4rgj,iaX, C @ 9 li%visA, kuji kyuufun juuhachifun 10 Ck#9e2L 19 L a ? 3q$wi-L PPPU~ juukyuufun C@?Lg3C 20 tcc :7L,,j:tt juuichiji nijuppun rg j C u C ~ 30 SL,12*7ei:A juuniji sanjuppun Age 2 3 4 I nisai SX/SL sansai kX/$b yonsai Nansai desu ka. L > ~ $ L issai icSc For 20 years old, t;t if ~&SLTT~*,/SL{~~T-~~, (Howoldareyou?) i 7 5 6 8 Oikutsu desu ka. -The counter suffix -- 3 t b is used to indicate "-years old." ~"SL gosai 5(%> rokusai QQ?L nanasai i3-33bh hassai 9 10 [I 20 $@j?w kyuusai C @ 7 3 ~ 1 jussai Ur9?~-=,5~ juuissai t;f;7"r%* hatachi t; ~hatachils usually used, although i= t @ 7 3 I (nilmsai)can be used.
  46. 46. ah b j ? t Mary goes to a flea market. 1 % 7 l ] - : TA3*tt, rhia L(h -r~h~, Mearii Sumimasen. Kore wa ikura desu ka.2 : qjfita L L ~ F A L L T ~ - , Mise no hito Sore wa sanzen en desu. # A I I c~. bj, ha z~ ~~ t a { ,c; ~ j - - h > , ~ ~ u ~ r b3 % ~ j - : f ~ i t r :. ( L Mearii Takai desu ne. Jaa, ano tokee wa ikura desu ka.4 A*a)CTZ :: Mise no hito &&l2 3 A e t t L * t h Are wa sanzengohyaku en desu. < ;2hTT, &3 A 1 1,5 %7")-: k 3 TTh., &$LS f < h . ~ T $ & , Mearii Soo desu ka. Are rno takai desu ne.6 a G ) ? * Tp f: * ~ ~ & T 2~ T T k o h ~ P Mise no hito Kore wa senhappyaku en desu yo. * & I t >7 % 7 l ] - : EP&, + c 3 Z I j t 2 ( t : 3 b ~ ~ Mearii Jaa, sono tokee o kudasai. A man finds wallet on t h e ground.8 Lh2Lt.W r b t d -f:ihcr, 3c,iaTT Shiranai hito Kore wa dare no saifu desu ka. & & l i h9 %Ti)-: b?zLG3 $ ~ ~ i a T - j - ~ Mearii Watashi no saifu dew. a&> ! h" I 3 -j-, Z2"~*~& Arigatoo gozai masu. @ After shopping, Mary goes to a restaurant. i L L Z f z - ? 8 1 1 ~ ~ 3I 5~-b k X : ~ ( , q L+L~-@~ZL-~ %= Z"-j Fo Ueetoresu I rasshaimase. Menyuu o doozo.
  47. 47. 2345678
  48. 48. W o r d s T h a t P o i n t* r#t kore this one* .ih sore that one* a j %h are that one (over there)* Y h dore which one a Z kono this . . .* %a ! sono that . . .* a no that. . . (over these) z-0 dono which . . .* ibf t aso ko over there Yr doko where* 7tr$z dare whoF o o d* ~.LLL oishii delicious sakana fish tonkatsu pork cutlet niku meat menyuu menu yasai vegetable enpitsu pencil. kasa umbrella kaban bag kutsu shoes saif u wallet jiinzu jeans jisho dictionary jitensha bicycle shinbun newspaper teepu tape tokee watch; clack toreenaa sweat shirt* Words that appear in the dialogue C
  49. 49. nooto notebook Pen pen booshi hat; cap hon bookP l a c e s otearai restroom kissaten cafe gin koo bank toshokan library yuubinkyoku post officeCounf r i e s Amerika U.S.A. Igirisu Britain Kankoku Korea Chuugoku China keezai economics konpyuutaa computer bijinesu business rekishi history okaasan mother otoosan fatherM o n e y M a f t e r s * L( 1; ikura how much . . . en . . . yen takai expensiveE x p r e s s i o n s* L & - L + L ~ * irasshaimase Welcome (to our store)* (- & ) -j-( . . . 0) onegaishimasu. . . , please.* ( - 2 ) < f<S& ( . . . O ) kuda~ai Please give me . . .* t"~a&, jaa then . . . ; if that is the case, . . . ?9 * (-4) -P! ( , . . 01 doozo Here it is. * Z*? % doorno Thank you.
  50. 50. What do we do when we want to talk about things that we do not know the names of?We say "this thing," "that one," and so forth- In Japanese, we use kwe, sore, and are. t&la LX ( b-c$-hS, Haw much is this? Kore wa ikura desu ka. 5Aeh2&T$, Tht ~ 3,000 yen. Sore w a sanzen en desu.Kore refers to a thing that is close to you, the speaker ("this thing here"). Sore issomething that is close to the person you are talking to ("that thing in front of you"), andare refers to a thing that is neither close to the speaker nor the listener ("that one overthere"). -: x. &+Ltd kJ7L;LQl +=/TTD Are wa watashi no pen desu. * A ZjklA bkta ~ 7 T j - , +h12 btz L@ K ~ T T , Kore wa watashi no pen dew. Sore wa watashi no pen desu.There is also an expression dore for "which." Here we wiIl learn to use dore in sentenceslike: rs"ktT-j-&~, Which one i it (that you are talking about)? s Dore desu ka.
  51. 51. In this lesson, we will not explore the full extent to which the word dore can be put to use,because there is a slight complication with question words like dore, Question words likedwe and mni cannot be followed by the particle wa. Instead, you must use the particlega and say: -L i Z*&hz & Q f = c ? ~ *>feTh, Which m e is yoiw pen? ~ o r e g a anata no pen desu ka.If you want ta be slightly more specific than kore, sore, and are, you can use kmo, s m o ,and a m together with a n m . (Note here that the re series must always stand alone,while the m series must always be folbwed by a noun.) Thus, if you know that the itemin your hand is a watch Ctokee), instead of: Zt-lAd ~ k hTT&-o < How much jS this? Kore wa ikura desu ka.you can say: Z9Z&fW2 L ( hT-j-&~o HOW much i this watch? s Kona tokee wa ikura desu ka.Similarly, if you are talking about a watch that is held by the person you are talking to,you can say: + a r t-$~lta x / - t ~ . ~ x / ; ? _ ~ ~ ~ - j - ~ ; That watch is 3,000 yen- Sono toke wa sanzen en desu.And if the watch is far from both the speaker and the listener, you can say: & ~ r ) Z d ; f ~ 13&-85Lz*lP+ RLTT, 3 ( That watch over there is 3,500 y m . Ano tokee wa sanzengohyaku en desu.If you already know that one of several watches is 3,500 yen but do not know which, youcan say: z * 9 r c 3 ~ 6 ~h ~ ~ ~ / t + v + ( ; ? - ~ /~- ~ ~ fwi ~ ,~ w r ~ u c ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u Dono tokee ga sanzengohyaku en desu ka.Since dono is a question word, just like dore discussed above, we cannot use the particlewa with it; we must use ga.
  52. 52. To summarize: zfi (fa--> Z @ noun (Ig--) close to the person speaking 33% (kt-) 53 noun (la--) 0 close to the person listening (13~) 63 noun (I$--) 0 far from both people (fj;-) noun (fi5--) unknownIn Lesson 1, we learned how to say things like Mean? san no denwa bangoo (Marysphone number) and Takeshi san no okaasa~ (Takeshis mother). We now learn how toask who something belongs to. The question word for "who" is dare, and for "whose,"we simply add the particle no. z$%tai r L h * t % t l T T h a o P n # +&la Z s r L o $ * I f A t f , Kore w a dare no kaban desu ka. Sore wa Suu san no kaban desu. Whose bag i s this? That is Sues bag.We: will learn just one more ko-so-a-do set in this lessan: koko,soku,u s o h , and doko arewords for places. 7 - LL here, near ww . ?EZ fhere, mar you $;kZ over there EZ whereYou can ask far direti~rms saying: by TkS,2*A, Ljp?ilFA,41 ( I 3 Z * Z T T - ~ > E x m e me, where is fhe post ~ office? Surnirnasen, yuubinkyoku wa doko desu ka.If you are close by, you can point toword the post office and say: (@jZP*h$a { (3) &%tTT, (The post office 5,)right over there. (Yuubinkyoku wa) asoko desu.We will learn how to give more specific directions in Lesson 4.
  53. 53. In Lesson I, we learned how to say "Item A is this, item B is that." We now learn howto say "Item A is this, and item B is this, too." f=CTL 2 u Takeshi san wa a it tzx/c~,-c+"p, nihonjin desu. Takahi is a Japanese person. & % r s A %i=~3ArLT-f0 Mkhiko i s Japanese, &. Michiko san m r nihonjin desu.Note that these two sentences are almost identical in shape- This is natural, as they bothclaim that a certain person is Japanese. The second sentence, however, is different fromthe first in that we do not find the particle wa in it. We have mo instead. Mo is a particlethat indicates that that item, too, has the given property. One thing that you should watchout for is exactly where the particle is placed. In English, the word "too" can be placedafter the sentence as a whole, as in the example above. Not so in Japanese. In the aboveexample, mo must directly follow Michiko san. -.---. .----- . , TF, 3 !A[ ( A is X. . 8 a r 8 8 . s iB. - . , i [ x i ?To m BMisX. + .-. ..A .----* 4 two items shared propertyTo negate a statement of the farm X w a Y desa, where Y is a noun, you replace h a & 2with ja apdmsn. Ji33E3Sttd h P ( i t ~ t " + & 9 3 - t S - h ol k & Y a m d a i s ~ o f a s t d ~ n f . Yamada san w a gakusee ja arimasen.We cannot use nao to describe a situation like the folIowing: Our friehd, Pat, has dud citizenship: Pat is a Japanese, but at the same -time, she is an Americart To describe the second half of this situation, we cannot say, P ~ t t om ~ m & a j k desas, because the sentence would mean that Pat, in addition to sdmebady that has been mentioned, is an American- Neither cari we say, Pcaifu wza d a i b z m dem. (Japanese speakers would say, Patto ma amdajivt dma nrkwases.)n the dialogues, there are two sentences that end with d m , which call for special attention: Are m I tdad dmtl we (That one too is expensive), and Oishii desas yo (It is delicious). These sentences cannot and be negated by replacing d m with ja a n h s e ~because taka% okhii are not nouns. Are n%o takai , ju ~ ~ n w b p eand oiskii ja a d m are therefore not grammatical. Instead, m e would have to say tt f ~ k a a r i m m and uishikzr a?+mmm.We will learn about the conjugation pattern of adjectives in k Lesson 5.

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