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Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
Genki i   integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)
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Genki i integrated elementary japanese course (with bookmarks)

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  1. ピーターのスキャン
  2. PrefaceProducing the materials for this textbook involved a long process ofsurveying students needs, writing up the results, making detailedrevisions to the material based on the surveys, and responding to thereactions and comments of students who used a trial version of thistext. It has taken more than four years to complete this project. Ourlabor has been rewarded, however, because this book is based on ouroriginal plan to produce the ideal textbook-one that will enablestudents to learn Japanese smoothly, while also enjoying lively gamesand helpful illustrations.We have an extensive list of people to thank for the completion of thistextbook. First, our sincere thanks to Chiaki Sekido of the Publica-tions Department of The Japan Times for seeing this book through thepublishing process. Particular acknowledgment goes to Kyoko Toka-shiki who helped in the production of Lesson 1 and following, to our 1colleagues and trainees in the Asian Studies Program of Kansai GaidaiUniversity who attempted the triaI version and made invaluable sug-gestions, to Kaori Tajima for her illustrations in the trial version, toJudy Okawa for translating, and to the teachers whose heartfelt guid-ance encouraged us throughout the process. Finally, we would also liketo express our gratitude to the foreign students at Kansai GaidaiUniversity for providing us with the opportunity to write this book.
  3. IkbV33 Greetings 6&rlawtw&?~5 b t.26 Lwt: N ~ W Friends 10 Shopping 30 Making a Date The First Date A Trip to Okinawa 96 &iE a& !39a z5%~zF@** PI$- b 3 /v@--H LjS I Z b A Day in Roberts Life x 14 Family Picture f32 Barbecue 150 Kabuki 170a~lo~~~%#&@?s 60 BT & T L ~ Winter Vacation Plans 190% l l ~ + # & D& 2 W Bb After the Vacation 210 Feeling Ill
  4. Hiragana 2 52 Katakana 257 Daily Life 262 Travel 270 My Favorite Restaurant 276 Marys Letter 282 Japanese Off ice Workers 287 Sues Diary The Folktale Kasajizo 298%] 2% % s@ 1s ~ F ~ E ?Ef ? -5 Looking for friends 304 Tanabata Festival 3 103< b V d Japanese-English 316 <3 b>/v2 Eng lish-Japanese 329 Numbers 342%83% Conjugation Chart
  5. *-.& >*.a_ &&k l 3 * €3~%(~&Y3~Japanese $$&(+&%k~ty) & (=;t; Y > Japm Mr./Ms. Yarnamoto(book; basis) - (5) $ $ , : $
  6. Introduction i . . * Aim and purposeGENKI: An Integyuted Course i E L m m z t u ~ n Japa~ese a textbook for beginners in isthe study of the Japanese language. Students can complete the elementary-level studyof Japanese in the 23 lessons of this text, which is divided into two volumes. The bookis designed mainly for use in university and college courses, but it is also effective forhigh school students and adults who are beginning to learn Japanese either at school oron their own. Hopefully, students will have at least a basic knowledge of English,because grammar explanations are given in English. GENKI: An Idegrated Cogrse i Elementary Japalzese is a comprehensive approach nto developing the four basic language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing)in order to cultivate overall Japanese-language ability. Much emphasis has been placedon balancing accuracy, fluency, and complexity so that students using the materialwould not end up speaking accurately yet in a stilted manner, nor fluently yet employ-ing only simple grammatical structures. Structure o the textbook fThis textbook basically consists of three sections: Dialogue and Grammar, Reading andWriting, and the Appendix. A detailed explanation of each part follows.AbDiaIogue and G r a m m a rThe Dialogue and Grammar section aims at irjnproving students speaking and listeningabilities by learning basic grammar and increasing vocabulary. The Dialogue- andGrammar section of each lesson is comprised of the following components:@DialogueThe dialogues revolve around the lives of foreign students living in Japan, their friends,and their families, presenting various scenes that students are likely to face in their dailylives. By practicing natural expressions and ulizuchi (responses that make conversationsgo smoothly), students are able to understand how sentences are connected and howsome phrases are shortened in daily conversation. Because the Dialogue section of eachlesson covers a lot of new grammar and vocabulary, students may feel it is too difficult
  7. to understand at first. Dont be overly concerned, however, because the grammar andvocabulary will gradually take root with practice. Dialogues are recorded on the accompanying CD. Students are encouraged to practiceregularly by listening to the CD and carefully noting pronunciation and intonation.*VocabularyThe Vocabulary section presents all the new words encountered in both the Dialogueand Practice sections of each lesson. Words that appear in the Dialogue are markedwith an asterisk ( * ). Words are listed according to their function in Lessons 1 and 2,and by parts of speech in Lesson 3 and following. In addition, all words presented in thetext are also found in the Index at the end of each volume. Words found in the VocabuIary section of each lesson appear frequently in subse-quent lessons, thus students are encouraged to learn them little by little each day. AfterLesson 2, commonly used kanji equivalents of some words (Joyo Kanji) are aZso listed,but students are not required to memorize them. This textbook does not indicate a words accents. The accent of a Japanese wordvaries considerably, depending on the region, the speakers age (including the genera-tion gap between speakers), the words paradigmatic form, and its connection withother words. Therefore, dont be overly concerned about the accent, but try to imitateas closely as possible the intonation heard on the accompanying CD.*GrammarGrammar explanations are detailed, so that students can easily study them on theirown. Students at school are expected to read the grammar explanations before eachclass. This section also fully explains the items found in the Practice section that follows.Necessary explanations for the grammar and vocabulary that are not found in thePractice section can be found in the Expression Notes at the end of each Grammarsection.@PracticeThis section includes questions related to what was taught in each section of the lesson,providing students with both basic practice and application. By answering the ques-tions sequentially, students can naturally build up their Japanese-language ability. Theexercises with only one answer are marked with @ and recorded on the^^, allowingstudents the opportunity to practice on their own. The last part of the Practice section contains Review Exercises, which incorporateaspects of the lesson as a whole. For example, some questions combine various topicscovered in the lesson, and some call for the creation of new phrases based on what waslearned in the Dialogue section.
  8. Introduction 4 Q) @Supplement Finally, some lessons include additional or supplementary information, This includes expressions related to the topic of the lesson, as in "Time and age" in Lesson 1, or expressions suitable at certain times or places, as in "At the station" in Lesson 10. Words introduced in the Supplement section are found in the Index of each voIurne. B b Reading and Writing The Reading and Writing section aims to foster comprehension and writing ability by learning Japanese characters and by providing opportunities to practice both reading and writing. Hiragam is introduced in Lesson 1, followed by k a f a k a ~in Lesson 2, and a kanji in Lesson 3 and following. From Lesson 3, each lesson contains the following components: .Kanji list Each new kanji introduced in a lesson is contained in a list, each with about 15 kanji. This makes it easy to memorize a few each day, rather than be overwhelmed with so many at once.Q serial number * (2)kanji (4)reading (5) compounds including the kanji $.-> I (*2) . ka ci&k~ Japan I Japanese (~&=/d) A L L * ~ (9& 6 2 2 A) Mr./Ms. Yamamoto i5z (book; basis) (2)meaning i 6) order stroke (6) total strokes Among the readings shown in (4) and (5), himgunla indicates the kwtyomi, or Japanese readings for a kanji, while katakana indicates the onyomi, or Chinese reading. Both kunyomi and o ~ y o m i sometimes altered in compounds of two or more kanji. For are example, the ordinary pronunciation of % is "gaku," which becomes "ga(k)" when the kanji is used in the word $45. Such derivative readings are also included in.(4)and () 5. Although some kanji have many readings, only those readings that are useful at an eIernentary level are included. Shaded readings and words in each lesson should be memorized. The others are for reference, so students dont need to memorize them. A practice sheet for each kanji is provided in the Reading and Writing section o the Workbook. Students should practice f
  9. writing the kanji repeatedly, according to the stroke order shown on the kanji list in thetextbook..PracticeGENKI 1 consists of kanji practice, readings for comprehension, questions about thecontent of the readings, and writing practice. Kanji practice indudes various types ofquestions, such as having students reconstruct a kanji from its various parts or makenew words by combining kahji. By tackling these problems, students will realize thegoal of practice-to become more proficient in their use of kanji. Basically, the readingsare short and deal with subjects familiar to the students. They are easy to understandif the student has learned the vocabulary and grammar taught previously in theDialogue and Grammar section. When readings include new words, a correspondingword list is provided. Finally, composition topics are given for writing practice. GENKI 1 contains readings for comprehension, questions about the content of the 1readings, and writing practice. The readings employ various styles of Japanese, rangingfrom letters and fables to essays and advertisements. With a knowledge of the previous-IY learned vocabulary, grammar, arid kanji, the readings are easy to understand butgrow longer and more difficult in later lessons. Word lists are provided for newlyintroduced vocabulary. Finally, composition topics are introduced.C b AppendixVolumes 1 and 2 both contain an Index. The Japanese-English Index, in hiraganaorder, lists words found in the Vocabulary and Supplement section of each lesson. Thenumber next to a word indicates the lesson in which the word was introduced. In theEnglish-Japanese Index, English equivalents to Japanese words are arranged in alpha-betical order. Also included in the Appendix are tables of verb conjugations as well as soundinflections of the expressions related to numbers. Orthography and fontThe basic text is written in kanji and biragum. Kanji is used for the most commonlyused characters, those that appear in the official list of Joyo Kanji. Hiragma is usedinstead, however, when the Joyo Kanji equivalent would not be necessary for beginningstudents of Japanese.
  10. Introduction 4 lo So that students can easily study the Dialogue and Grammar section, the pronuncia-tion of every kanji is indicated in hiragam. However, to lessen the burden on thestudents and allow them to study on their o m , Greetings and Lessons 1 and. 2 arerepresented in hiraganu and kutakam, as well as by romanized forms. It is best not torely too much on the romanizations, but use them only as a learning aid. Students studyhirugam and kutakum in Lessons 1 and 2, respectively, of the Reading and Writingsection. Students study kanji from Lesson 3 in the Reading and Writing section, wherepronunciations of the kanji already presented are not indicated in Riyuguna, in order topromote t h e students increasing acquisition of kanji.The Japanese in the basic text is set mainly i the Textbook font, which resembles nhandwriting and serves as a good model for students. Students will encounter a varietyof fonts used for Japanese materials, however, arid should be aware that the shape ofsome characters differ considerably, depending on the font used, Note especially thatwith some characters, we find two separate strokes in one style are merged into a singIestroke. Example: Textbook font Mincho font Gothic font Handwriting
  11. ( Japanese Writing SystemThere ark three kinds of charactersin Japanese: hiragam, htakana, and kanji. AU threecharacters can be seen i a single sentence. n kHiragcam and k a f a k ~ m i e the alphabet, represent sounds. As you can see i the above l,k nexample, hiragam has a roundish shape and is used for conjugation endings, functionwords, and native Japanese words not covered by kanji. Kafakunu, which has ratherstraight fines, is normally used for writing loanwords and foreign names. For example,the Japanese word for "te~evision" written in kcafaku~ F L t+(terebi). Kanji, or is asChinese characters, represent not just sounds but also meanings. Mostly, kanji are usedfor nouns and the stems of verbs and adjectives.1. Basic Hiraana SyllablesThere are forty-six basic hiraganu syllables, which are listed below, Once you memorizethis chart, you will have the skill to transcribe all of the Japanese sounds.There is another writing sgstem c l e ald (Roman lettend which is used for station names, signs, and so on.
  12. Japanese Writing System 4 I@ "ThesybbIes L , G , and 7 are romanized as shi, chi, and ha, respectively, which is closer to the English pronund- ation. * * % is d o pronounced as "wo." sThe romanization is given fox general pronunciation reference.2. Hiragma with Diacritical MarksYou can transcribe 23 additional sounds by adding diacritical marks. With a pair of shortdiagonal strokes ( * 1, the unvoiced consonants k, s, t , and h become voiced consonants g,z, d , and b , respectively. The consonant h changes to p with the addition of a small circle(7. *G (ji)and 3 b u ) are pro- nounced the same as -t Gi} If zP A: 4 1% and Y Cm), respectively, and pa Pi Pu Pe PO have limited use.
  13. 3 Transcribing Contracted Sounds .Small -P, @, and 1 follow after letters in the second column (i-vowel hiragam, except I)and are used to transcribe contracted sounds. The contracted sound represents a singlesyllable.4. Transcribing Double ConsonantsThere is another small letter 9,as ff and pp. Examples: 75.7 5 7 is. ? t i - 1 s.9 L 3 = kaBa sa&u hama zaghi (won) (writer) (leaf) (magazine) cf- 6 if which is used when transcribing double consonants such kata (shoulder)Note that double consonant ns, as in sanfielz (3 years), are written with h, + a hiraganuwith an initial n sound ( 3,, G a,h,or @). Examples: : 3 h kt h s a z m (3 years) & k, h L t anmi (guide)5. Other Issues Relating to Transcription and Pronunciationk Long VowelsWhen the same vowel is placed one right after the other, the pronunciation of the vowel
  14. Japanese Writing System 4 I@becomes about twice as long as the single vowel. Be sure to hold the sound long enough,because the length of the vowel can change one word to another. .k;C$& 3 X/ o b m a n (grandmother) cf. S I T ? obasun (aunt) j LL % 3 ojijsan (grandfather) cf. 6 3 X/ ujisan (uncle) 33c sMi (number) The long ee sound is usually transcribed by adding an to an e-vowel him- gma. There are a few words, however, in which 2 is used instead of &.. &~hf ggu (movie) 3 oncaan (big sister) The long oo sound is in most cases transcribed by adding an . to an i u-vowel hiragam. There are, however, words in which the long vowel is transcribed with an %, for historical reasons. h&hu (law) (ten)B. Pronunciation of XIA, "n" is treated like a full syllable, in terms of length. Its pronunciation varies, however,depending on the sound that follows it. Japanese speakers are normally not aware of thedifferent sound values of h. Therefore, you do not need to worry too much about itspronunciation.C. Vowels to Be DroppedThe vowels i and u are sometimes dropped when placed between voiceless consonants (k,s, f, p , and k), or at the end of an utterance preceded by voiceless consonants. Example: T3TT s(u)krdes(zl) (I like it.)20ne variety of the h pronunciation merits discussing here. When it is followed by a vowel or at the end of an utterance, X, indicates that the preceding vowel is long and nasalized. (Nasalized vowels are shown here with a tilde above vowel letters. You hear nasalized vowels in French words such as "bon," or the English interjection "uh-uh,"as i "no.") n kLh&~ rZai (romance) 13A ha (book) Fallowed by pz, t , d, s, and z sounds, A is pronounced as "n." f;LP mna (woman) Followed by m, p , and 6 sounds, A, is pronounced as "m." 2X1I3 sampo (stroll) Followed by k and g sounds, /v is pronounced as "ng" as in "song." 2 &;?* nacagga (comics)
  15. D. Accent in the Japanese LanguageJapanese has a pitch accent: all syllables are pronounced basically either in high or lowpitch. Unlike the English stress accent in which stressed syllables tend to be pronouncedlonger and louder, in Japanese each syllable is pronounced approximately in equal lengthand stress. The pitch patterns in Japanese vary greatly, depending on the region of ~ecountry. Examples: & 2 .a_._ - . sa (morning) 32% ._--m@--e na (name) , -kiXka-.. tu z (high) The syllables Y , 4 , and Y are romanized as ski, chi, and tsu, respectively, to give a closer English pronunciation.
  16. Japanese Writing System 4 1 6 *9Gi) and Y Czw) are pro- ! - nounced the same as 9 Cid) and % b), rewectivel~1 and have limited use.The pronunciation of katakum and its combinations are the same as those of hiragam,except for the following points.( )The long vowels are written with -. 1 Examples: ;Ir- kaa b~) Zq- saki (ski) x- su,h (suit) 9 - keeki (cake) $-1t bamr (ball)
  17. When you write vertically, the -- mark needs to be written vertically also. Example:(2) Additional combinations with small vowel letters are used to transcribe foreign sounds that originally did not exist in Japanese. Examples: 34 Tu?~-7 harowiin (Halloween) 3 . 2h4 9 x 4 1 haiwee (highway) 3$ ~ % 4 1 ~ 3 $ - 9 mineruruwoutua (mineral water) - 23 9x1)- sherii (sherry) 9~ YiL-AX jgemusu (James) ;f= .f-=YY chekku (check) 77 77.Y23> fasshm (fashion) 7 4 74)k0;/ firipi~ (Philippine) 7r 2771 kafe (cafe) 7 fi1)7$lb=7 kariforunia (California) 74 2f-7 4 - paatii (party) 4 7-423 disuko (disco) 71 73-7 dyuuka (Duke)(3)The sound "v" is sometimes written with T. For example, the word "Venus" is - sometimes written as E-f X or 3 4 3- 2 . "
  18. Greetings - 1 New Friends 10 XkAYTT Question Sentences noun1 Q> noun2 @ . ~ & C, ~ h ~ 29 fiLI%a Shopping 30 2% Taz E;h ZD/~D/&~)/E@ noun + E h O noun z z * z &+Z FZ noun B noun L + & 9 -h/-ck-1 7-@ B<+< Making a Date 54 Verb Conjugation Verb Types and the "Present Tense" Particles Time Reference Word Order Frequency Adverbs The Topic Particle Id:
  19. -1 a - The First Date 72 Describing Where Things Are Past Tense( 5 )ID +z j A Trip to Okinawa 4 1 ###RE 96 Adjectives E 3 (&)/S G b > ( a ) T Degree Expressions -3Lt k//--$t~-3& Counting1-( nlo-bahl~-a L1?51;%- A D ~ in Roberts ~ i f e Y 114 Describing Two Activities --&. 6;
  20. 7-( SEa~qsFamily Picture &T< LQLh 132 %&q2 b 3 T-3- 1A $g Te-forrns for Joining Sentences + verb stem t ~ < 5 41 Counting People (-8 1 - 6 3- Barbecue 150 Short Forms Uses of Short Forms verb Q fis?@3 TT 3 t $3 fCTfih and f l 8 BE al: (T Kabuki ) 170 Past Tense Short Forms Qualifying Nouns with Verbs and Adjectives ) - ( ~ a a a Winter Vacation plans 3@Bf& s~ rl 190 Comparison adjective + a 25 zr3htz/k+ztzh
  21. (m) ARM the vacation 210 -z ? -Tz 9-Tz 9 3 % -z kf?ql& noun A Je noun B @R*m@95x Inthe Japanese Class 225 L mu?( SSl-b -0d5Wfu ] Expression Notes @S42,%5/&!l;b-;k3 $ k 5 $ I ; t l b > R L ~ T T G LFL./ T , 9$ L ~ T %T/fzf.Ll&/X.h~R 3 b l T ~ 8 @ & 2/ 5 % 3 TTf-;Sl Pronunciation of M Numbers Giving ones telephone number + k h e b l "d Referring to the person you are talking to Japanese names 17 0(--%><?23t1 L (-$)Z5P On thepronuncia- tion of number words Big numbers 39 @E</%6 % & ~ k rl < 64 O X 0 3 2 . . IaSBEl+ L C d.A~aX, BLQt 82 @KL& *P#P(G) 104 $ g { / ~ k l 2-5 b 122 " 141 LF % @-*a 160 @%% kTfga)@hs& 9 % $&s------ 198 . L L L LGb L @ i2 in negative sentences $2 iZ F 4 /1 7* @ @& i id: Z 217
  22. &L 1- 53 p JG r e e t ings
  23. Ohayoo. Good morning.Ohayoo gozairnasu. Good morning. (polite)Konnichiwa. Good afternoon.Kon banwa. Good evening.Sayoonara. Good-bye.Oyasurninasai. Good night.Arigatoo. Thank you.Arigatoo gozairnasu. Thank you. (polite)Surnirnasen. Excuse me.; Im sorry.lie. No.; Not at all.Ittekimasu. Ill go and come back.Itterasshai. Please go and come back.Tadairna. Im home.0 kaerinasai. Welcome home.Itadakimasu. Thank you for the meal. (before eating)Cochisoosama. Thank you for the meal. (after eating)Hajirnernashite. How do you do?Doozo yoroshiku. Mice to meet you.
  24. -I 61$.d;j/$g#&jb Ohaym is used between friends and family mem- ~ ~ between less intimate acquaintances, bers, while oleayoo g o z c is used~ similarly with Q&CI~OO and arigaioo gomimasu. The rule of thumb i : if you s are on a first-name b&is with someone, go for the shorter versions. If you would address someone as Mr. or Ms., use the longer versions. To give a concrete example, the social expectation is such that students are to use the longer variants when they speak with a professor. &&5%6)There are several good-bye expressions in Japanese, the choice among which depends on the degree of separation. Sayoomre indi- cates that the speaker does not expect to see ~e person spoken to before she "turns a page in her life"; not untiI a new day arrives, or until fate brings the two together again, or until they meet again in the other world. CJP&, % k e Jaa, mata (between friends, e z r p d h g ta see each other again fairly m n ) L 3 h t 1 L S 8, Shiiureeshimasu. (taking leave from a professors office, for exampIe) GagT 8 %-Po Ittekirnasu. k v i n g home) $&$eh S b u d e a means (1) "Excuse me," to get another persons attention, (2) "Im sorry," to apologize for the trouble you have caused, or (3) "Thank you," to show appreciation for what someone has done for you. L I L Z ) I i primarily "No," a negative reply to a question. In the k s dialogue, it is used to express the English phrase "Dont mention it," or "Youre welcome," with which you point out that one is not required to feel obliged for what you have done for them. L ~ = ~ : ~ . = , L + L I / L . = , ~ $ Z T / ~ ~ C L L I & / Sb ~ Z ~ % & C ~ Ittekbnasw and i t m h i i a common exchange used at home when a family member bwsa s leaves. The person who leaves says iftekimmu, which literally means "I will go and come back." And the family members respond with itt~mshaa, which means "Please go and come back." Ta-a and okare~ used when a person comes home. The person are who arrives home says tadaima (I am home right now) to the family members, and they respond with o M a s a e (Welcome home).
  25. Act out the following situations with your classmates. 1. You meet your host family for the first time. Greet them. 2. It is one oclock in the afternoon. You see your neighbor Mr. Yamada. 3 . You come to class in the morning. Greet your teacher. Greet your friends. 4. On a crowded train, you stepped on someones foot. 5 . You dropped your book. Someone picked it up for you. 6. It is eight oclock at night. You happen to meet your teacher at the convenience store. 7. You are watching T V with your host family. It is time to go to sleep. 8. You are leaving home. 9. You have come back home. 10. You are going to start eating. 11. You have finished eating.
  26. &k51/L %2 &t% New Friends Mary, an international student who just arrived in Japan, talks to a Japanese student. W h l L 1 7 - -j-A3*,L0 ~ 3 3kLrTT&xo Mearii Sumirnasen. Irna nanji desu ka.2 f z 1-j t: I 2 I= tl i A T T o Takeshi Juuniji han desu. b25 lit3 It711-: 9 t"S*L$-j-, Mearii Arigatoo gozaimasu.4 kc? L : bh~hj?& Takeshi lie.
  27. I ?="tL.: A&, 9 1.p j -h3( -WITTjtra, Takeshi Ano, ryuugakusee desu ka. a h 8 j I ) I I i3 +-% I2 $7+: Z L 0 7 y ~ * - j - ? 3 ~ 6 q sa + l - b w - j - o $ { Mearii E. e Arizona daigaku no gakusee dew.3 t if t : = Ti ; T-j-hx, * A i B LC3 2 & T T h a , Takeshi Soo desu ka. Senmon wa nan desu ka. Mearii Nihongo desu. Ima ninensee desu. Mary: Excuse me. What time is it now? Takeshi: Its half past twelve. Mary: Thank you. Takeshi: Youre welcome. Takeshi: Urn . . . are you an biternational student? Mary: Yes. I am a strident at the University of Arizona. Takeshi: I see. What is your major? Mary: Japanese. I am a sophomore now.
  28. ano urn.-. ima now eego English ~lansuage) Ee Yes gakusee student .-.go language ex. IT [3 t L" (mi&- & go) Japanese language kaokoo high school gogo P.M. gozen AM. . . . sai . . . years old . . . san Mr,/Ms. - . . ...j i oclock ex. L s% W (khiji) one oclock . . . jin people ex. l.2 EZ A U h.(aihore- jipz) Japanese people sensee teacher; Professor . . . senmon major soo desu Thats right. daigaku college; university denwa telephone tcrrnodachi friend namae name nan/nani what Nihon Japan . . . nensee . ..year student ex. t *l %I * L (&binwee) first-yearstudent hai yes han half ex. ?=lZki&(n&iAan) half past two foangao number ryuugakusee international student watashi I* Words that appear in the dialogue
  29. ADDITIONAL VOCABULARYC o u n t r i e s Ameri ka US-A. lgirisu Britain Oosutoraria Australia Kankoku Korea Sueeden Sweden Chuugoku China kagaku science ajiakenkyuu Asian studies keezai economics kokusaikankee international. relations kon pyuutaa computer jinruigaku anthropoIogy seeji pslitics bijinesu business bungaku literature rekishi history job; work; occupation doctor kaishain office worker kookoasee high school student shufu housewife daigakuinsee graduate student daigakusee college student bengoshi lawyer okaasan mother otoosan father oneesan older sister oniisan older brather irnooto younger sister otooto younger brother
  30. "It is 12:30." "I am a student." "My major is the Japanese language." These sentenceswill all be translated into Japanese using an appropriate noun and the word desu. @ 9 I= U 1.3A/ TT0 (It) is half past twelve. Juuniji han desu. $2 ( * L T - F O (I) am a studat. Gakusee desu. tc C3X. z*T-3-0 (My major) 6 the Japa~leselanguage. Nihongo desu.Note that none of these sentences has a "subject," like the "it," "I," and "my major"found in their English counterparts. Sentences without subjects are very common inJapanese; Japanese speakers actually tend to omit subjects whenever they think it isclear to the listener what or who they are referring to.What are we to do, then, when it is not clear what is being talked about? To make explicitwhat we are talking about, we can say: t3 b= G3h Z*TT, is the Japalaese kanguage. wa nihongo desu.Where stands for the thing that is talked about, or the "topic," which is later inthe sentence identified as nihowo. For example, +&XI SI h,4 . 3 :*TTa it t 3 h/ (My)major ds the Japanese langwzge. Senrnon w a nihongo desu.Similarly, one can use the pattern X wa Y desu t identify a person or a thing X as item oY. bk Lt2 t X- i Watashi wa Suu Kimu desu. - +AT?, I t - I am Sue Kim.
  31. 9 3 L f i S " I 3 *L*~TTo Mr. Y a w h i f a i a teacher. k Yarnashita san wa sensee desu. n A 9 6 . $7)--3LlA 7%1)3FJ13b-c--Fo Mary i s an American. Mearii san wa arnerikajin desu.Wa is a member of the class of words called "particles." So is the word lzo, which we willturn to later in this lesson. Particles attach themselves to phrases and indicate how thephrases relate to the rest of the sentence.Note also that nouns like gakwee and sesee in the above examples stand alone, d i k etheir English translations "student" and "teacher," which are preceded by "a." InJapanese, there is no item that corresponds to "a,"nor is there any item that correspondsto the plural "-s" at the end of a noun- Without background situations, a sentence Iikegakusee desu is therefore ambiguous between the singular and the plural interpretations;it rnay mean "We are/you a d t h e y are students," as well as "I am/you are/she is astudent."It is very easy to form questions in Japanese. Basically, all you need to do is add kaat the end of a statement. 9 a =,PSf( * L ~ T T , Ryuugakusee desu. 9 < @ 3 5: - @ L Y F & ~ Ryuugakusee desu ka. (1 am) an iatemtGmnl sturEenf- (Are you) aH i ~ t e m a t i o ~ student? alThe above sentence, Ryzcugakusee desu ka, is a "yes/noW question. Question sentencesmay also contain a "question word" like nun2 (what). In this Iesson, we learn how to ask,and answer, questions using the following question words: nun.; (what time), namai(how old), nannensee (what year in school). Note.carefully that the order of words in asentence may be quite different from what you find in your language. * h % &la QahTT-h~, (+i?hS,&Ll) ;Z~Z*TT, Senmon wa nan desu ka. (Senmon wa) eego desu. What is your mior? (My major) is Eytglish.It is not customary to write a question mark at the end of a question sentence i Japanese. nThe Japanese question word for "what"has k v o pronunciations: =an and naai. Naa is used immediate- ly before dmu or before a "counter" like j (oclock). The other form, mmi, i used before a particle. i s Nani is also used in the combination nanl;jin (person of what nationality).
  32. 2 faX/L*TTha, ( b w { CTTO Ima nanji desu ka. ([ma) kuji desu. What time i it now? s It is nilae oclock 97.j-3ctli Qx/%~~TT75~, 4rp3 9 T T , C:rgj Mearii san wa nansai desu ka. Juukyuusai desu. How old are you, Mary? Im nineitem years old. QPthk*~ - p ; t r a . h~ bchk*~T-$-, Nannensee desu ka. Ninensee desu. What year are yo= i college? n T & btfA 2" 9 t3 3 &TT75*, Ia 6 a 7 3 4 3 ~ ~ , Denwa bangoo wa nan desu ka. lchi hachi roku no nana san yon san desu. W7uat i your Eekpkose amber? i It is 186-7343.No is a particle that connects two nouns. The phrase Toozai daigaku nu gakusee means"(a) student at Tozai University." The second noun gukmes provides the main idea" daigdku makes it more specific (not a high(being a student) and the first one T ~ o z a ischool, but a college student). No is very versatile. In the first example below, it acts likethe possessive ("xs") in English, but that is not the only role no can play. See how itconnects two nouns in the following examples. f r l - f k S h a TLblXLt"? Tukeshis phone number Takeshi san no denwa bangoo f375${a * ~ L * L , a college profasor daigaku no sensee i t l 3 h r"n $75." ( * L a student o f fhe Japanese lamuage nihongo no gakusee l=i3L,Ql f s b ~ &{z @college i~ Japan nihon no daigakuObserve that in the first two examples, the English and Japanese words are arranged inthe same order, while in the last two, they are in the opposite order. Japanese seems tobe more consistent in arranging ideas here; the main idea always comes at the end, withany further description placed before it.3Here is what we mean by the "main idea." In the phrase Tukeshi san m dmwa Bangoo (Takeshis phone number), the noun &wa bawgoo (phone number) is the main idea, in the sense that if something is Takehis phone number, it is a phone number. The other noun Takeski san i not the main idea, s because Takeshis phone number is not Tak&.
  33. noun, 03 noun, t T further restriction main ideaA phrase of the form "noun1 m noun? acts more or less like one big noun. You can putit wherever you can put a noun, as in the following example: id Z -+ / v - t t ~ l ~ ~ , ~ O Takeshi san no okaasan wa kookoo no sensee desu. Takeskis mather is a high school teacher. - Expression N o t e r a 1 8Db Ano indicates that you have some reservations about saying what you are going to say next. You may be worried about interrupting some- thing someone is currently doing, or soundkg rude and impolite for asking personal questions, for example. [3tl/ZZb Both Rai and ee mean "yes" in response to yes-no questions. Compared to hai, ea is more conversational and relaxed. In more informal situations, ula is used. Hai is also used to respond to a knock at the door or to the calling of ones name, meaning "Here," as follows. (Ee cannot be replaced in this case.) T A f Teacher: 7: 5 2 3 ? Mr. Smith? Sumisu san? Student: Mtl, Hwe. H ai E3TTljb Soo desu ka acknowledges that you have understood what was just said. "Is that so?" or "I see." Pronunciation of 1% b The particle t;t. is pronounced "wa," not "ha." It should be written with ki. All other instances of "wa" are written with b.
  34. TI - c L@ bf Z 3 & 37-8667TB, Watashi no denwa bangoo wa san narra no hachi roku roku nana desu. M telephone wuwber i 37-8667. y iThere are a few exceptions, such as kow~~zkkim (good afternoon) andkmbomwta (good evening). They are usually written with 5, tv tZ It;- and 7 i2 -h,if&g.Plumbers b Many number words have more than one pronunciation. Referto the table at the end of this book for a general picture. tf 5 13 -ED and are both commonly used. I t~%,butpronouncedas I Y iIn b s 3 & & (oneminute)and t 1 ~ 2 ~ t l (one-year old). 2 tZ all the time- When you &e reading out each digit separately, as when you give your phone number, it may be pronounced with a lung vowel, as tZl.1. 3 "dX,all the time. The part that follows it may change shape, as in 3 A&&, instead of 3 A&&. 4 L h, is the most basic, but fourth-year student is k ; B a X i - F t h and four oclock i d; U. In some combinations that we will later s kam,it is read as L (as in L.fi%?, April). The part that folIows this number may hange shape too, as in k. &&A. 5 2 all the time. When read out separately, it may be pronounced with a long vowel, as c-3 . 6 ?3 < , but pronounced as 5 9 in 5 9 &A. 7 Q t is the most basic, but seven oclock is L Ei C. e 8 t3 G , but usually pronounced as 6% -7 in iA d:-;, &X. and $23 3 tl. 9 3 o 5 is the most basic, but nine o?clockis < C. 10 L@4, butpronouncedas C g q in Cv~&."X/and ~ 9 3 5 . 1 . UGiving ones telephone number b The particle .pro is usually placed inbetween the local exchange code and the last four digits. Therefore, thenumber 012-345-6789 is zero icki xi, saa yon go no, roku nana hachi kyuu.@hreLlbThe word s e ~ s e e usually reserved for describing somebody iselses occupation. Watashk wa s a m e desu makes sense, but may soundslightly arrogant, because the word semee actually means an "honorablemaster." If YOU (or a member of your family) are a teacher, and if you wantto be really modest, you can use the word kyooshi instead.&hr b Sun is placed after a name as a generic title. It goes both with a givenname and a family name. Children are referred to as chan (and boys in
  35. ..-,:I .. . :. , pa&culaf as kurr), rather than as sax. Professors and doctors are usually referred to with the title sensee. S m and other title words are never used in reference to oneself. Referring to the person y w are talking to b The word for "you," anaba, is not very commonly used in Japanese. Instead, we use the name and a title like sun and sensee to refer to the person you are talking to. Therefore, a sentence like "Ms. Hart, are you Swedish?" should be: It & t r6 i f P b I-t. SLEk x ~ 3 - ~ Y L ~ T ~ ~ ~ , Haato san wa sueedenjin desu ka. I d k t 7 L i T / " instead of I- b 3 & , &;fcf..i3 ~ 3 z - r " Y V h / T ? h ~ ~ Haato sari, anata wa sueedenjin desu ka. Japanese names b When Japanese give their name, they say their family name first and given name last. Usually, they dont have middle names. When they introduce themselves, they often say only their family name. Here are some typical Japanese names. Family name Given name Men Women S t ? v5t w4 r Satoo Hiroshi Yuuko TT-3 4 ~ 1 % 4 &("a Suzuki lchiroo Megumi fz $1 1 L 2 i?;tXI c Takahashi Kenji m.5 3 Yuuki blk-5 2 341.4 BkSr Itoo Masahiro Kyooko
  36. ii (Numbers) Q h -F~/+LL zero ree t"rg j L ~ S ; 3kL"@J5 juuichi sanjuu Uqji: LhU*? juuni yonjuu 3XI 3tL L*@j L*L+@j san juusan gojuu kk / L / ( 1 ) L L"r95LAJL@.9 &<C@3 yon shi (yo) juuyon juushi rokujuu ?-* C r*.p:* QQC*? nanajuu go juugo G roku { r@eJ?d juuroku !dGrt$? hachijuu QQ/L% t"@3QP,./L@?L G 3rs-iL"@3 nana shichi juunana juushichi kyuujuu 1.3 G t"*.s",& vs { hachi juuhachi hyaku Ct9-j 3 @ ? / C @ ? t juulcyuu juuku Izrt-P? nijuuA. Read the following numbers. @ (a) 5 (b) 9 (c) 7 (d) I (el 10 (f) 8 (9) 2 (R) 6 (i) 4 (j) 3B. Read the following numbers. @ (a) 45 (13) 83 (c) I9 (d) 76 (el 52 (f) 100 (8138 (h)61 (i)24 (d97C. What are the answers? (a) 5+3 tb) 9+I (el 3+4 (d) 6 - 6 (e) IO+9 ( f ) 8-7 (9)40-25
  37. @ l;f (Time) @ 8 r a L>& t= U ShC 1I 2 z"U ichiji niji sanji yoji goji,I il: ?dl2 rokuji t&U shichiji tit% t" hachiji ( C kuji t*=lt juuji :">tEIi T (J @ L@;l~%t C@?tcU L% c l3tL juuichiji juuniji ichiji han A. Look at the following pictures and answer the questions. @ Example: Q : & 3 tdhL"TP$ko h a nanji desu ka. A :~~GLt&X,TTO Ichiji han desu.
  38. B. Answer the questions. @ Example: Q : Z 1 3hhTThao Tookyoo wa irna nanji desu ka. A : r"*h 3 hL-lvT, Cozen sanji desu. 7:00 P.M. 7 Nnrr Vnrlr 3 :0 0 ~ ~ ~ . 1 :00 P.M. 5. Bangkok 3. Nairobi WL- 6. Sydney 4:OO A.M. 1/ 8. Rio de Janeiro 9: 00 P.M. 3:OO P,M.@ Thral%hZj (Telephone Numbers)A. Read the following peoples telephone numbers. @ Example: f: 283-9547 + E=Ga%$/v4, $ 4 3 ;11hQQ YarnasRita ni hachj san no kyuu go yon nana a , d j 7 1 1. $ 7 9 - 951-0326 Mearii 2. f z i t 3 L Takeshi f i 3. 2- Suu ? l I B Y 4. a/- p RobaatoB. Pair Work-Read the dialogue below with your partner. @ A : TX/b *: 3 63 Q hTTdxo Denwa bangoo wa nan desu ka. B : 283-9547T$, Ni hachi san no kyuu go yon nana desu.
  39. A : 283-9547TTh0 Ni hachi san no kyuu go yon nana desu ne. B : i i t b l , +?I TTo Hai, soo desu.C. Group Work-Use the dialogue above and ask three classmates their telephone numbers. name telephone numberQ lzlzhzlD A$< (LlTranslate the following phrases into Japanese using (n (no).@ Example: student of the Japanese language -+ dL 13 t"Q < 21l L nihongo n o gakusee 1. my teacher 2. my telephone number 3. my name 4. Takeshis major 5. Marys friend 6. student of the University of London 7. teacher of the Japanese language 8. high school teacher . Look at the chart on the next page and describe each person using the cues @ in (a) through (e). Takeshi san Suu san Robaato san Yamashita sensee (a) nationality &, h I b 91 bj 7 i. A h ) + Example: % 7 1 - 3 b + % 7 J ) - S h i A 7 %) f i h L ? T 0 - Mearii san Mearii san wa amerikajin desu. (6) year in school g, %, ? 1. L + & ? L . Example: $ 7 )- 3 3 % 7 1 1 - I h t 3 GZ&~+?LTT, Mearii san Mearii san wa ninensee desu.
  40. (c)age ar,& a h 1 r c@?J@ ?~ L ~ T T O 7 ~ 7 Example: % 7 " ] - $ h+ 9 7 1 * $ ! ~ ( 3 3 Mearii san Mearii san wa juukyuu sai desu. (d) school & 5 h 1 I h w A l r 3 & l F t a Example: % 7 1 J - 2 t L + %711-3A13 79 l*-?k.+~$~< Mearii san Mearii san wa Arizona daigaku no 75s ( ~ & c T - $ - ~ gakusee desu. (e) major h h 9 I h n b 1 i k Example: 7 - A + $ 7 -3 h 3 + X I $ 1 C CCC~~L~T?~ Mearii san Mearii san no senmon wa nihongo desu.I I ( ,4$"L;t;WL Kirnura Takerhi I Kim, Sue Korean Smith, Robert British L~:+-/,/%-L Yamashita sensee Nationality American Japanese (6.A z { U A) ( 4 71x u " ) Japanese kankokujin igirisujin Year 2nd year 4th year 3rd year 4th year Age 19 22 20 School U. of Arizona Tozai Univ. Seoul Univ. U. of London , Tozai Univ. history computer& business i t : : b r r z r r ? ? (Japanese Major Japanese ( j k 3 L) (xx=-y-) (r9;r.x) teacher) rekishi konovuutaa biiinesuB. Pair Work-Ask and answer questions using the given cues. 9 , d j 1 i > & a h ? $ . Example 1: 9 7 ) - 3 h / 7 9 I f i U L Mearii san amerikajin d h ~ q r * & & q h - Q : %rJ-L4,la 7%ltJ~:hil"Tdx, Mearii san wa amerikajin desu ka. A : 2 2 , %-jTTo Ee, soo desu.
  41. w % r I i Example 2: % 71 -3 h / S h . h / v - @ ~ Mearii san sannensee h i , 1 r 3 Q : $73 -5ktd: 3 X , # 3 t L * b ~ T - T 7 5 * 0 Mearii san wa sannensee desu ka. A : LLZ, t=iklX/*~~T-$-* lie, ninensee desu. Mearii san Arizona daigaku no gakusee * & J t 2. $71--$h/~%;4a&*L Mearii san ichinensee 3. t2"z Cj L L / C = t S h C & Takeshi san nihonjin 4. kt?L s X//tct3/vtf~itr( a 6 " *b Takeshi san Nihon daigaku no gakrrsee 5. k"rLtS,L@531.s3 2L Takeshi san juukyuusai T i + ; i 5 2 - h 6. X - - 3 ~ / Z ~ . s - ~ 2 ~ ~ Suu san sueedenjin i 7. X - 3 A n L/if~3*."L (economics) SUU san no senrnon keezai Rohaato san no senrnon bijinesu . 3 U & Z 9. Up$- b ?!X//&&h+3~ Robaato sari yonensee z , i f h L : 10. U P T - ~ ~ X / / ~ C ~ @ ~ C ~ ~ ? ~ L ~ Robaato san nijuuissai 11. 9 3 tf~+hL+?~/~=iahCL, Yamashita sensee nihonjin Yamashita sensee Hawai daigaku no senseeA. Look at the chart below and describe each person with regard to (a) and (b). 1. i 5 h * & 3 i & 2. ~ E C L $ X , okaasan oniisan (a) occupation/school a d j l t s Example: f ; Z i 3,4, 4 z+I)-S/vO S L j $/,,I2 ;brLrb/vcl, otoosan Mearii san no otaosan wa kaishain desu.
  42. h . 6 1 1 Example: + %711-Shag r - 5 ) / Y c ~ L / , L a i ~ a ~ $ W f , otoosan Mearii san no otoosan wa yonjuuhassai desu.Marys host family sr.isx/ 3h oniisan lrnooto otoosan okaasan (father) (mother) &%L t e k k t *"L L:? @{ L Z j Lj-@h Occupation/ kaishain shufu daigakuinsee kookoosee School (works for (housewife) (graduate (high school a company) student) student)6. Answer the questions using the chart above. 1. S Z j SXIt3 15a~te~X/To$75h, Otoosan wa kaishain desu ka. 2. s r 5. 2 A t i & F ~ ~ L T - T - ~ * ~ Otoosan wa nansai desu ka. 3. SiP& 3 /"4a *A+kcC$is., Okaasan wa sensee desu ka. 4. S+dj 3 5 2 ~hT-f-h*, % Okaasan wa nansai desu ka. 5. i tc~>$.X,bd % hxL t +WL:,-ebT~~, Oniisan wa kaishain desu ka. 6. sG=~shEa k S ~ ~ T - T h , Q Oniisan wa nansai desu ka. 7. L Z, j Z 13 EL$; ( -ktkhTTbx, lrnooto wa daigakusee desu ka. 8.- L% Ij Z tA ~ & S L T + - ? ~ ~ , lrnooto wa nansai desu ka.
  43. @ 2 &@a fib b I$ 3 (Review Exercises)A. Class Activity-Ask five classmates questions and fill in the chart below. Example questions: ;f; 3 5 2 t i ? (What is your name?) Onarnae wa? * Z 33 f z hao (Where do you come from?) Doko kara kimashita ka. L rZ (occupation) id 2 A TTfi, Shigoto wa nan desu ka. fbCt/&lX,*~~Tj-~. Nannensee desu ka. Q ~ 3 ~ q - j - $ ~ ~ Nansai desu ka. * h i t hita QLT-F;S~, Senrnon wa nan desu ka. Occupation/ Name Nationality Age Major, etc. SchoolB. Self-introduction-Introduce yourself to t h e class. Example: h i i l L 3 ;1 X z I d C b 3 L T 0 %7Y- ~ h - bT T O Hajimernashite. Mearii Haato desu. A ) Z Q 7 1) 9 j f : ~ h $ z Arizona daigaku no < 5; { *LT& gakusee desu. L ~ Z Ima !~#~XI*LT-~-, *h/#,Al2 tcC3hz*Tj-, ninensee desu. Senmon wa nihongo desu. L:~P ~ Q ~ $ c T" . F .," k 5 L ( . ~ Z ?T Juukyuusai desu. Doozo yoroshiku.
  44. C. Class Activity-Ask your classmates what their majors are, and find someone who has the following major. Example: Q : *h%hlafa&T$hao Senrnon wa nan desu ka. A : i:!3A Z*TTO Nihongo desu. name 1. Japanese 2. economics 3. English 4. history 5. business
  45. ITime / A g e Time hours minutes khf; c I ~ h - 3 ~ : : ~ II Lr9j~-d."h ichiji lPPun juuippun 2 d=LaX, 12 Ct-Fji=LsA nifun juunifun 3ht 3 3 ,4,-.2X/ 13 b 3 StLwi:A sanji sanpun juusanpun Lr 4 k kli:h 14 C:rg 3k ttYi:X/ yoji yonpun Juuyonpun *: r goji t 5 <*,LA, gof un 15 Y@5z*eiatL juugofun 4 { C 6 57d:L 16 L"u9=75~+i."k rokuji roppun juuroppun LGU 7 322-X/ 17 ~ ~ 5 . ~ ~ v i ~ shichiji nanafun juunanafun 13% tJ 8 t d ~ d ~ t t / l d t : ~ L X , 18 C ~ ? l d ~ w i ~ A / hachiji happun hachifun juuhappun (t" 9 ,4rgj,iaX, C @ 9 li%visA, kuji kyuufun juuhachifun 10 Ck#9e2L 19 L a ? 3q$wi-L PPPU~ juukyuufun C@?Lg3C 20 tcc :7L,,j:tt juuichiji nijuppun rg j C u C ~ 30 SL,12*7ei:A juuniji sanjuppun Age 2 3 4 I nisai SX/SL sansai kX/$b yonsai Nansai desu ka. L > ~ $ L issai icSc For 20 years old, t;t if ~&SLTT~*,/SL{~~T-~~, (Howoldareyou?) i 7 5 6 8 Oikutsu desu ka. -The counter suffix -- 3 t b is used to indicate "-years old." ~"SL gosai 5(%> rokusai QQ?L nanasai i3-33bh hassai 9 10 [I 20 $@j?w kyuusai C @ 7 3 ~ 1 jussai Ur9?~-=,5~ juuissai t;f;7"r%* hatachi t; ~hatachils usually used, although i= t @ 7 3 I (nilmsai)can be used.
  46. ah b j ? t Mary goes to a flea market. 1 % 7 l ] - : TA3*tt, rhia L(h -r~h~, Mearii Sumimasen. Kore wa ikura desu ka.2 : qjfita L L ~ F A L L T ~ - , Mise no hito Sore wa sanzen en desu. # A I I c~. bj, ha z~ ~~ t a { ,c; ~ j - - h > , ~ ~ u ~ r b3 % ~ j - : f ~ i t r :. ( L Mearii Takai desu ne. Jaa, ano tokee wa ikura desu ka.4 A*a)CTZ :: Mise no hito &&l2 3 A e t t L * t h Are wa sanzengohyaku en desu. < ;2hTT, &3 A 1 1,5 %7")-: k 3 TTh., &$LS f < h . ~ T $ & , Mearii Soo desu ka. Are rno takai desu ne.6 a G ) ? * Tp f: * ~ ~ & T 2~ T T k o h ~ P Mise no hito Kore wa senhappyaku en desu yo. * & I t >7 % 7 l ] - : EP&, + c 3 Z I j t 2 ( t : 3 b ~ ~ Mearii Jaa, sono tokee o kudasai. A man finds wallet on t h e ground.8 Lh2Lt.W r b t d -f:ihcr, 3c,iaTT Shiranai hito Kore wa dare no saifu desu ka. & & l i h9 %Ti)-: b?zLG3 $ ~ ~ i a T - j - ~ Mearii Watashi no saifu dew. a&> ! h" I 3 -j-, Z2"~*~& Arigatoo gozai masu. @ After shopping, Mary goes to a restaurant. i L L Z f z - ? 8 1 1 ~ ~ 3I 5~-b k X : ~ ( , q L+L~-@~ZL-~ %= Z"-j Fo Ueetoresu I rasshaimase. Menyuu o doozo.
  47. 2345678
  48. W o r d s T h a t P o i n t* r#t kore this one* .ih sore that one* a j %h are that one (over there)* Y h dore which one a Z kono this . . .* %a ! sono that . . .* a no that. . . (over these) z-0 dono which . . .* ibf t aso ko over there Yr doko where* 7tr$z dare whoF o o d* ~.LLL oishii delicious sakana fish tonkatsu pork cutlet niku meat menyuu menu yasai vegetable enpitsu pencil. kasa umbrella kaban bag kutsu shoes saif u wallet jiinzu jeans jisho dictionary jitensha bicycle shinbun newspaper teepu tape tokee watch; clack toreenaa sweat shirt* Words that appear in the dialogue C
  49. nooto notebook Pen pen booshi hat; cap hon bookP l a c e s otearai restroom kissaten cafe gin koo bank toshokan library yuubinkyoku post officeCounf r i e s Amerika U.S.A. Igirisu Britain Kankoku Korea Chuugoku China keezai economics konpyuutaa computer bijinesu business rekishi history okaasan mother otoosan fatherM o n e y M a f t e r s * L( 1; ikura how much . . . en . . . yen takai expensiveE x p r e s s i o n s* L & - L + L ~ * irasshaimase Welcome (to our store)* (- & ) -j-( . . . 0) onegaishimasu. . . , please.* ( - 2 ) < f<S& ( . . . O ) kuda~ai Please give me . . .* t"~a&, jaa then . . . ; if that is the case, . . . ?9 * (-4) -P! ( , . . 01 doozo Here it is. * Z*? % doorno Thank you.
  50. What do we do when we want to talk about things that we do not know the names of?We say "this thing," "that one," and so forth- In Japanese, we use kwe, sore, and are. t&la LX ( b-c$-hS, Haw much is this? Kore wa ikura desu ka. 5Aeh2&T$, Tht ~ 3,000 yen. Sore w a sanzen en desu.Kore refers to a thing that is close to you, the speaker ("this thing here"). Sore issomething that is close to the person you are talking to ("that thing in front of you"), andare refers to a thing that is neither close to the speaker nor the listener ("that one overthere"). -: x. &+Ltd kJ7L;LQl +=/TTD Are wa watashi no pen desu. * A ZjklA bkta ~ 7 T j - , +h12 btz L@ K ~ T T , Kore wa watashi no pen dew. Sore wa watashi no pen desu.There is also an expression dore for "which." Here we wiIl learn to use dore in sentenceslike: rs"ktT-j-&~, Which one i it (that you are talking about)? s Dore desu ka.
  51. In this lesson, we will not explore the full extent to which the word dore can be put to use,because there is a slight complication with question words like dore, Question words likedwe and mni cannot be followed by the particle wa. Instead, you must use the particlega and say: -L i Z*&hz & Q f = c ? ~ *>feTh, Which m e is yoiw pen? ~ o r e g a anata no pen desu ka.If you want ta be slightly more specific than kore, sore, and are, you can use kmo, s m o ,and a m together with a n m . (Note here that the re series must always stand alone,while the m series must always be folbwed by a noun.) Thus, if you know that the itemin your hand is a watch Ctokee), instead of: Zt-lAd ~ k hTT&-o < How much jS this? Kore wa ikura desu ka.you can say: Z9Z&fW2 L ( hT-j-&~o HOW much i this watch? s Kona tokee wa ikura desu ka.Similarly, if you are talking about a watch that is held by the person you are talking to,you can say: + a r t-$~lta x / - t ~ . ~ x / ; ? _ ~ ~ ~ - j - ~ ; That watch is 3,000 yen- Sono toke wa sanzen en desu.And if the watch is far from both the speaker and the listener, you can say: & ~ r ) Z d ; f ~ 13&-85Lz*lP+ RLTT, 3 ( That watch over there is 3,500 y m . Ano tokee wa sanzengohyaku en desu.If you already know that one of several watches is 3,500 yen but do not know which, youcan say: z * 9 r c 3 ~ 6 ~h ~ ~ ~ / t + v + ( ; ? - ~ /~- ~ ~ fwi ~ ,~ w r ~ u c ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u Dono tokee ga sanzengohyaku en desu ka.Since dono is a question word, just like dore discussed above, we cannot use the particlewa with it; we must use ga.
  52. To summarize: zfi (fa--> Z @ noun (Ig--) close to the person speaking 33% (kt-) 53 noun (la--) 0 close to the person listening (13~) 63 noun (I$--) 0 far from both people (fj;-) noun (fi5--) unknownIn Lesson 1, we learned how to say things like Mean? san no denwa bangoo (Marysphone number) and Takeshi san no okaasa~ (Takeshis mother). We now learn how toask who something belongs to. The question word for "who" is dare, and for "whose,"we simply add the particle no. z$%tai r L h * t % t l T T h a o P n # +&la Z s r L o $ * I f A t f , Kore w a dare no kaban desu ka. Sore wa Suu san no kaban desu. Whose bag i s this? That is Sues bag.We: will learn just one more ko-so-a-do set in this lessan: koko,soku,u s o h , and doko arewords for places. 7 - LL here, near ww . ?EZ fhere, mar you $;kZ over there EZ whereYou can ask far direti~rms saying: by TkS,2*A, Ljp?ilFA,41 ( I 3 Z * Z T T - ~ > E x m e me, where is fhe post ~ office? Surnirnasen, yuubinkyoku wa doko desu ka.If you are close by, you can point toword the post office and say: (@jZP*h$a { (3) &%tTT, (The post office 5,)right over there. (Yuubinkyoku wa) asoko desu.We will learn how to give more specific directions in Lesson 4.
  53. In Lesson I, we learned how to say "Item A is this, item B is that." We now learn howto say "Item A is this, and item B is this, too." f=CTL 2 u Takeshi san wa a it tzx/c~,-c+"p, nihonjin desu. Takahi is a Japanese person. & % r s A %i=~3ArLT-f0 Mkhiko i s Japanese, &. Michiko san m r nihonjin desu.Note that these two sentences are almost identical in shape- This is natural, as they bothclaim that a certain person is Japanese. The second sentence, however, is different fromthe first in that we do not find the particle wa in it. We have mo instead. Mo is a particlethat indicates that that item, too, has the given property. One thing that you should watchout for is exactly where the particle is placed. In English, the word "too" can be placedafter the sentence as a whole, as in the example above. Not so in Japanese. In the aboveexample, mo must directly follow Michiko san. -.---. .----- . , TF, 3 !A[ ( A is X. . 8 a r 8 8 . s iB. - . , i [ x i ?To m BMisX. + .-. ..A .----* 4 two items shared propertyTo negate a statement of the farm X w a Y desa, where Y is a noun, you replace h a & 2with ja apdmsn. Ji33E3Sttd h P ( i t ~ t " + & 9 3 - t S - h ol k & Y a m d a i s ~ o f a s t d ~ n f . Yamada san w a gakusee ja arimasen.We cannot use nao to describe a situation like the folIowing: Our friehd, Pat, has dud citizenship: Pat is a Japanese, but at the same -time, she is an Americart To describe the second half of this situation, we cannot say, P ~ t t om ~ m & a j k desas, because the sentence would mean that Pat, in addition to sdmebady that has been mentioned, is an American- Neither cari we say, Pcaifu wza d a i b z m dem. (Japanese speakers would say, Patto ma amdajivt dma nrkwases.)n the dialogues, there are two sentences that end with d m , which call for special attention: Are m I tdad dmtl we (That one too is expensive), and Oishii desas yo (It is delicious). These sentences cannot and be negated by replacing d m with ja a n h s e ~because taka% okhii are not nouns. Are n%o takai , ju ~ ~ n w b p eand oiskii ja a d m are therefore not grammatical. Instead, m e would have to say tt f ~ k a a r i m m and uishikzr a?+mmm.We will learn about the conjugation pattern of adjectives in k Lesson 5.
  54. Ja in ja arimase~ a contraction of dewa. In written Japanese, the uncontracted form isis more common; thus, the above sentence more likely appears in writing as Yamada sariwa gakusee dewa arimasex. affirmative: ( X I$) Y F T o X & Y. negative: (X 2 + 1 ) Y 6 8 9% P Q e v X i~ isnot Y.Statements often end with the tags ne or yo, depending on the way fhe speaker views theinteraction with the listener. If the speaker is seeking the listeners confirmation oragreement to what has been said, then ~ z s("right?") could be added. 7 r b )-$&a - t k h % h & ,i:X/hs( TTita, 3 Ms.Lee,yourmaj~risliterature,~ght? Rii san no senmon wa bungaku desu ne. sh13 i - { L*&;&, 3a*x/h, This is mt meat, i it? s Kore wa niku ja arimasen ne.Another particle, yo ("I tell you"), is added to a statement if the speaker wants to assurethe listener of what has been said. With yo added, a statement becomes an authoritativedecree. Z h h > - l a S753QCeh!J 3 W d 0 Tonkatsu wa sakana ja arimasen yo. Let me assare you. "Tozkatsu" is not faSkt. f k f i > F l T xrx;cshta . ~ T - ~ J Z L L T - ~ - . L , Surnisu san wa igirisujin desu yo. (In case youre wondering,) Mr. Smith is Brifish.
  55. E x p r e s s i o n NO*.$@)u.&SIfA, (-&)<EeLlb ( . . . O) k z d h a i is "Please give me X." You can use it to request (concrete) items in general. (-&)ifi&fiqLb%yb( . . . 01 megaishimmu too is a request for item X. When used to ask for a concrete object, ( . . . 01 onegakhimu sounds slightly more upscale than ( . . . o) kudcasai. Jt is heard often when ordering food at a restaurant ("I will have . . ."I. ( . . . 01 o n e g a i s h h u can also be used to ask for "abstract objects," such as repairs, explanations, and understanding. (-%)EjFb ( - - - is used when an offer is made with respect to 0) doozo item X. In the dialogue, the restaurant attendant uses it when she is about to hand the menu to the customer. It may also be used when a person is waiting for you to come forth with item X; a telephone operator, asking for your name, would probably say Onanaae o doozo. (0is a politeness marker. Therefore onamae is "your honorable name.") On the pronunciation of number words b Note that the words for 300, 600, 800, 3,000 and 8,000 involve sound changes. "Counters" whose first sound is h, like h y a h (hundred), generally change shape after 3, 6, and 8 Some . counters that begin with s, like sen (thousand), change shape after 3 and 8. Refer to the table at the end of the volume. Big numbers ) In addition to the digit markers for tens (juu), hundreds (hyaku), and thousands (sen), which are found in Western languages as welI, Japanese uses the marker for tens of thousands (man).Thus 20,000, for example, is niman (=2 x 10,000), rather than rtiiuusm (=20 X 1,000). While the next unit marker in Western languages is one milfion, Japanese describes that number as 100 x 10,000, that is, hyakumun. More complicated numbers can be considered the sums of smaller numbers, as in the following examples. 234 567 = 23 x 10,000 z-xv &3- I C93 3A s h/ (nijuusanman) 4 X 1,000 br A,%!& (yonsen) 5X 100 =Up < (gohyaku) 6~ 10 3 < C tg~ 3 (rokujuu) 7 8Q (nana)
  56. @$3I; (Numbers)I 100 ?Ye< 10,000 t L hyaku sen ichiman 200 t:v.i-. nihyaku < c=*X, nisen 20,000 4x3 A niman 30,000 3 / t 3 / L sanbyaku sanman 400 1kV+ yonhyaku < 40,000 k k 2 & yon rnan 500 L*Vr. gohyaku < 50,000 Z*3. A goman rappyaku G<*A rokusen 60,000 6 < rokuman 700 Q Q V + { QQ*#4, 70,000 Q Q 3 A nanahyaku nanasen nanaman 80,000 C;;S2;3k happyaku hachiman 600 3 ~ ~ 5 V . t . { kyuuhyaku woao 3 @ 52 kyuumanA. Read the following numbers. @B. Look at the pictures and answer how much the things are. . . -= Example: Q : L l ( bT-$-$xo Pen wa ikura desu ka. Hachijuu en desu.
  57. Ex. - X, 2C. Pair Work-One of you looks at picture A and the other looks a picture B t (p. 50). (Dont look at the other picture.) Find out the price of all items. Example: A : R / V 0 7d L I , C < & TT &, Enpitsu wa ikura desu ka. I3 : ve < 2&T3-0 Hyaku en desu.
  58. Picture AA. Items (1)through (6)are near you, and items (7) through (12) are near your friend. Your friend asks what these things are. Answer the questions. Pay attention to Z h (kore)and %h (sore). @ Example 1: Your friend : Q AT-j-$k, Sore wa nan desu ka. ^: x. You : Z -esTT, Kore wa pen desu. Example 2: Your friend : : (3 3 /Y Tf )z Kore w a nan desu ka. Z l r 2 Q A You: PL-j--T--$o Sore wa toreenaa desu.
  59. 6. Look at the picture and tell what each building is. @ Example: Q : X/Tj*a, Are wa nan desu ka. A : AhtA Z L a h*hT$, Are wa toshokan desu. Ex.
  60. C. Pair Work-Point out five things in the classroom and ask your partner what they are using L f i (kore),5;tz(sore), or &fi (are). Refer to the picture on p. 53 for the vocabulary. Example 1: Example 2: A : & h i 3 QLT-j-fia, A : +jh.tl QXIT-f*~, Are wa nan desu ka. Sore wa nan desu ka. % 6 B : Zif~T-"p, B :t wa ~x=j-, Are wa tokee desu. Kore wa pen desu.D. Pair Work-One of you looks at card A and the other looks at card B (p. 51). Ask and answer questions to find out the price of each item. Use ZC5, (kono),c Dt (sono), or (ano)appropriately. Example: Customer : L a &a ti L ( L; TT h x , k Kono hon wa ikura desu ka. Store attendant : i=+?ttVe z AT?, Nisen < hyaku en desu. Card A Part I. You are a store attendant. Tell Part 11. You are a customer. Ask for the the customer how much each item is. prices of items (1)-(5).
  61. Pair Work-Point at each item below (picture A) and ask whose it is. Your partnerwill refer to the picture B (p.52) and tell you who it belongs to. Example: A : Z kz 4 3 fsfic3 hx ti. TT&., Kore wa dare no kasa desu ka. n h l i b B : $ 7 1 - $ A @ ha5TT, Mearii san no kasa desu. Picture A Switch roles with your partner.@B%ft";shr% tjRIZhrl;hPfLook a the pictures below and describe each picture. @ t Example: Ex. Japanese Father Mother S Z i S h t A G113X/th/T% Otoosan wa nihonjin desu. Sh*&3hS i ~ ~ 3 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Okaasan mo nihonjin desu.
  62. (1) second year (3) 22-years old Mary Tanaka Takeshi Robert(4) zG fL (5) vegetable (6) U. of London students tokeeA. Look at the chart on the next page and answer t h e questions. @ a h & ? c r ExampIe: Q : 9711-$At3 1~13X,cX/-p$-$a, Mearii san wa nihonjin desu ka. & a h 1 r ) . A 2 . C - i S X . C / Y L p & q a * ~ o p$I,fic/&T-j-, lie, nihonjin ja arimasen. Amerikajin desu. 1. Ak-? t 9 h t 3 -f;@ i:C + LhCTh*, Takeshi san wa chuugokujin desu ka. 4 I B t: Z & & I d . 2. Dl<-- 3 At3 j. 7 % 73 UX/*C*-j-&., Robaato san wa amerikajin desu ka. 3- 0 3 L f;*XI*~l2 fill"; ( ~ ~ T - g - 6 . 0 Yamashita sensee wa kankokujin desu ka. 4 1 K h Y 4. a)<- 1. 3 A o +!-A,%Ar2 ~ = & z & ~ * - p j - ~ ~ ~ Robaato san no senmon wa nihongo desu ka. t i 5. X - S h Q l +FL,& Al2 C - f ~ ~ F w p j - h ~ ~ Suu sari no senmon wa keezai desu ka. 6. f ~ 4 - f L 3 /;id Y i F ~ l t < b $ <( a $. { *rlT-j-&h, . Takeshi san wa Toozai daigaku no gakusee desu ka.
  63. & & E X . r h h 1 L 1 7. 9 7 1) - 5 x/ta n2 F =/~"<LW d 2 ( +k~>Tlrf-lr*, { Q I Mearii san wa Rondon daigaku no gakusee desu ka. 8. i= C L 3 A 3 t z i Q k * ~ c i l " * k ~ , ? j E Takeshi san wa ninensee desu ka. -f i 9. 2 - 3 xlta L ~ ~ ; & A + ? L T T & ~ ~ Suu san w a ichinensee desu ka. 5 E h Y k 10. a / < - - 3 h i d tah*~~TTh~, Robaato san wa yonensee desu ka. Nationality I American 1 Japanese I Korean I British I Japanese I School U. of Arizona Tozai Univ. Seoul Univ. U. of London Tozai Univ. business (Japanese Major Japanese history computer teacher) Year 2nd year 4th year 3rd year 4th yearB. Pair Work-Ask your partner whose belongings items (1) through (7) are. Your partner will refer to the picture on t h e next page and answer the questions. * & I ) b l Example: A : Z h G d % 7 ) - 3 h @SL,<~TT$~, Kore wa Mearii san no saifu desu ka. lie, Mearii san no saifu ja arimasen. 1 6. A : I-~&cT)S~h,iXrfh~, Kore wa Rii san no saifu desu ka. 9 b> B : 2 2 , )-SLa ~ L L S T - $ - ~ Ee, Rii san no saifu desu.
  64. * & 9 b b 97)- ajz Mearii Yoo ko@b &a@ #"Lh@ 3 1/ (Review Exercises)A. Role Play-One student is a store attendant. The other is a customer. Use Dialogue I as a model.
  65. B. Role Play-One student is a waiter/waitress. The other student goes to a restaurant. Look at the menu below and order some food or drink, using Dialogue II as a model.
  66. Pair work @ C. Example: A : 2 XlV9 tA t: ( l; T T h a , Enpitsu wa ikura desu ka. Hyaku en desu.
  67. Pair Work @ D. Example: Customer : z 13 6 3 ( l 6 TT f i x o Kono hon wa ikura desu ka. Store attendant : C=+X/iY+ ( Z hTT, Nisen hyaku en desu. Card B I E. x (3) Part I. You are a customer. Ask for the Part 11. You are a store attendant. TeIl price of items (1)-(5). the customer how much each item is.
  68. Pair Work @) Example: A : LkLba fs#L@ hsTTi3, Kore wa dare no kasa desu ka. K l & l t > 6 :%71-3/La &+TTo Mearii san no kasa desu. Picture B -f 5 2- Suu Takeshi Mearii Robaato Yamashita sensee
  69. Iln t h e C l a s s r o o m Useful Expressions b 5 3 3 I# k, 1. I understand./I understood. Wakarimashita. &?$%!I Wakarimasen. a%&, I dont understand./I dont know. @=I ( rJ bh7-C ( ~ S S L ~ ~ Please speak slowly. Yukkuri itte kudasai. & 9 ~6 Z* L ~ f I{ f2-3L L ~ Please say it again. Moo ichido jtte kudasai.I G17Z 37T(?S3hl Please wait. Chotto matte kudasai.
  70. ?-ba$g% Making a Datea Mary and Takeshi are talking.@ On Sunday morning, at Marys host familys.
  71. Takeshi: Mary, what do you usually do on the weekend?Mary: Lets see. I usually study at home- But I sometimes see movies.Takeshi: I see , . . then, would you like to see a movie on Saturday?Mary: Saturday is not a good day. (lit-, Saturday is a little bit [inconvenient] - .. )Takeshi: Then, how about Sunday?Mary: Thats fine.Mary: Good morning.Host mother: Good morning. You are early, arent you?Mary: Yes, Im going to Kyoto today. 1 will see a movie in Kyoto.Host mother: Good. Around w h t time will you come back?Mary: Around nine.Host mother: How about dinner?Mary: I will not eat.Host mother: I: see. Well, have a nice day.Mary: Good-bye.
  72. Enterfuinment a n d Sports movie music magazine sports date (romantic, not calendar) tennis TV video tape; VCRFoods and Drinks ak, 5 Z"II h $fi%@x bf-eakfast s 3 t-f i%% sake; alcohol %% green tea 3-t- coffee * t3XI X/ Y%&t& dinner hamburger &@I@ lunch $ waterPlaces t15 home; house * 9% home; house; my place language Iab schoolTime &5 morning bi L k tomorrow L 9 when * 915 today * at about Z h23*."h tonight * L@929 weekend * rk-iilP Saturday * l t G k 5v Sunday * Words that appear in the dialogue
  73. 3 ktr& 4tE every day 3 tt$X/ -@a every nightU - v e r b s* L { to go (destinatian t I % /)* ha&& to go back; to return (destination i= . 4 (" to listen; to hear (- 2 a$ ) to drink (-4) 1 Q 3- 3 to speak; to talk (hng?cage 2 l T ) to read (-2) to get up to eat (- % ) to sleep; to go to sleep to see; to look at; to watchI r r e g u l a r V e r b s < b to come (destinatks 1 ~ / 2 ) * -jt-g to do (-4) * + L ~ L ~ T &% % T G to study (-2) good earlyA d v e r b s ;ti 3 9 4- negative not much -E +?* k 4- negative &% not at all * f;~ft A* usually * Gdr7Z a little r3r"3 Q.;T sometimes - k< often; muchE x p r e s s i o n s &. * +=, T 1a T2 Thats right.; k t me see. * T& hut * z*? TjW How about . . . ?; How is . . . ?
  74. G1 i%3 I$3 r a m m a r Verb ConjugationVerbs in Japanese conjugate, or take various shapes. In this lesson, we learn three forms:(1) the "dictionary forms," ( ) the present tense affirmative forms, and (3) the present 2tense negative forms. There are two kinds of verbs that follow regular conjugationpatterns, and an example of each is beloiv. 1 ru-verb u-verb 1 / verb bases tabe i k dictionary forms (to eat) E< (to 90) LI ~ present, affirmative &<bb 5SZT L) present, negative &<a@h stems i4 t;&-;. 4 belongs to the group of verbs called the "ru-verbs." RZL-verbs so called, because areyou add the suffix ru to the verb base (tabe, in the above example) to form the dictionaryform. For the two long forms we learn in this lesson, you simply add the suffixes mnszcand masen, instead of Y U , to the bases. We learn four ru-verbs in this lesson:Another major group of verbs is called the "u-verbs." The dictionary form of an a-verblike f i { can be broken down into the base (ikin f i e above example) and the suffix u. The I 1 1> 3 I% *long forms like $T 1 3 -if and 6 3 h, then, are formed with the base plus suffixesi m s u and imasen. You may find the u-verb conjugations sIightly more difficult than theru-verb conjugations, because of the extra vowel i. We learn six u-verbs in this lesson:h he use of the t r "dictionaxy forms" is by no means restricted to listings in a dictionary. They also emappear in various constructions in actual sentences. We will learn their uses in later chapters. Dont bemisled by the names given to the long foms too; the "present tense" in Japanese can indicate both the"present" and the "future." We will return to this issue in Section 2 below. For the moment, we willconcentrate on the foms, not the meaning of these verbs.
  75. In later lessons, we will have many opportunities to refer to the parts like $k< and E 3 , t Irwhich come before 3 T and 3 * A in the long forms. For the sake of ease of reference, wewill call these parts (same as bases with ru-verbs, and bases plus i with a-verbs) "stems."In addition to ru-verbs and u-verbs, there are two "irregular verbs." Note that the voweIsin their bases are different in the short (dictionary) forms and the long forms. irregular verbs dictionary forms 35 (to do) < Q (to come) present, affirmative l/S* $25 present, negative tBeh 3beh 1 sterns bThese two verbs are also used to form compound verbs. In this lesson, we learn the verb&S 96 , which conjugates just like the verb -;f 8.*L?i?It is important to remember which verb belongs to which conjugation class. It is a goodidea, therefore, to memorize each verb as a set: instead of memorizing just the dictionaryform, try to memorize the dictionary form and the present tense affirmative, like ;T;i- < - L L$7 3 f T. This is especiaIly important with verbs that end with the hiragam b , becauset lthey may be irregular verbs like 3- b and ( 6 , or ru-verbs, or u-verbs whose bases justhappen to end with the consonant r. If you know the verb classes and the rules that applyto them, you know why it is wrong to say X IL 1 3 9 and XHir 4 -f. K d* EB (= a ru-verb) B fiz (= an u-verb that ends with 5) verb bases mi kaer long forms W,d$/Sbt% P W $S!9%6/IIbD$Wh, %IT hx stems E! a9 E3 7iX uThings are not as bad as you might expect after reading the above paragraph. The key lies in the second from the last syllable in a dictionary form. The irregular verbs set aside, if you see the vowels a , o, or u right before the final 4 , you can be absolutely sure that they are a-verbs. (We have not learned any such verbs yet.) Unfortunately for us, the logic does not follow in the other direction; there are m-verbs and u-verbs that have the vowels i and e before the final 4 . 2 5 has the vowel e before 4 and is a I> R ru-verb. n- L 8 , on the other hand, has the same sound sequence, but is an u-verb.
  76. In this lesson we learn about a dozen v e r b that describe basic human actions. Thew areoften called "action verbs," and the "present tense of these verbs either meam (I) thata pezsson habitually or regularly engage in these activities, or (2) that a person will, or isplanning to, perform these activities in -the future. Habitual actions: 1 often watch TV. % 7 I) -3 kI3 Z 3 ~ "1 3 i A 2 $ c"b3X/ f: 3 -kkxl, Mary sometimes doesn t eat breukfarf. Future actions: 1 will go to Kyoto taorrow. Sue will nof return home today.Nauns used in sentences ~rnerd1y must be foll.2awed by gar&icIes, which indicate therelations that the nouns bear to the verbs. Ia this lesson, we learn four particles: T kc, ,", and 8 . .T The particle Tindicates where the event described by the verb takes placee4 HS%T*2%&&T0 r L *&X-ISX. 1 I will read books i the library. z -i G z T t / Y $ R f To L, I will watch TV at home.(L The particle G= has many meanings, but here we will learn two: (1) the goal towardwhich things move, and (2) the time at which an event takes pIace.(I) goal of movement I will lzot go to school today. 1 milk retarn home.3 ~ spoken language, particles are often "dropped."We will learn more about such cases in Lesson 15. n"In later Iessons, we will be introduced to verbs that require particles other than T to express location. - -. - -- - - .
  77. (2) time I will go to Kyatu on Sunday- 1 will go to bed at elmera. (Some time words stand alone, without the particle C tagging along, which will be : discussed in Section 4 below.)Approximate time references can be made by substituting 2"5 or r5 1: for t:. Thus, -+-%<*& (I=)Ef o Lm-illij Uh T I will go to bed at ubout ekeves.4 The particle 2,too, indicates the goal of movement. The sentences in (1)above there-fore can be rewritten using -. instead of I:. Note that this particle is pronounced "e." -Note that may replace the particle it only in the goal-of-movementsense. The particle4: for time references and other uses, which we will learn about in later lessons, cannotbe so replaced. The particle 2 indicates "direct objects," the kind of things that are directly involvedin, or affected by, the event. Note that this particle i s pronounced "o." to I l i s t e ~ tapes. I watch TV.You need the particle br with U) the days of the week like "on Sunday,"and (2):numericaltime expressions, like "at lo:&," and "in September." 1 get up at l0:42.
  78. I will go buck i September. nYou do not use the particle C: with (I) time expressions defined relative to the presentmoment, such as "today" and "tomorrow," (2) expressions describing regular intervals,such as "every day," and (3) the word for "when." 1 will c m e t m r r o w . 1 watch TV ezlery ewming. When will you go?You normally do not use : G with (1) the parts of a day, like "in the morning" and "atnight," and (2) the word for "weekend." Unlike words like i L f z and 4P!! above, how- h 3 rxrrx.ever, these words are sometimes followed by G:, depending on styles, emphases, andpersonal preferences. I read the newspaper i the morning. a What will you do on weekends?You can use 2 I= present tense negative verb, plus the question particle) to theextend an invitation. It should be noted that its affirmative counterpart, 2 TBs,canlzot beso used. Thus a sentence like &5TlatLQ :t 3 33. can only be construed as a question, U5not as an invitation. What do you say to having lunch with me? great. Sou~ds Wikl you play temzis with me? Um,its slightly (zmmoenimffor me nt thiq mmmt).J a p a u e sentences are fairly flexibie i €hearrangement of ekments that appew in them. nGenerally, sentences are made up of se~esai noun-particle sequences followed by a verbQP an adjective, which in turn is often fallowed by a sentence-final particle such as a=, &,ou k . Among ihe noun-partick sequences, their relative orders are b a large extent &ee.
  79. A typical sentence, therefore, looks like the following, but several other arrangements of noun-particle sequences are also possible. L bf:L ?ii T Y Lkd-X. a+zg : 1- 13X, %BL$T, +32? topic time place object verb 1 will study Japanese a= the &raw today. w a *f:L dt: 4=%tv5 3 % - Lt; U 5.5 wo topic frequency time goal verb I ofken go back home at around s e v a . You can add a frequency adverb such as -&El (everyday), k ( (often), and Z 3 ~ 3 3 r,l-tj (sometimes) to a sentence to describe how often you do something. 1 smtimes go to a coffee shop. In thisjesson, we also learn two adverbs which describe how izfrequmt an activity or an -._ --/-- ---event is; +??A+Fk (never; not at all) and 2 3 (not often; not very much). These adverbs 5 I anticipate the negative at the end of t h e sentence. If you use *X/+frt or 2 2 1, in other 5 words, you need to conclude the sentence with 1*A. I do mt watch TV at all. Takahi dues nut sfudy much. As we saw in Lesson I, the particle M presents ~e topic of ones utterance ("As for item X, it is such #at. .."). It puts forward the item that you want to talk about and comment an, You may have noted that the topic phrases in sentences such as % 7 1 - 3 ttME%ik SLh&ict> TT ( M a r y is a third-year student), and &&L *A,&& B +S?T ( M y major is Japanese %~3SBE3id ItL 2 4: language), are the subjects of those sentences. A topic phrase, however, need not be the subject of a sentence- We see three sentences in the dialogue of this lesson where rmonsubject phrases are made topics with the help o the particle kt. f rrr I --%A, s s r a t = t ~ L t~ ~ ~~ ~ T ~ , Mary, mhuf do jorr usually do FIE^ we~kmd? bj33
  80. +s3 Ea3@c=.SSji3g-, 3 x I l i Z t> Im gozng to Kyoto todoy.In the above two examples, C promotes time expressions as the topic of each sentence. Its deffects can be paraphrased like these: "Lets talk about weekends; what do you do onweekends?" "Let me say what I will do today; I will go to Kyoto." RZ*ldAfld ? rr/v How about dinner?In this example, Id is used rn directing the listeners attention and thereby inviting acomment or completion of a sentence. You may also note that the broached topic, R t*ld rzd,A, does not stand in subject relation to the verb, but is rather its direct object. ~s!/-b Expression Notes@) fi</%S When you move to a place where the hearer is, you say "Im Ll < b coming." in English. However in the same situation, SEAEf33 T is used in Japanese. SfFB is a movement toward the place where the speaker is. 5 < L L, < CI is a movement in a direction away from the speaker. speakers viewpoint) I 5 & 3 &b G dr 3 2 literally means <alittle, "a bit," "a small amount," as in % k 7 2 < F S t s IPIease give me a Little) and 3 r 7 2%-T ( f Z S c l % (Please wait for a moment). It is commonIy used for a polite refusal. In this case, it means "inconvenient," "impossible," and so on. Japanese people I dont narmdy reject requests, suggestions, or invitations with t 3 t 3 A (No), / because it sounds too direct. A : *@ElfJ t~%fi@E% EL3 ft3s A %!tLfi~p Will YOU seg a movie on Saturday? l3 :*EEli&. t3&-3k0 Saturduy i not convmimt- s F k 3 FI (i. Saturday is a little bit*) lt,
  81. ;ncv L93 P r a c t i c e @ZKP*Z~%T kha I%tb @A. Change the following verbs into -23 and --bI?h.B. Look at the pictures below and make sentences using the cues. @ (a) Add the appropriate verbs to the following direct objects. Example: $k% 7- L + %%PS$k3To . - 3. -, < > Ex. %% r;< L (1) 7 - 7 O coffee shop/3:00 college/every day
  82. (b) Add the place to the above sentences. Example: library + E!/%@-c="%%T L ??s-43 To YLrd.A Y 2C. L w k at the pictures below and make sentences using the cues. @ Example: go to the post office + %@6i i=e 3 To WjWX.3r 3 t b Ex. go to the post office (I) go to the library ( ) come to school 2 (3) come to the coffee shop ( ) return home 4 (5) return to the U. S. Sunday tomorrowD. Pair Work-Make questions, using verbs we have learned in this lesson. Example: A El~@T%S~S4$.T6~o L "c-t I 8 : 2 2 , % & 2 - j - , / ~ ~ 2a, A $ * & , a %
  83. E. Pair Work-Guessing game Ask questions and find out the items your partner has chosen. i 1. Before you start, both of you will choose one item in each row of the table and mark it. 2. In each row, using the verb and one of the four items, make a yes-or-no- question sentence and find out which item your partner has chosen. 3- You can ask at most two questions with one verb. If you have guessed correctly the item your partner has chosen, you score a point. Your partner will not give away the right answer when you ask a wrong question. j 4. When you have asked questions about all the verbs in the table, switch roles with your partner and answer their questions. ! 5. Tabulate the score. You win the game if you have scored higher than your partner. Example: A : %Eice?i#$dh, At-: j I N I : t > ~ v E ,e &*,Lo 3 3 L. A :%&*-fi3f T 5 7% 3 7rx 6 la L h, f i 3 2 To (A guessed what B marked, therefore A won.) I. --I373 3 i, post office school coffee shop library -2K3-PA TV movie video cartoon(2 h.69 -2eka2-p rn sake green tea water coffee --i2%&3-T L book newspaper magazine Japanese book --%La? date study telephone tennis
  84. A. Look at Marys schedule and answer the following questions. @ Marys S c h e d u l e 7:30 A.M. get up ....................... ....................... 8:OO eat breakfast ....................... ....................... 8:30 go to school ....................... ....................... 12:OO eat lunch ....................... ...................... 3:00 P.M. drink coffee .............................................. 4:OO play tennis ....................... ....................... 500 go home ............................................. 6:30 ....................... eat dinner ....................... 7:OO watch TV ....................... ....................... 8:OO study ........................ ....................... 1 :30 1 go to bed13. Pair Work-Ask your partner what time they do the following things. Example: A : fi% 3 2 T$ao r,.& 4% 1 U % Your partners s c h e d u l e time ............................. ............................ 1 ............................. ............................ get UP ( ) eat breakfast ............................. ............................ ) go to school ............................. ............................ ) eat lunch ......................................................... ( ) go home ,.................. .................. ........... .......... ( ) go to bedC. Look at the pictures in I-B (p. 65) and I-C(p. 66), and add the time expressions to the sentences. @ Example: 2:00 + =%i=B%@?*??%&$T, :C L r L 1h.k M/Y rt
  85. @ ~-k-anasvhn aA. Make suggestions using the cues below. @ Example: drink coffee + 3 - k - 5? & A 3 0 a, I. see a movie 2. come to my house 3. play tennis 4. eat dinner 5. study in the library 6. talk at a coffee shop 7. drink tea at home 8. listen to the musicB. Pair Work-Ask your friend out for the activities in the pictures. Example: A : f&Eh 2 1 ; k 2 +?k h., B : L L T T ~ j /j A, G k , 7 Z.---.-, Ex.
  86. Baa*esaaq [=%ah a SLIHow often do you do the following activities? Answer the questions using theexpressions below. Example: Q : *&%h3T.hxo 1tX a A : 22. 1 < :I% A 2 - $ - o / ~ ~ b ~ 29%&3*h* . I@ 2 &&(nsg(Review Exercises) %LhrL@3A. Answer the following questions.B. Tell your classmates what your plans are today/tomorrow/on the weekend. Example: 4 8 L A = ~ l = L L G = ~ 3 Z ~ , ~ Z H ~ @ C B + % B & ~ & L ~ T ~ 3 % i - i 1: U u~mc I* 5X. t Y C 16.k I lih : : -v/vfi
  87. C. Class Activity-Find someone who . . . name I. gets up at 7 oclock. 2. eats breakfast every day. 3. speaks French. 4. watches T V at home. 5. listens to Japanese music. 6 . plays tennis.D. Suggest to a classmate that you do something together over the weekend. Use Dialogue I as a model.
  88. ?na7@7-bThe First DateZ E -E ~ D i a l o g u eA7yLl aa Mary goes downtown.@ In the evening, at Marys host familys house.
  89. @ On the phone. Mary: Excuse me. Where is McDonalds? Stranger: It is in front of that department store. Mary: Thank you. M w : Im home. Host father: Welcome home. How was the movie? Mary: I didnt see it, Takeshi didnt come. Host father: Oh, why? Mary: I dont know. So, I went to a bookstore and a temple alone. Host father: Were there a lot of people? Mary: Yes. I took many pictures at the temple. I also went to a department store. Heres a souvenir for you. Host father: Thank you. Host mother: Oh, Mary, you had a phone call a little while ago. Takeshi: This is Kimura. Mary: Hello, is this Takeshi? This is Mary. Takeshi, you didnt come today, did you? Takeshi: I went there, 1 waited for one hour in front of the B2iagen-Dazs place. M r : Not Hiiagen-Dazs, McDonalds! ay Takeshi: McDonalds . . . Im sorry!
  90. N o u n sActivities r~wv part-time job 75Xk t fi shopping 97.x classPeople and Things A 2 af= YOU L dog * souvenir L z+$ child TI3 h rice; meal * LetL picture; photograph - 3 <i ? desk T letter * * * -.Time -</f bz /C) uzPlaces %Tb ri2h 2-ff- 1XXTL~ v*d: * l3A? 26 $a3 * $73 ")I" iS; .? Jb l/xl.32 * --U&hL 1. cf. L G 13h X k * Words that appear in the diaIogue cat bread person temple park supermarket department store bus stop hospital hotel bookstore town; city restaurant yesterday a Tittle while ago hour one hour
  91. last week when . . . ; at the time of . . . c--a) Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday to meet; to see (a person) (person 1 = ) there is . . . (-$*) tobuy (-2) to M t e (person 1- thkg $1 to take (pictures) (- 2 ) to wait (- 2 to understand (-fix) (a person) is in . . . ; stays at . . . (place: 4 )A d v e r b s a n d O f h e r E x p r e s s i o n s --("E;LI about (approximate measurement)* Z*&,&~$L Im sorry.* f?h x b so; therefore* f = {3 L many; a lot -Z together with (a person)* Z"-i L T why* V Z q T alone* %t%t HeIIo? (used on the phone)L o c a f i o n W o r d s A 3* * right (-a) ZPt: l & left (-n)* 3 2 3C. a 3 front (--@I j t5 4E G back fd -ha + inside (--a) 92 +. on (ma)
  92. L f= T under (-a) near (--a) I % next (---a) between ( A Y- B ~ 3 )% Z. there7L L - here
  93. X -hP 21 9 17 T means "there is/are X (nonliving thing)." The particle hr introduces, orpresents, the item X. You can use & 9 1 3-when you want to say that there is somethingat a certain location. Theres a McDonalds aver there.Note that B 9 f P is different from other verbs we have seen so far on the following threecounts. One, it calls for the particle 41,rather than for the place description. Two, theplace description usually comes at the beginning of the sentence. Three, the thingdescription is usualIy followed by the particle ;3., rather than 13.You can also use 6., 1 3 9 to say that you have or own something- 1 dmt have a TV. Do you hawe time?We also use i 1 3 I$ when we want to say that o7a event will take b There will be an exam m Tuesday. #5 L f z M a *%c 03 5t 7 2 i:hr $5 3 $ ,# i : t& i I * There will be no Jupamse class tomorrow.When you want to present a person or some other sentient being, rather than a thing, youneed to use the verb ~ 1 T . Thus, 2 ~Note the difference between: 7 L Y E & 9 3 +2 (I dont have a TV), the negative version of 7 I/ UVaR 1 f rf , and tt 7 7. L C + W 3 3 *tL (It isnt a TV), the negative version of .? LIn a minor detail which we will not discuss any further here, when ;k, I9 ?f is used in the sense of an event taking place, the place description is followed by the particle T, like normal verbs and unlike the other uses of & 9 1 Note also that some time expressions (such as E3 5 &I)come with the particle 1:, a. 3 and some others (such as W L f ~ ) not (see Lesson 3). The rute applies to the & 1 3 T sentences as well. do3Note that the same verb "is"in English comes out differently in Japanese: i5 Z t 1: kbi*<*. 5% 1 3 T, Q 9Y There is an i~temutimal stdmt over there. % 7 1- 3 tt i3 8 % ! kT . . + F -f Mary i ala i i e t e m t h a l student. s %s+*Z<+C> c , 2 f and & 9 1 T are strictly for descriptions of existence and location, while TT is for description of an attribute of a person or a thing.
  94. student oaer there Theres a% i n t e ~ t i o n a l Thwe &/are . . . person fig Ll ZT IWe learned in Lesson 2 that to ask for the location of item X, you can use the word Z+Z(where) and say X td Z* Z Trtfhh. Wheres McDonalds?In response, one can, of course, point and say: -7 7 C j - I L Y la { i6.F: L L ] MrDonoM9s is t over there. right i h w g near you- right hen?.In this lesson, we will learn to describe locations in more detail. More specifically, welearn to describe the location of an item relative to another item, as in "X is in front ofY." The Japanese version looks like X 12 Y @MITT. d l ( 7 7 F ~ - I L F ~ Q H * I ~ - b a%-cT0 &~ ) aa Its ifi frolzf o f that department store-Other useful words describing locations are as follows: location words - as - fo the right o f - Ut-2! 3 to the left of 3% k frmi! of 5L5 behid XktY03< & T Z l - 0 h Xis inside + Y. 5% onlabone Cl k ~ d e rbeneath l 51%~ near em5.. next to X I2 Y & Z DSLlETT, X is betwgn Y u ~ 2. d
  95. 3: Ai za sm3@@%?a 9 TT0 r L ~ d - X . The baxk i next to the library. s 3 E T -7*1b 3 @TTT, L f: The umbrella i under the table. s L X b 7 >t2Tt/- j Z%EaaTTD , Cf~ir.X, fit,,? The restaarant i betwez the department store? and the hospital. sOne can use any of the above location words together with a verb to describe an event thatoccurs in the place. To use these phrases with verbs such as &-f 6 and EFg, one will need f : fthe particle T. $~ia~-/i";.9*>;1~7um-c% - 3 k e % G 2 L f z o 7 hkL 3 i- 3 1 waited for Mary i fymt o f fhe ffgag~n-Dms n phce.The past tense foms of verbs look like the following, where -- stands for the stem of averb. affirmative negative present tense -3s -2Wh 1 past tense --%tk I did wo2- stvdy Jzpanese yesterday.The various details of formation of the long forms that we Iearned in Lesson 3, like therol-verblu-verblirregularverb distinctions, all apply to the past tense fonns as well.4 Another word for "near" that i also commonly used is t;ZY < . s*3oth X XY ~9Z fb 1) T$ and X MY 0k L TT describe situations where two items (X and Y) are found side by side. For a Y Q 9 sentence to be considered appropriate, items X and Y need to belong to the same category; two people, two buildings, and so forth. In contrast, an item can be 1 E. in relation to another item even if they are quite distinct. 0%%f;rak 4 L nkLT3, The tekphone i by the restrom s xd31at.r V ~ L : Q ~ T + (odd) 7-X. h ,
  96. The past tense versions of "X C Y I TT" sentences look like the following. affirmative negative present tense - 7 3 --GSZE!~~@~ past tense -TLk --~+&!9$t%~tk~ LT*&~3*BA*a*3TLf..* +3 Lfi+b,LYt* Y BC( Xsx % < IMP: Yamtzshzta was. a studmf at Tozai U~iversify. atj#-~E;;ta~a@EL"e&- c L 7 " r . i IXX. : d I) a e x l ;ti That was not a Japanese movie-Bxgmssion~of quantity in Japanme me rather different h m those in English. InJmanesb if mu want to add a quantity word like 1 i 3 to the direct object o a " : fserrtmce, rau ean either pHce it befare the noun, or after the particle 2 . F32t: { L*L& $At3S@T $$%3 2 L f;, I took maxy pictures i~ Kyoto. b*L 323 z f: < SAFS& L+L/" P4. -*The duration of an activity is expressed with a bare noun, like U 5 L . Such a noun standsalone (that is, not followed by any particle) and usually appears immediately before theverb. % r 1 ~ - " r ~ i a + r ~ t z i L t Is x /tk,e r ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ e- r ~ b h-/, Mary waited for Takeski there for an hoar.For an approximate measurement, you can add (. h x7 after -eC C 6& . hBAs was the case with the present tense L s & 1 3 %?A, written language would more likely have T ; $5 Ct 3 * h t L f = , insteadofthecontractedfom Lrh !!3+ktLTLf=. I7 As we learned in Lesson 3, for "at about a certain time" we have another word z&.
  97. ? A t 2 3 ~j a+s$E*ila7 C ~ L Y & % Lf:,~ , L hf-L I: IIL? >X. L. d" -, -;LW I studied Japa~ese about three hours yesterday- for 1 speak Japanese d English. 1 went to Kyoto & g Osaka.The other meaning of Z is "together with"; it describes with whom you do something. %7J-3X/E32-2&Y@~l=fi,3.aT, -4-k: < I* Mary will go to Korea with Sue.We learned in Lesson 2 that we use the particle % in reference to the second item whichshares a common attribute with the first. You can also use $ when two or more peopleperform the same activity. I w m t fo Kyoto yesterday. P A % *% 3 L k+?&+i~>- c3 3 3% i=?fr * 3 3 t 7"z, I.+? Z Pmfesso~ Yamashifa wmt to Kyoto yesferday, too.Or when someone buys, sees, or eats two or more things. Mary bogghf shoes. Mary bought a bag, too-In both cases, t directly marks an item on the list of things or people that have somethingin common. Observe that $ replaces the particles 12, dr, or 2 in these sentences.You can also use t when you go to two places, do something on two different occasions,and so forth.8 ~ o can use Z to connect nouns only. We will learn about connecting verbs and sentences in Lesson 6. u"With" as in "with chopsticks" requires another particle. See Lesson 10.
  98. 1 went to Kyoto last week. 1 wmt to Osaka, too. u p s - 5 3 h l d &f% Ei 3V k E = r P - - 7 4 --t=$f? Ii 3 Lfzo Robert went to a party on Saturday. H % H I . ~ t r f - ? d --t~$733 fzo L f t G l i if , L He went fu a party on Sunday, foo.We put $ after the particle t= in these sentences. More generally, particles other than d2,55 and ?? are used together with &, rather than being replaced by it. .. Expression Notes@ I X X is often used in the sense of "across (the street) from X" or bx "opposite X." You may also hear another word that is used in the sense of across, namely, X 8 Q fiht1. If something is b&ind X, or farther away from a street and cannot be directly seen because of the intervening X, in addition to calling it X OB 5 , JL you can also describe it as being X a)5 5 . 3 /& 3 ) In t h e dialogues, we observe Marys host father saying L 3 , and her host mother saying 21 . k 3 is like the incredulous "what?" that 3 you use when you have heard something that is hard to believe. 3 is used when you have suddenly noticed or remembered something. The small -;, at the end of these littIe words indicates that these words, when pronounced, are very short. =eB* b % (half) appears after the unit word like @E. 1Z LfJhElu @A2 E Thus, two hours *A and a half" is X@Bi+ rather than I + U 3 B i . C C *,%l2b9 I CtA C ; % b% b & t b L is "hello," which is used only i telephone conversa- b n tions. Some people use & t % L when they place a calI. Some other people use it when they receive a call.
  99. 1nh, L93 P r a c t i c e( T A $ 2 ~9Ll & ELI iY<A. Look at the picture and tell what you see, using & D b t or Llbb.B. Answer t h e following questions. 1. & Q ~ = ~ ~ & z I ~ + @ L Z 3 T * O 1.3 2h2& 1 26 1: [i,L 2. A Pd:tz@%i=$3$f~3 rtx %&,4: 3 Wg: i &i: 3 h 3. ; f i Q k a ~ s I z ~ l s r3T&xo , El 3 ~ / v+ 5( C ~ F?hx,* ~ L ~ ~ 4. $ Q f L u l + & t ~ I: 3 itU X * t t L 5. 7 ~ " icR;trr;til 3 3 p-**, - kll 6. t c3&Z (classroom) GIt:&L?)l 2 ?$lo 33 L T i 7. @E %l r3 ;:-LA (zoo) I=+T$Qc3 h a o T 01: 8. & Q k a B(country) < t= t-R&i&, Thh0 kt: 93 9. 25 Q f t o?gt=m75r& 3 -?a>, r>;i 3 Qr:
  100. C. Look at Takeshis schedule for the week and answer the following questions. @ club activity 5 -3 7" party ~ f - ?4 - test F X bD. Pair Work-Write down your next weeks schedule and ask each other what plans you have on each day of the week. Example: A : ,A q j >< Ccflh:& E 3 ,-...- -- 9 a-j-h.,
  101. Your Schedule Your Partners Scheduleom r ~ i g e z ~ m & L a hX/vA. Look at the picture and tell where the following things are. @ Example: E L r h.l, + negt2kT y *.A 7t ,fi:< : i E@EI.AX- tl Lr Look at the picture and tell where the following things are. @ Example: + IfX. 2. 7 9 .r ; b (racket)
  102. C. Pair Work-Ask and answer questions to find where the buildings are. One student looks at map A. The other student looks at map B (p. 93). Dont look at the others map. Example: A : % l t3 E L TT$h, z 3 i5& -%. B : * Hi ~i~~ - ~ ; T I L @9 T?, ~ , . fa z Ask where the following places are.A. Look at the information about Prof. Yamashita 25 years ago and answer the questions. @ Twenty-five years ago, Prof. Yamashita was twenty-two years old senior at a college good student his major-Japanese history Example: Q : T %* G A** d (college student) T L T: $a, 9 9 Lf:Q/v-tC~ f:~bhr{etx
  103. B. Pair Work-Guessing game Ask questions and find out the prices your partner h a s chosen. i I. Before you start, both of you will choose one price in each row of the table and mark it. i 2. In each row, use the item and one of the four prices, make a yes-or-no-question sentence and find out which price your partner has chosen. i 3. You can ask at most two questions with one item. If you have guessed col-rectly the price your partner has chosen, you score a point. Your partner i will not give away the right answer when you ask a wrong question. i 4. When you have asked questions about all the items in the table, switch roles i with your partner and answer their questions, i 5. Tabulate the score. You win the game if you have scored higher than your partner. Example: A : h ~ 7 5 1 1 % t L 1 ~ ~ 5 p J T L ? : & , :: Z L X L B : LlLL, -::3 *fXlI ,U, + & r ) 4 3~tLTLfz, A : L>t,$AH: F q T L f z & , - - Z -- B: idkh. %?TToC. Pair Work-Suppose you got one thing as a birthday present and choose it from the items on the next page. Your partner guesses what you got. Answer your partners questions. Example: B : 7°t-k?2 bt$-hhlbh-il-Lkha, A : 22, & l l f A T L f t , L L R , hxt%X. C + & 3 2 L Lo
  104. Qaaelrmzb% [f3&3ZF bt=fix t6TA. Change the following verbs into -3 L,k and - - b I 2 h F L . k Example: fz "= & + f= 4 2 ?Z ?=".=.& + w2ea-c+/vfz 1. ~ 3 Q - j - 2 . 6 a - 5 3. ab; 4 5. ( 6 6. 3 3 7. g$& 8. h h 6 9 - 3 3 10.1:& 1 1 . W b 12.la6 1 14.hxL;5 15.Qlb;B. The pictures below show what Mary did last week. Tell what she did. @ Example: $ 7 ) $ / v ~ d f i Q 1 = f l g % t % S $ L 3 L f = o - ~ 7 3 w r L b d.X. <A315 Ex. Monday (I) Tuesday 12) Wednesday (3) Thursday in the library at home at a coffee shop (4) Friday (5) Saturday (6) Sunday at a friends house in Kyoto at a department store
  105. C. Look at the pictures in 6 and answer the questions. @D. Look at the pictures above and answer the questions. @ Example: Q :$7) If713 2: 4 L -3hi3fi%ElW ~c@J?? 3 Lfzhx, A :~ I: L A h.rL ~ *&Lbi 2 L~ t *to I " ~ ~ 1. $ 7 V ttH& --3ttl27k%~3 Q i t L 3 L f = a h , T t b l i 2 - % 7 )--3X/EAA%l3I=@$ d.+i U: 0: 1 L 3 Lt=&*o 3. $ 7 1 1 - s ~ , t a ~ h 9 v t ~ g 4 . ~ t ) ~ t h > , ,3 <L ~ X 4. % 7 1 ) - - 3 h / t 2 ~ 9 R ~ 4 @ 2 t 3 L?:hXo 6. he, 5 . $71 -$X,i$&qm ~ c Z " ~ T ~ R Z * Lf=dao L ~ B ~ ~ ~.J~ 3bli V 1IX, f:E. Pair Work-Ask what your partner did on Monday, Tuesday, etc. Example: A : a % B t=R& 3 LL=hh, 7V rlr: L B :~.=.xetaL~~~
  106. Pair Work-Using the expressions below, ask your partners how often they did thefollowing activities when they were a child or in high school. Example: A : 3 j % 3~ % /- S Er 3 L { *$?%A 3 L Y : I n + iiit a f ~ i ~ a ~A. Compare sentences (a) and (b), and change sentence (bj using 5. Example: (a) ~ ~ / T - # - t ; f : = T 5 R T ~ , 1: hk+<%& (b)3-k-13=BP3TTo + x-k-&=XaTTo 1: V y 4 2 L I: i " ~ < i / ~ 1. (a) tzC-fL3X,t;j;%$l-t2R~3e o L L ITlr fi. (b) f.1f L $ h I i h 1 1 T k 2 E ~ L?:";. 3 d. 2 - (a) G Y P - b 3X,1J134+32%f&L3TO : 3 <A,$ij (b) % P I - S k 1 d f l $ - Z 2 % % L 3 T 0 Ilk : 1: <&>l+ 3. (a) t=13 L 3 &X/lazk% El t: 7rt~i.i 2 L 3 "g-, b L5 V Z 4 . (a) I r 7 1 - 3 A t 3 3 $iTEI~Si23L2T0 122- 1:1zX,: (b) % 7 l l- 3 A i i F % T B * % 2 3 L 2 f o 2 : s i 1iX .: :ic i: 5. (a) &L7"z, %7r)- - 3 X / t i f - = 1 ~ L 3 k t ~ + ~ ~ ~ ~ , A (b) LLz. 971 - 3 L , i a x - s x , i ~ 4 ~ ~ ~ , h %a,LL 414T3 $-+?AT f:, 6 - (a) *,LLq,-j IrtllL. L i, (b) 3033. XIL.LIL k:E3a*x/TLfi0 LL ,,
  107. @B. Describe the pictures using 6. Example: &*%X/liF%T7fo -?*&ti d < <+ f L * m+ 2 t t %&TTo k L Q* d ( y b . student go to a party (5)
  108. @) &@Cl@g hrLw5 h (Review Exercises)A. Answer the following questions.B. Pair Work-A and B want to play basketball together. The following is As schedule for this week. (6s schedule is on p. 93.) Play the roles of A and B with your partner. Ask each other what the other is doing and decide on what day you will play basketball. Example: As Schedule
  109. Pair Work @ C. Map 8 Ask where the following places are.Pair work @ B. Example: Bs Schedule
  110. DaysMonths bch29 (-8) January L %75;3 (-Ira) July C~h7 ( = A ) February Id G &:- ( ~fi ) k August 3hhi7 ( ~ f i ) March ( 7f S9 (ha) September L h Z 7 (mj) April C q~ j h p 9 ( f - f i ) d c t o b e r :fit9 (&A> May @ , 1 j L $ $ 2 9 (+-- )-November < 6 h 2 9 (*I> June U@i fi 6 7 ~(-+s )-December ~ 5 3Time Words Day Week Month Year i2X Z L ~ +th@&b? Ct754f9 3 2 $a?X (%Q a) (=-baEI 8) the day before yesterday the week before last the month before last the year before last 3 ~ 1 3 wa) ( I e ~ ~ r p j (%a)-tfhIf-;,(%fl) 314%L(isF) yesterday last week last month last year .3 1 (+a) ~ / , ~ (n S ) r&tr7(+fl) + i t Z L (WF)I today I this week this month I this year I 9 ~,.~rp (%a)~ - , L I - ~ T (iffa) ~L~X.(~PSF) tomorrow next week next month next vear h37-C 31;~t~p5 3 ~df-3 5 L; ~ h j f a h (%*a) (.$%a) (&*+) the day after tomorrow the week after next the month after next the year after next
  111. cp$%fiR?JA Trip to Okinawa/@ Robert and Ken are vacationing in Okinawa.@ At the post office.
  112. @ On Monday at school. Robert: Nice weather. Ken: Yes. But it is a Little hot. Robert: Wow, beautiful sea! Ken: Lets swim. * * * Ken: What kind of sports da you like, Robert? Robert: I Iike surfing. Shall we do it together tomorrow? Ken: But isnt it difficult? Robert: No. Robert: Excuse me. How much is a postcard to Britain? Person at the post office: 70 yen. Robert: Then, two 70-yen stamps, pIease. And one SO-yen stamp, please. Takeshi: Robert, thank you for the postcard. Did you enjoy.the trip? Robert: Yes. The sea was very beautiful in Okinawa. Takeski: Good. I like the sea very much, too. Was the airline ticket expensive? Robert: No, it wasnt so expensive. How was your date, Takeshi? Takeshi: . . .
  113. sea postal stamps ticket surfing homework food birthday test weather drink postcard bus airplane room I (used by men) holiday; day off; absence travel new hot (weather) hot (objects) busy (people/days) large interesting frightening cold (weather-not used for objects) fun small boring old (thing-not used for people)* Words that appear in the dialogue
  114. easy (problem); kind (person) $L inexpensive; cheap (thing) disgusted with; to dislike (-&<) beautiful; clean healthy; energetic quiet fond of; to like (-5) to hate very fond of; to love lively handsome not busy; to have a lot of free time to swim toask (person G-) to ride; to board (-- 1:) to do; to perform (- 2 to go outA d v e r b s a n d O t h e r E x p r e s s i o n s* L h q L k tC 4% EZ together* -?hfiab and then a 9 *.i: f z ~ h r Its okay.; Not to worry.; Everything is under control. very what kind of . . . [counter for flat obi ectsl to ((a place); as far as (aplace); (a time)
  115. There are two types of adjectives in Japanese. One type is called " kl-adjectives,"and theother type " 3 -adjectives," L and fa are their last syllables when they modify nouns. 3 , S L6 1 2E 3 L . 1 saw an interesting mode yesterday. 2 1 * k Z 5k P I b L Y &?k a scary teacher A T% 3 Z b % T Professor Yamaskita i s a sea0 teacher. +iLf:+?&ttl. tfX*QLt 1 fi b 2 TJ& a beautiful pictgre LrLL I took a beautifa2 picture i Kyoto. n Z% an energetic teacher If/., I +f/vQ~~ 7;%5 12X % ;Pd 3 & TTo k Professor Yamaskita i i energetic teacher. C3 Lf:+?L+?i> If& 3 .ttA,QzrJapanese adjectives conjugate for tense (present and past), polarity (affirmative andnegative), and so forth, just as verbs do. The two types of adjectives follow differentconjugation patterns. change shape as follows. You wiII want to be very carefulLI-adjectives &-adjectiveshere, because the pattern is rather complicated. S%b3L aff ir rnative negative present 8%b3L+lT$ S%t5<&9dt?h, It ik interesting- It is ~ o interesting. t past It was interesti7ag. I was not interesting. f
  116. It is interesting (and confusing) that the idea of past tense is encoded differently in the hi 9 f= TTaffirmative and the negative polarities: (iG % L 3 )-- is "past affirnative, " +while (i5 % t 4 ) { & 9 2 # A T*L R is "negative+past.l" IUnlike verbs, adjectives conjugate fairly regularly. The only irregularity worth noticingat this stage is the behavior of the adjective k L (good). The first syllable of t > L l ischanged to 1 in all forms except the dictionary form and the long present tense affinna-tive form. LL (irregular) affirmative negative present LILITT &<&!I%eh, past &;b=)ftTT d;<bSm32hrTL,k -a-adjectives The conjugation pattern of 3-adjectives is much more straightforward. Itactually is exactly the same as the conjugation table of TT which follows a noun, asdiscussed in Lesson 4. Zsi(a) fflu b affirmative negative present ZSTT ffhb- ESiLaS!I3tZtv Mlu + ! She i healthy. s She i not healfhy. s past TI;%TI/f= wfu d - n;ZE*;fS93tZhTLk Wfu 3 She was healthy. She was not healthy.The final syllable 3 is dropped in these long forms of 3-adjectives.Some speakers follow a more regular conjugation, where C-if is inert in both polarities. For these ,; .- 3 1 : r j I speakers, the chart looks like the following: - affimative negative --% present -b xTT -{ 2 b l T - T past T --{;dhs,IF:T$There actually are alternate forms, I r and d: hT+, but they are much less frequently used than LLx and ~ 1 k l T f -As with tl-adjectives, some speakers prefer an alternative para-, such as the foIlowing: affirmative negative present -T$ --U.rQbf"g- past - I i?: T- --t~fb&*~f:T-$
  117. In this lesson, we learn two Q-adjectives that am very important from the grammaticalpoint of view. They are %Q ) (to be fond of; to like), and 3 4 L 1 f 3 a) (to be disgusted f $ (- Iwith; to dislike). The meaning of these adjectives is relational, and you need two terms:a p e r s o w like or dislike something on the one hand, and a person or a thing on the otherhand that is liked or disliked. In sentences, these two terms usually appear with theparticles 4 and fif , respectively. 3The item that is liked or disliked can also be a person. You may want b be cautious usingthese words in reference to your preference for a specific person, Lowever, because 3 7TT is usually taken to be an admission of ones romantic interest.5Let us note three more things about 3r5 3 ( G) and 3 h L ( 3 ) before we go on. One, if you Tlike or dislike something (or somebody) very much, you can use the intensified forms of33 3 TP and 3 b L T$, namely, A% 3 TT and A 3 h 6 TT. These forms are more T t L :f>common than the combinations of Ef 3 ( fd: ) and 3 b r ( ) and the degree modifier %+ Z T $, to which we wiIl turn shortly.Two, when Japanese people want to say that they neither like nor dislike something, theyusually say: I fieither like nor dislike (it).Three, you can use H 3 Id: and 3 L; L Q as modifiers of nouns. For example, you can say fthings like:41n contexts where you are contrasting two or more items, the particle CA is used instead of $5 Thus, 3 3 3 . ,: <.- I 3 h T o 1 like vegetables, but I dont like meat.5 In the expression of romant~c familial affection, the complex particle a)Z Z 7 can replace . Thus, r+r--t or 5. 2 ~ s ~ r a % ~ yt-$-h4 e ~ t ~ . s~ a S =%7l1-5ttd:3?1TTO -f -i Takeshi is in Zooe with Mary.
  118. This is pnu favode T V program.If you want to say things like "very hob.and "a little hot," you eaxl add "degree adverbsnlike Z T $ (very) and % I 9 2 (a. little; slightly) before adjectives. vRG@l$ % 3 f i ~ L f z o Y3%b 5.k ZT T TP,sea was wry bearutifd i Okkaawa. nInstead of having Z T t added to them, % 1 (GI and 3 L; L 1 ( 3 ) have their own inten- -rsified forms, A33 3 ( 3 ) (like very much) and A 3 b L ( Q ) (hate). -r r:t. j: t b 7LzC?LStt13~-k-75~A%3TT~ 73. t Tukeshi likes coffee a lot. + t . $ x / t A f d : - r S j $ f A 3 C;bTT, > f<i M . Kina hates nutto (a Japanese fermented soybean delicacy). sTake a long farm-of a verb and replace the ending with 3 L x 9 or 3 L x 3 3 and youwill get the Japanese expression far "lets . . .," which you can use to swgest a plan ofaction. -&i43l&%T%%L2 L L 30 r k - t 1 Z l+.l:X, +L"i Lets study z the Zzbrary together. z *%&T3-k-2&&3 3 9 3 -iA r? L.k $7F* Shall we drink coffee at a coffee shop?There are two important things you should b o w about cPunting items inJapanme. One,we use different n r r m k wards for different kinds of items; the words used for conntingpeople are different from the words used for counting books, for example. Two, numberwards often came wFter, rat be^ than &&re, the items cwrmted in a sentence. Lee bought three stamps.
  119. The number word, Z&, .is made up of the numeral 5 and the "counter"&. This counter 1X.b~ ?A 5ilis used for sheets of paper and other flat objects. There will be other counters in laterlessons-for people, for books, for sticklike objects, and so forth. Expression ~ o t o s @ 1 - bLl/IZ$!??tf LWtF (a)bK t4 LIQ* is used when we describe people and is not 1 used for places. When you want to say that Tokyo is busy, you shauld use tz SP*>($l. fz b 3 X,t$.KLtlTF, 3L Takeski is 6 ~ . argue ~ ~ F T T . 553~3 Tokyo i busylkiuek~- s Note that the sentence below is also acceptable, s k c e the subject "I" is omitted i the sentence. n HEElt2KLelTT, =BEEii;t;(Wt3)KLt~TT0 3 a wl r ra a E B + ~ bnL cw l I am busy on Sunday.
  120. P r a t i c eA. Change t h e following adjectives into the affirmatives. Example: k & f=h*~-Tj- 44k32 + bTA3TT 1. q - j - ~ h 2. ~ 5 - w 3 . S ~ ~ . G ~ L S 5 L 9~ 2 1 ; ~ ~ L ~ . 6, L + & L L 7. LL 8. tThxQ 9. & 10. ?#LL~? 11. era 2B. Change the following adjectives into the negatives. @ Example: ??&> + ? T < 9 2*A Iraa + V ~ C + W I ~ * AC. Look at the pictures below and make sentences. Ex.
  121. D. Answer the following questions.E. Pair Work-Make affirmative and negative sentences with your partner. Example: 3 h d: L + & g o @ g [ i 3 h ~ r T t ! ,~ o + l i 3 3 h . h U ( . % 9 f i ,? ~ . L&t<B - C #t : --r a*Ao
  122. F. Pair Work-Make your own sentences on the topics below using adjectives, and tell your partner. A. Change the following adjectives into the past affirmatives. @ Example: f: & L -+ t;$*hx7fzTT 3 tTX/3TLJi B. Change the following adjectives into the past negatives. @ Example: ? -+ -PT{&93*tLTLk tfXI3Q -+ -+?k3C..i-.;&,3 + t h T L f z 3 . 11. .. . zra % r , ,;r ;g;, 6il. I; , *.. ,iez 1 ic Ai$, .di! 8, ?: - ,2 q-:.,, *-PI c,;ji/ip J.,-.$ie,.... . d.w = .;;~.h,. JIU ! C. his ry: is ~ h & R ~ b & r i ddhh about the trip to Okinawa. Look at the memo and make sentences. @ Example: Ex. Okinawa-hot 1. food-not expensive i+J% I d s iP-3 f z T-j-o &?Gh A 7 2. food-delicious 3. hotel-not big 4. hotel-new 5. restaurant-not quiet 6 . sea-beautiful 7. surfing-interesting
  123. D. Pair Work-Use t h e chart below and practice a dialogue with your partner, substituting the underlined par3s. A and B are talking about As vacation. Example: A is Robert. + A :~~1.c.;.P~tc~I2Lfz, C-f 63Qh 1 B : jT $ . h x , P.i T t T z h b , A :.LT%~*~-=I~T*~ h-? Ex. Robert went to Okinawa very hot (1) M a r - saw a movie scary (2) Takeshi stayed home ( 3 % ZI very boring (3) Sue went to a party not fun (4) Mr. Yarnashita went to flea market ( 7 1 -? -9 Y E ) not cheap () br:"rt 5A. Look at the pictures and make comments on them. Example: @% 4 &~G3Tifk L lit, 7:fi. Y I+, Ex.
  124. B, Answer the questions using the given cues. @ Example: Q : % 7 )-$/LiA?f*hQaXT$-h, Ut ! Ex. % 7 I) - kind beautiful interesting energeticA. Pair Work-Choose the items from the following categories and ask your partners whether they like them. Example: A : 371-3hi3&Jr~%3TT6~ 1: f 1. Foods: meat/ 3 7 Z j (fermented beans)/ice cream ( 7 4 x 7 I -A ) 4. School Work: test/~apanese class/homework 5. Drinks: sake/green tea/coffee * If you neither Iike it nor dislike it, you can use 3-TZ 1 b & T 2 1 d *&. h 3B. Answer the folIowing questions.
  125. @ xL htE Ia~ A ~ I , ~ A ~ RA. Change the following into b L a 3 sentences. @B. Pair Work-Make follow-up suggestions using 2 L A5&. Example: %.T?bo 2c -+ A :S t. c S82&A3 ~ h T - f h ~ +e D L L- 3 &>o B:%jL3Lk?.@ &bJaRw fit% LO3 (Review Exercises)A. Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions. 1. Were you busy last week? 2. Were you fine last week? 3. Was your high school big/old? 4. Was your watch cxpensive? 5 . Is your bag new? 6. Is your room small/clean? 7 Is your teacher kind? .
  126. B. Glass Activity-Show and tell Bring pictures you took on a trip. Explain to your class where you went, what you did, how it was, etc. And later, other students will ask in detail about the trip. Example questions:C. Role Play-Using Dialogue I[ as a model, buy some stamps and postcards.
  127. @5 Uh, 3&<A t t h e P o s t O f f i c eUsefu, Expressions t k t , %;@c> L 3 T, b?dZ Cam YOU tak-e care o f thk, please?~z+3 P J Q # Q z ~ ~ { ~ L Z ~ L ~ ?&Ark Give me fhree 50-yen stamps, please. t*/;C-Gs C &Lhxhx 2 ?hx, a 9 Him maay days will it take? It will be 150 yen. Anothef 100 yen, please.Useful Vocabulary gw counter stampaPrf 37 < td 6i 1 postcard Z 7 1 57*3 A aerogramme 74. E ;- 7 92 , parcel He L.3 L t letter&2EL:i ( i V airmail @ EM! i.QVL surface mail%t%t i Iih insurance 8s +{f;9 special delivery8%h.1 Zrh registered mail Stamps Postcard
  128. t l p ",I , B A t a P h o t o S h o p Customer : T & ~ * L , % ~ i L Si? B I L ~ L ~ T , C % f Excuse w. like a reprznt, plmsa. Id Shop cIerk : t2 L h, % X d j 1 :if:( 5 L ~T~75*, Cerfuinly. Would the glossy fiaish be all right? Customer : E;1:~1, Yes. Shop clerk : z z l =2Z % TL. % IS ;* - %a h C ~ @ ~ ~ L 2 T o 3 Z .b L & i % PZgme fill z yoar name uad telephone number here. n Customer : ~ 3 Ta3T 5, 7* W h m will if be ready? Shop clerk : I - Z J L & ~ 133-35; 13 @s%TT, 3 Cmi z 11% iX, U L A It will be ready at three oclock on the 15th. 2 a 13 # 2 % $ # $ 9 5 u n. rtk & T37 < f < 3 ~ h ~ Please brim thzs receipt. Customer : ;h&.)3 Lf:, E F , S @ L L $ T O tl*< All ri&ht T h a ~ k you. Shopclerk: #!19;tr~Z?Z*~~4Lf=, Thank you very much. Useful Vocabulary %3@L 5- 1 reprint %i E R IfLF development %iR& 9 :if:< glossy finish %?rrQ L :if:( mat finish 7 9 197 panoramic z5-f F slide1 712). print Sfl negative I-fL J! hz date/time something is ready 7 .F IL A film 1( 24;EtlV Yj b 24-print roll %% Th.lj battery I .& #% T 2 % 3 -disposable I 1 camera 91 3 & 2 % receipt 7 t V 5. It&
  129. jy-bshCT)-FJ A Day in RobertYsLifeDA i a l o g u etPL1 aa in the class.@ After class.@ On the bus.
  130. Prof. Yamashita: Robert, pIease read the next page.Robert: . . .Prof. Yamashita: Robert, please wake up. You cannot sleep in the class.Robert: Mr. Yarnashita, I forgot to bring the textbook.Prof. Yamashita: Please bring your textbook with you. We use it everyday.Robert: I understand. Im sorry.Sue: Robert, you had a hard tirne today.Robert: Yes. May I borrow your notebook later, Sue?sue: Yes.Robert: Thank you. IIl return it soon.Sue: Robert, we will have a test tomorrow.Robert: Really?Sue: Yes. You were absent from the class last Friday. (Thats why you didnt know about it.)Robert: Well then, Ill go home and study today.Old woman: Excuse me. Does this bus go to the city hospital?Robert: Yes, it does. Take this seat, maam.Old woman: No, thank you. IlI get off soon.Robert: Is that so? Then, shall I carry your bag?Old woman: Thank you.
  131. % ha& S& money* i%C2#53,4, grandmother; old woman #SViaG gag bath hl k C ST kanji; Chinese character* ,4~5h*t1 %?w textbook t&t@? ,+a this week* tkkUi*l9 WL iW%%f!% Municipal Hospital* 93- ;k next video game electricity train baggage page window night next week next year tough (situation)U - v e r b s E&, -?LC 2% .j; to play; to spend time pleasantly ~ (Q 3 , { % to hurry ~2.5c i a ~ ~ & l %;B,gttA&totakeabath to return (things) (persm C thing & ) t to turn off; to erase (- 2 ta die to sit down (seat 1:) to stand up to smoke touse (me) to help bemm/tmk 2 )* Words that appear in t h e dialogue
  132. (I) to be absent (from .. .) k-4) (2) to rest to open (somethhg] (- to teach; to instruct 2 (persm k= f h i ~ g ) FPV 6 to get off (- 2 ) %3 b to borrow (persora it thiag & 1 to close (something) (%2 1 qdfb toturnon (-%) T h b 5 &hi) b %%3? haCf b to make a phone call (perso# I t ) 6&% to forget; to leave behind (-2)I r r e g u l a r V e r b s 9h-C 4 T to bring (a person) (- 2* & 9 f <6 %7 7 & to bring (a thing) (- 2 )A d v e r b s a n d O t h e r E x p r e s s i o n s* & K T 4RT later on sq { i@ { (do something) late* -&a& because . . l?-3Z$T-f That would be fine.; That wouldnt be necessary. right away* l3&Z 5 T?ha +3 Tp Really? @7{ , slowly; leisurely; unhurriedly
  133. making requests (". . . , please.") = giving and asking for permission ("You may . . ./May I: . . ."I stating that something is forbidden ("You must not . . ."I forming a sentence that describes two events or activities. ("I did this and did that.")The conjugation paradigm of te-forms is fairly complex, as we need to learn separaterules for ru-,u-,and irregular verbs. Furthermore, the rule for %-verbs divided into five issubmles.First, with m-verbs, the rule is very simple: Take & off and add T. ru-verbs S a Il q + B z < f;U-verbs come in several groups, based on the final syllable of their dictionary forms. 1 u-verbs with final 3 , 3,and bAs we discussed in Lesson 3, some verbs that end with the hiragana S are m-verbs and some others are u-verbs. The rule of thumb for determining which verb is which is to examine tke vowel before the frnal 4 syllable. If the vowel is n, o, or u,the verb, without any exceptions, is an u-verb. If the vowel is either a or e , the verb can be either an u-verb or a m-verb. Statisticdly speaking, there are many more m-verbs, than u-verbs in the i and e m camp, but there are many important verbs in the minority, m such as A b (to enter), and % 5 Ito return). IS. d% . { : -. . } .a m om ...Urn = .ways .-verbs .*-im {. . + em1 = often, but not always, m-verbsAs far as k-forms are concerned, we observe that u-verbsthat end with d will have a small 9,m-verbsthat end with $ do not.
  134. + t s u-verbs with final 6,13, and &I s3 d A- + ShC &- al is *- u-verbs with final < There is an important exception in this class: u-verbs with final < %< *A- + ZLIr u-verbs with final 3 3-T + ZL7 BizThe irregular verbs T & and < 6 , and compound verbs built with them, conjugate asfollows. irregular verbs TZi 3 t7Note that te-forms and stems (the foms you find before 3 ?) are totally different con-structs in the a-verb camp. A common mistake is to assume that the simple paradigmprovided by the ra-verbs (&KT and 6 f; 3 9) covers the u-verbs also, thus corning upwith unwarranted forms such as x 4 2 . f (see -%L 3 5 f ) and x %& f (see % A4. TI. It is ~ h & I I -*probably easier, at this stage of learning, to memorize each verb as a set, as in % < 6- h. Q 3 T-TiWT, than to apply the conjugation rules on the spot. Refer to the verb conjuga- 6-tion table at the end of this volume.
  135. Use a verbal & - f m together with 2 < E3 1% to make a polite request ta mother perwn"please do . . . for me. FS % f+ t r a , F - 7 % M b ~ 3ri +& { (33 L l 0 Please listen to the-tape thaf goes with the tatbook. TA$*L, 3;d; r%;?_-c7"i3~, kL { Excuse me. Pleuse teach me a little. (= Tell me, I need your advice.)A verbal ie-form plus % i xb TT means you may do . , . ," which describes an activitythat is permitted. To ask for permission, you can turn it into a question sentence, -- -C &~lbT-ifBS. May I see the textbook? Yes, you may.To deny somebody permission to do something, you can use the te-formplus i2 I l-f 2 %h. No, you m y not see the textbook. , Describing Two ActivitiesYou can use a tiifam if YOU want to combine two or more verbs, as in decribing asequence of events or actions f"I did this and then I did that"). In other words, thete-form does the work of "and"with verbs. (Note that two verbs cannot he joined by E,which only connects n o w . ) 1-1.6?E3T, ~ - L 2 - f 0 5- I will borrow her notebook land xerox i. t21f you are talking to a very close friend or a member of your family, a te-form, by itself, can be used as a request. E5?aF1l-fT0 *r h Opm the widow, will you?
  136. -+ma, * s $ i = s asta ~ i . ; , ~, 5 < L- L; +c313 ?Say I got ap at six a d sfudied &9i=?f7 , & k L * t & & @ t k 3 . Li(Ti r> 7 U.6 &~~ Lets go to the cafeferia ondf=haoelmch.The te-form of a verb can also be used to connect a verb more "loosely7with the rest ofa sentence. In the first example below, the verb in the te-form describes the manner inwhich the action described by the second verb is performed. In the second example, thete-form describes the situation for which the apology is made. 1*rct=%7<(:, &*Gt%T3 T o n $ ~-IL+ rr I go to work by bus. (I take a bxs to work.) 3f L r T&$*X/, @++B%&tLT, b3 I am sorry for not bringkg in the textbook. (I left the book at home, and I ant sorry.)In Lesson 5 we lcamecl F t a j d* meaning "lets .,. ." 3 L -a -i h- i alsa used in the sense sof ^let do. . . ,"in offering assistance. If you see somebody having a hard time o p e methe lid of a bottle, for example, you can offer help by saying: C$Lr4") W:L .*9 3 t 1 ? J;ra* 18 do it. -% - p~h explanation clause: may d m precede the sitxiation clause. Thus the first example above,mnaIsa be Teparaphrased as : & L k ? X F 8 & 9 dJdlh. * Q,CA+J&1L33, L ;.LU;L-&3riWe will diseu5s this furtfier i Lesson 9. n
  137. Or to a person who is carrying a heavy bag: R@&Rt;$t a 7 b Shall I carry your bag? Expression ~ o t s r a ,- - i!E< / E-E b Although both Btl and S F < mean "late,"they have different L B st 8 f and 2Z C is an adverb. B b l modifies nouns usages, since Bt h is an adjecbve s+ =- l.p or works as a predicate, and B < modrfies verbs. SF A: 3@4--@t~XF£9L7~, Iwenftobedlatmeocbckyesterday. w9 C k2 B : Bl.~T-T;Ba, Ifs hte. *? LrpSt 7 B B B Z t z i 2 . +@Z+*3&23T. Cwi C Sf Bb L ~ $ Y ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ & ~ ~ T ~ On weeken$ I get ap momd 10:UO and eat k t e Breakfasf. P D 3 , s<s3f z * t I went to bed late yestwduy. Be h You can also apply this rule to F < /F tl. MP Me Z 3 6 b .F5B is normally used with & 9 # . " 3 , as i E5b&!l;6,9k3 n (Thank you very much), or with $&&*A, as in E-5 $3+AP3?h, (I am very sorry/Thank you very much). When used alone, it is an abbreviation of E4 8 ;$i 3 $ 2 3 or Z3 B T&P%kR. Therefore, when you want ta show your gratitude or regret, you can just say E 5 h instead of saying a long sentence. F 4 B functions in many ways, depending on the situation. Some people use E 3 6 as "hello"or "good-bye," S F Many words that begins with k can also be used without it. % i such n words simply adds smoothness and nuance of social refinement, without changing the meaning of the words. Example : g$ ERE 4.3
  138. RE9nh L@5 P r a c t i c ed*6M137<!("pb" fSL1 %E ZA. Change the following verbs into te-forms. @ Example: 36 + 37 1 . 2.h.j 3. LC 4. hL ( 5. ( b 6. $ 9 7. & : 8. Z 6 9 3 6 1 0 l l . ~ { 12. & b 13. L LI 1 3 15. 7 . 4 528. Lets sing a te-form song! (Battle Hymn of the Republic) @ J l * h3 $577 2 7 39-r YzJ Y9-C LC ;.Ah h i : L a LLT ha{ 75a~hT 1fL-C L + C k?bhT khfd u-verb k-form )2. $74 7 + : / T { v b * LT (repeat twice) jf L T u-verb te-formC. What will you say when you want someone to do the following things? Example: to speak slowly + @ 7 { J! 3 L 7 I l ta < f 3 3 Z. , 1. to calI you tomorrow 2. to write a letter 3. to open the window 4. to drink tea 5. to teach you kanji 6. to bring a drink 7. to wait for you 8. to come with YOU 9. to go to a hospital 10. to return your book 11. to bring a friend 12. to stand up
  139. D. What would you say in the following situations? Example: arr ?? h h? < f?3 ho Ex. (1)E. Pair Work-Make your own request, such as "Please stand up" and "Please take a picture," and ask your partner to act it out. Example: A : 3 - k - 2 0 T < 233 >, + B pretends to drink coffee.A. You are staying with a host family. Ask your host family for permission to do the following things. @ Example: Y K 5 - L l s $kK T % ~ , h ~ T - j - h ~ ,
  140. B. What would you say in the following situations? Make sentences with --T%t LITq;h. 1. You are in dass. You realize you need to go to the bathroom as soon as possible. 2. You are in class. You feel sick and want to return home. 3. You have forgotten to do the homework. You are sure you can bring it in tomorrow. 4. You want to ask your teacher something, but you cannot phrase it in Japanese. 5. You want to smoke in a coffee shop, and there is someone sitting nearby. 6. You are at a friends house, and suddenly remember that you need to make a phone call. 7. You have run into a celebrity. Conveniently, you have a camera with you. 8. You have arrived at a classroom. The air is stuffy. 9. You and your friend are in a dark room, and you feel somewhat uncomfortable.C. You are a strict parent. Tell your child not to do the following things using the cues in A. @ Example: ?bW??R& k + ~ i - L $k , % T E ~ t ~ ? ~ ~ A / . 2D. Tell the class what we can and cant do at school and at a host familys house. Example: %%?T 1% t 2 %7 T t;f fz I if 3 -@ bo d:~;? 9- $2 b 7 Y E I - (host M y ) 9 Gcr"$fi-k;RZb=A-z~ % t h b T T , %is 3 . 6 lit T@ as% ~ E ~ T , J - ~ - E E R ~ B $ B $3 mA. Look at the pictures below and combine the pictures using te-forms. @ Example: $d&i3 T , 6% tj ~-k-??&&aT, n Ex. +
  141. 6. Change the following into te-forms and make the rest of the sentences. Example: A? % + %&$T, h 3 i+ $ $ ~ ~ % A ~ ~ . LL;:X, k I. &f-:%m5 lit W=e{ I 3 2- =I % b=%4 h+* 3- %*2%9 & t & L r $i 4- &T:.% I=*$ 5. SB,% Gch% 6. AYt3T { Lf A i 4 . lit? Ersb:< I,@I";(EIu3bd0 ~ ~ h 3 % ! l $ ~ h ; b 6 0 a hh 1;A. Add reasons to the following sentences.- Example: ~ ~ Z E t 3 k 3 3 - P ~ 2 ~ X E = 3 k 3 3 . T O + %Bn7&%h3*&hxb. 0 W U h.X. 1. kSt33i%TL%2 2. &m&&GR2*h, WALni Pl%-X, 2 k 3. ; ~ ~ Q I L ; C F ~ = / G C ~ ~ & L 3 n -,j y y x - m a a L ~ Z , 4. ~ = I c-f 5. (name of a friend) fiA8 3 TT, f . ~ b -f
  142. B. Pair Work-Ask each other why you think the following. 3. Z*, (name of a movie) 2 R 3 To L ~ j l 3 . k 4. 3 c?) 9 (name of a restaurant) i c e 3 3 L t z l, t, 5. G*breth*h& 3 a *A,, &a). 6. ~ + i ; f : a + ~ 2 ~ ~ t ~ - t s r ; / , %I~C~X, f:KL>ri 13& Z 7. ~~, (name of a place) &I% 3 3 To &L>Llp3 II 8. I ; r % $ 2 Z ~ ~ a ? , L TXILc h*Pair Work-Propose to do the following things, using t Lb 9f1?
  143. @ $ &bJCDR# (Review Exercises) ;nhJL@3A. Role Play-Play the roles of A and B with your partner. Example: Example-A Example-B You are short of money and want You are going on a trip tomorrow. ( 1 1 ( 1 to borrow some money from your friend. 1 You dont have money to lend to your friend. 1-B You have a date tomorrow and You just bought a brand-new car want to borrow a car from your and dont want anyone to use it. friend. 2-A You Iost your Japanese textbook, You have a big test in Japanese but you need to study for a test and need your textbook to prepare tomorrow. for the test. 3-A 3-B You are asked to return your You asked your friend to return friends video today, but you for- your video today. You need it got to bring it. You want to return today because you want to watch it tomorrow. it together with another friend. I
  144. 4-B You are now in your friends You just baked a cake for your house. You see a cake that looks mothers birthday. Your friend is( very delicious. You love cakes. I in your house now. B. Answer the following questions. 1. -+Sol%,Qi: 2 L 3 t h x , CCvLlpi lni17 (~nswer with "% . T - "1 , 2. ?#@3,d : ( his J & L s L f z c , Z - C t r3 E (~nswerwith"~~.~.") 3. @g@TR2 b b a ~ 1 3 3 * h $ ~ ~ L L I ? Y X , 21: tT 4. g * a + T k l f z 2R7 7 % ~ ~ ~ ~ T - $ h X 0 f/yL+ t**. T 5. AFt=rn&%3-c33Tfix0 t;r8( i t 6. k { %* r t3kJ ! 2 ThL a 7. *a,%-3B2S$L3L k f i A o +?/dm+ C*(f;rl hf 8. FWM. r ~ - A P a v ti~;ps., L Y b r3 c a 9. 3 #L m er k ( S 6@ L L & + E L Lifi$%o , -b 7~; T ~ lo. EISB-r-k { *24% 3 2 " p h z Ll*/" l3.L il- 1. 1 L t; ?7-7fW-&2d-6+, r-t
  145. Usekr! Expressions 39TCW I I ;&I:#&% AS i k o straight) (turn right) (turn left) - 7 a a E %2% t-&7F% 0.z at, AS f LJLZi =-s,€i 2.t n QIB2&4:@;tr2& u: fl iibt~ 2 (turn right at the first signal) (turn left at the second corner) S~r)&@l S 3@ &t-l6b htj c k*d i b 1 kt; (cross the street) (left side of the street) (right side of the street)
  146. Directions 3k 3k (north) (west) (east) s M,= i-, (south)A : 364&*A/,ibb3-AI @f?%~bY=C.t-&*, rp Excuse me, where zs a gosf offie?B: 3 9T cfiq T, A Q H n QIB2&i=&&7 T I, Z +r ~r 2 ( f : 2 ~ , @jEG iAsa&i@l 9 2 -T1 t= 0 vpiLF/V3~:( A% kYQb Go straight and twm right at .the third comer. The post office is on the rzght side o f the strget.A : Z* j % ;Bj 9 hrtS 3 2 " 5 + k f To Thank you very much.
  147. * -Family Picturea$&CI)fE errr %@ Sue is showing a picture of her family to her roommate, Michiko.@ A phone rings in Sue and Michikos room.
  148. Michiko: Is this your family picture, Sue?Sue: Y s e.Michiko: Which is you?Sue: This. I was wearing gIassses when I was in high school.Michiko: You are cute.Sue: This is my father. He works for an American company.Michiko: H e i t l and handsome, Is this your elder sister? s a lSue: Yes. M y sister is married. She lives in Seoul now. She has one child. He i three years old. sMichiko: I see. Oh, there is a cat. But he is a little fat.Sue: Yes, because he eats a lot.Robert: Michiko, what are you doing now?Michiko: Im not doing anything especially. I am looking at Sues pictures.Robert: I see. I have an interesting video, so if you like, would you like to come to see it?Michiko: That sounds good. Is it all right if Sue comes with me?Robert: Of course.Michiko: Well come right now.
  149. (my) older sister apartment younger sister song younger brother man older brother older sister woman company family hair brothers and sisters country; place of origin car convenience store cafeteria; dining commons (my) father T-shirt eye glasses bright; smart; clever (conjugates like L 1L 1) great-looking (conjugates like l L ) cute tall short (stature) long fast short (length)* Words that appear in the dialogue
  150. a - a d j e c t i v e s th-@7(2Fb) %R# kind i-l(Q) E$l convenient to sing to put on (a hat) to get to know I know I do not know to live (-lzTATk3 TI to put on (items below your waist) to gain weight to be on the heavy side to put on (glasses) to put on (clothes above your waist) to work for (--czTz~~,L~) to lose weight to be thin to get married (-A d v e r b s a n d O t h e r E x p r e s s i o n s 65 but * 3 I= - $ I negative % not . . . anything --t=A --A [counter for * V Z 9 --A one person ;at= 9 ZA two people * + C l f negative 7 41 C = not . . . in particular * $CSA of course * dt;7!l57?:h if you like
  151. A v e ~ b d &-farm," when f&w& by the helping; verb lf k & TS, meam e i t h ~f the fallos- ~ing: (a) an action i progress, or n (b) a past event that is cmnectd with fhe presmt.Which of these two senses a given verb is used in is to a large extent determined by thesemantic characteristics of the verb. The verbs we have learned so far can be roughlydivided into three groups based on their semantics. (I) verbs that describe continuous states (2) verbs that describe actinities that last for some time (3) verbs that describe changes that are more or less instantaneousWe have not seen many Group 1verbs. So far we only have 2 % and I 18. The te-forms 3of these verbs are never used together with the helping verb I % , so we will have nothingto say about them in this section.Many verbs belong to Group 2. They include verbs such as $c< Q , % 2 and GFT. When f : 1 i, 3the te-form of a verb in this group is followed by the helping verb b l5,we have a sentencedescribing azz action i progress. n right now. Sue is studyi~g Tcalgeshi k readiw a book in EzgZzSh.You can also use a --T T sentence to describe what a person does by occupation.The first example below therefore has two interpretations: one, you are teaching Englishright at this moment; and two, you are an English language teacher (but are not necessar-ily in class right now).The distinction between 6 4 and aBj -3 that we learned i Lesson 4 does not apply to this helping verb n - ---IL 1 4 : you can use 7 ~~9both for living things and for inanimate objects.
  152. % 7 l I- ~ x I G ~ B ~ ~ ~ % % L T ~ ~ ~ - F ~ 1: M A z <,L3~3 Mary studies Japanese- /Maw is studying Japcame m . )Verbs in Group 3 describe changes from one state to another. If you get married, or W% It?:&T 4 , for example, your status changes from being single to being married. With theseverbs, 71 4 indicates a past occurrence of a change which has retained its significance 3until the present moment. In other words, T 1 .I& describes the result of a change. 4 Professor Yamashifa i s rnamkd. Mkhiko is seafed near the widow.Here are some more examples o verbs that are commonly used in the -- f f 6 frame-work. +$70& & X - ~ fit2 tz~< 3 , 4 L, e 9 T ~ e -~ - ~ ~ ~ $ * ~ (has) Sue has a k t of money. o 3 *-3cilL& P 3 Lt:+t/v+?t. s T~ t ~ ~ 3 ~ iL a0 x 3 z 2 ~ ~ L i t , Z (knows) Professor Yamashifa knows Engkhh. A& .;.r -+ A7-c~& .i. Z b L s h 1 i G a - 5 , r Jktl7 . c c ~ 3 - P 0 . (is overweight) T m is a little overweight. -p*% -+ T * T b G (is thin) M yomger Brother is very thin. yAmong the verbs we have learned so far, verbs such as $ 3 8 ,-5-r(, %&, F b , bh-8, &;?%If &, *&, ar, na,%.t, I+ nnz,191 1,~9 %, ~~f { z , g h - ~& , ~ . ~ B T s 9 4 6 , 24 *,- h < *?, , tte2.L .5z IAOG to Goup>. In most cases you can determine whether a v c b belongs to Group 2 or 3 by check& if the verb allows for a phrase describing duration, such as -%a. Compare, for example, % L s* r. - O Q ~ A S ~ ~C- % M 1 ~ % = % & L ~ a b,o o k f o ~ a o z h u r y e ~ f e r c l Q y . + I~mdZ X ML 2 .* L *-A, L r 4.&13& I&-3 ?Tt l a L k, (Ungrammatical,much as the English translation "I died for an hour" which is also odd.) ? i thus belongs to Group 2, and t- t Group 3. a31n Lesson 9, we will observe that this resalt of a chazzgg reading is actually not restricted to verbs in Group 3, but can be associated with those in Group 2 in certain contexts.4Note that the sentence does m mean Professor Yarnashita i getfiw married. i s
  153. sley o y dpOqatuos aqymsap o~:Les pin03 arro I I E ~Buo~ ~
  154. But i fact it would be far more natural in Japanese to say: n Tm hQs . m hair. ? g (=AS for T m ,he has limg hair.)This applies not only to discussions of the length of ones hair, but to descriptions of apersons physical attributes in general. - Perm A has a body part which is ...In idiomatic collocations, we also have: Sentences )In the last lesson, we discussed the use of verbal fe-rorms to join sentences. L 1- and2-adjectives and CSf after nouns also have te-forms, which can be used to combine twoelements to form longer sentences.The te-form of an L >-adjectiveis formed by substituting ( T for the final L 1. The k-formof a Q-adjectiveand a noun+ t T sequence is formed by adding T to the base or thenoun. ELI + S<T + +T P 7 irregular : LJLI &<7 &-adjectives: %(a] e tf/v + ZST whrs- noun + TT: B*ATT E EhGh 3 HsAT WluLh- IZ
  155. hij~a&-=*EA*{ T. $ W L L T * , r** f: to, tt The food a that res.fawant i s linmpmsiue & delicious. f ;liahl3~3$%%T, L 5 b T T o 7 L J If& $ & fun to be with. That person is always g~irernefic AT%%tdBT;PXT, n/ V+W& LC b ~ T - k a=ti~.r+ r ~ t ~ e ~ . e ~ & C ~Z Professor Y a m h z t a is a Japuness he is ahout forty years old. - verb stem iI Z f i - L. 1If a person m o m to mother glace in arder to do something, we can dem-ibe theirmovement and J purpose this way: h destination of movement ( ] ithe purpose of m : m n t [Z 1);: ! FThe purpose of movement can either be a noun Eke R t%? (shopping), or a phrase d. boconsisting of a verb, Its abject; and 511 forth, Verbs describing the purpose of a movementmust be in their stem fsnns. Stem, as we lezuned in Lessan 3, are the part you get byremoving 3 T from the verbs preserkt tense long forms. stems: 3x5 35 . ) p(ff) i6 z + etrn etc.The. "counter"for people is A, but "one person" md "two people" are irregular: --A I:& V Z )&d =A*" b* 1 .
  156. one person two people three people four people five people six people seven people eight people nine people ten peopleTo count people in a class, for example, you can add --Aaftex the noun and the particle I:&hr, and say: ~~4)?3~t~(ld)~fis.-~~h~3~Yh~-X~~&~ AtzL UX, dC{Qla VZ I There i s om Swedish studmt i our class. nThe place expressions are often followed by :4 1 instead of i: in this type of sentence. 3 lan/-b Expression Nofes(g) I Zr3) B& z.e a* means "to play," "to spend time pleasantly7"or "to pay a social call." F#Dtl$, k z Ilb ts < EE% kBU3 L f z e 26 abF When I was a child, 1 often pkcayed with f h d s . B < ST&LTtd;t~4jZ+?X/, SF ht Yozc must not play around until late. E ~ @ B % ~ ~ E S ~ Z BL f ~ Z G S t> 3 UL 1 wmt to Tokyo to have fan *At03 Lw3g.9 W*r;l 8F . h t weekend. bkL St I < 3 % ~ Z B V E S I F T 2 tl, ~ 3 Phase come and see us. Note that "to play" as used below requires different words. Sports: to play tennis F L X % = to play basketball r f X 9 Y 1 %?= . Games: to play video games T P FY- A @ = to play cards r 7 2 7 e s Music instruments: to play the guitar ?3 - 62%u
  157. S gnh ba3 P r a c t i c e@N%LTLI%~-~~A. Look at the pictures below and answer the questions. @ Example: Q : % ~ ] ) - 3 k ..t , A B $- I L ~ ~ T ~ ~ : L - * .-B. Pair Work-What were you doing at the foIlowing times yesterday? Be as specific as possible (where, with whom, and so on). Example: 2 F.TUI. A : tf%kf t"5fi 2 -. .. - - ,. ,- L Q!: T L 2 L t z hbO
  158. C. Class Activity-Lets play charades. The teacher gives a sentence card to each student. One of the students mimes the sentence. AII other students guess what the person is doing and raise their hands when they recognize the action. The person that gets the most points is the winner. Example: Rq 2 &if% T % ~ l$ rf-o 3 ~t t: Ti*. i R .%A@ &?te/v~tz % ~ T LhxZ ~ &5 A*~ A. This i Sues family. Answer the following questions. @ s Example: Q : ~ X 3 h t 3 ~ L I . ~ & X / T ~ 3 ~ h ~ , Li + A : j % X 3 k l A = x - ~ - ~ Z @ & TTo$ ~ L t i : % Father lives in N.Y. works for an American company 48 years old Mother high school teacher 45 years old Sister lives in Seoul works for a bank; married 27 years old Brother lives in London student; not married 18 years oldB. Pair Work-Ask about your partners family and fill in the blanks below.
  159. @) mmh/v[&B@TLbq (Describing People) EA. Look at the picture and answer the questions. @ Example: Q :9 3 Ilr~3h/E3~*T~&T75o i ? A : EW, ~ s L t a . i . * - r : ~ a ~ T, P* t:B. Look at the picture below and describe each person.C. Class Activity-One student describes another student without mentioning the name. The rest of the class guesses who the student is.
  160. A. Make sentences using two adjectives. @ L SXI - ~ - h ~ g ~ h, Z / L hh ~ ~ 3. j z t j Y = : : t. 4 . TI"-p - $ y $ % 7 a ../..* 3 ~ > LY c, A 2 <x. 5. $fi%$$ (Bullet Train) - .- L /f!?$11? L &75.A+fI, i" ? 1 6. 2-3& ~Z&~LL~/$XQQ - - &,+* LA+? 7. - $ A @ ~ a ) X X5Q/d:F+.hhQ WZL ( r- L- r !?A 5B. Looking back on your childhood, make sentences using the given cues. @ Example: my next-door neighbor - tall & kind 1. my town - quiet & nice 2. my teacher - big & scary 3. my house - old & not clean 4 . classes - long & not interesting 5 . my friends - kind & interesting 6. school - lively & fun 7. homework - difficult & tough 8. myself - small & cute Describe t h e following items using two or more adjectives. Example: my roommate + $LOIL-L%-~ hf:L Li:rT.6, (roommate) I I W T f ; % L h-QI $Lmlb-L% bf:t - b l3$X%TTTF, - 2 6 G=~TTo L /"it7 1. my hometown 2. my country 3. my Japanese class 4. one of my family members 5 . Japanese people 6- people of my country
  161. A. Sue is going to the following places to do the things below. Make sentences like the example. @ Exa - 75.,i= 3 (Kabuki) -% Fb & A 2RC=E -3 kI;t;g@i:hll:=3k Sri ZB. For what purpose would you go to the folIowing places?Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions. ExampIe: A : ~ Q l % ~ G = ~ ~ h h ~ # T A ~ ~ $ ~ i 5 ~ , -- 0 Q VY 2,Ll:L
  162. 2. ~ ~ ~ X ~ ~ ~ -,a ~ p - 5 ~ t~ At L -- o UX. fr~cr~. (nationality)A. Answer the following questions.6. Class Activity-Show a picture o your family to the class and describe it. f
  163. I 1. Someone 11. Own Family I I Elses Family A: Formal Situation B: Informal Situation Father & tX S L , : -i I I X .-, -> L &XSL ci 1 Mother I I I I Older brother G !=.. 3 h E X. hI : k;X,FtShi I;II I ! S@(;fi4k @ i3%3iL Older sister I r22 h rl f l. f Younger brother $$A xir % f;r+t: Younger sister *SX, ,,2+r a ,,.;if Husband 1 r"&x LnCA &A/* L*LL %<f (See below.) Wife g< @I" P,$ n,i.:5 3i *(See below.) Grandfather 1 $B x t .i. j%C~3,& Grandmother %t2&2,4, %tS&i,L + [I 1 Child 1 %?%A . I 1 ? J %a3 I *Depending on each person, several words are used for spouses, e.g+,for husband, T S L Q , i % a h , a n d f o r w i f e , 3 r B , 7 4 7 , h a 4 4 t L ,a n d s o o n . >? !: + 1 3 I1 A : B 1 ~ ~ ~ 0 f j X ? ~ l d H m 0 l dS ~ i o~ f ~ N 2 e y , M r .Tanaka? t: T h , Y 9 h ~ i y w a $&?rr I B :[formal] X i 2 5 Cbi,?4L T T o % I +& My father .is 50 years old Cinformall i X 3 A ii5+% TTo % t: i . ; I+-$LII Where does your older brother live, Mr. Tanaka? Note that you can use ;k;i-, 5 h and ;f;% 2 tt when you talk to your older brothers X, r . h and sisters, The younger brothers and sisters are called by their names. Younger brother: 6 .X,5 A, - I . Hi, B g Brother. i Older brother: FJ ? ik 5 5 , Q!: What is it, Taro?
  164. j p-<+7 - Barbecue@ At school.@ Robert is cooking at the barbecue.
  165. Michiko: Takahi, would you like to have a barbecue party tomorrow?Takeshi: Thats nice. Who will come?Michiko: Sue and Robert will come. I think Mary will come, too.Takeshi: How about Ken?Michiko: Ken said he had a part-time job.Takeshi: Too bad. Shall I bring something?Michiko: I think nothing is needed.Michiko: You are good (at cooking). Do you like cooking, Robert?Robert: Yes, I often cook at home.Michiko: Shall I help you with something?Robert: Well then, cut the tomatoes, please. * *Robert: Shall we start?Michiko: Dont drink yet. Mary said that she would come.M a n : Im sorry for being late.Everyone: Well then . . . Cheers!
  166. the day after tomorrow rain office worker camera karaoke air this morning this month job; work; occupation college student disco weather forecast place tomato summer something party barbecue chopsticks winter homestay; living with a local family every week next month skillful; good at . . . (w&~) clumsy; poor at . . . (-fir) famous it rains to wash to say .. . .* Words that appear in the dialogue
  167. to need (-dP) to be late (for . . . (-I.=) to think to cut to make to take (something) t6 U 6 R b to stare (at . . . ) %bfi6 to begin to drive (- T? to do laundry to cleanA d v e r b s a n d O t h e r E x p r e s s i a a s ?)?A uh-uh; no 5A-J uh-huh; yes* i3hA,12P~~ &fT Cheers! (a toast)* y&ibA, (Tph) B%(TTh) Thats too bad. +* 3 f5 negative not . . . yet* k&QT all (of the people) together
  168. Gf3h, I%5 r a m m a rIn this and the next lesson, we will learn a new paradigm of conjugation, which we wiIl 1call "short forms. Before we start worrying about their meaning and how they are used, "let us first see what they look like. It should be obvious why they are called short forms.We will list the already familiar "long forms" to the right in the table below. ---- b s e n t tense, affirmative short forms long forms 1 verbs: 1 L-adjectives: , &-adjectives: noun + Tg: Present tense, negative short forms long forms verbs: td-adjectives: noun + Tq:The following rules summarize how short forms are constructed. pp - I Verbs and I,-adjectives in the affirmative (a above) 3 same as their dictionary forms &-adjectives and noun + T q in the affirmative (b above) + I replace 77 with E + r$ I 1 L- and a-adjectives and noun + rrpace&~dtihiwiihfdli in the negative (d above) ---Various names have been given to this paradigm. They include "pIain forms," "informal forms," and "direct style." Long forms, on the other hand, are often called "polite forms," "formal foms," and "distaI style."
  169. As noted in Lesson 5, the adjective L > L is irregular. Its negative short form is k <3 ~ ~ .Verbs in the negative need to be analyzed in more detail, because 7%-, u-, and irregularverbs conjugate differently. Negative short forms o verbs (c above) f ru-verbs: Take the final 5 off and add at. 5 k 3 & a L l It U-verbs: Take the final -u off and add -anai. =< i i + sh a I ;i * L ? *a + IT%&L1 + 7< 3< 33 m s %&&L Rig: 5< % a& %hvLLI G3 * + ejr-,aL * V J ~ j lwd3zL1 + d d E&S1 L EaaL L 9 I&?JL? h %& & + FbaLI irregular verbs: gzj + LZXLI + z a ~ i exception: &.a + WrnWith verbs in the negative, the following three points are worth noting. (1)The negative short forms of verbs that end with the hiragalza ? are -- b td:I instead J 2 of --$Q~:L, f2) The vowel changes with the irregular verb < 4 . f3) The verb $J B in the negative is l .We now turn to discussion of how we utilize short forms. In this lesson, we will learn touse the short forms in the following four contexts: *In represented, or quoted, speech ("I think . . . ," "She said . . .") a I n casual conversations, as signs of intimacy In making negative requests ("Please dont . . .") (See 3 on p. 1 7 ) 5. A.2Thissuggests that the bases of verbs like R 3 and % i actually end with the consonant w. This conso- nant remains dormant when the base is [illowed by the vowel i, thus we have d 3 5t, where w is lacking, but it surfaces with the vowel a following, 3T A .b This mystery consonant also explains why *- the te-formof such a verb has the small 9, like verbs whose bases obviously end with a consonant, just such as Z 5 and 99.
  170. I n expressing ideas like "I like doing . . ." or "I am good at doing . . ." (See 4 below.)Quotations To quote a persons utterances or thoughts, you use a clause ending with apredicate in the short form, plus Z S 7 T L 1 L f: (They said ". . ."I, kf ,E! L I 3 T ((I think 2 ti,that . . ; ), and so forth. L is a quotation particle, which does the job of both the Englishword "that" in indirect quotation and of quotation marks (" ") in direct quotation. a 0 Z-$,Lli, & L7?%s6xh6 Z % ~ T L > ~ L lix. Lk, I Sue said that there would be an exam tomorrow. ($LIrit) ?:I? h?:L L 3 h i d % 7 ]I - s L h W I i e z ,< ~ ~-k4 i ; a 1 think Takeshi likes Mary.Casual conversations Two people who are close friends or family members speak withshort forms at the end of sentences, using them as a sign of intimacy. The use of longforms, in contrast, tends to imply the speakers intention to "keep a proper distance" fromthe listener. Short forms, then, are like talking on a first name basis, while long forms arelike using "Mr." and "Ms."It may not be easy to decide when it is appropriate to switch to short forms. First of alI,Japanese speakers are often very conscious of seniority. A years difference in age may inmany cases totally preclude the possibility of establishing a truly "equal" relationship.3Note that the present tense in Sues original utterance is preserved in Marys report.4To say that you &t f h i ~ ksomething is the case, it is more common in Japanese to say it like-$bl 2,E b1Z bt (I think that something is not the case) than-- l ,Fi1,125 + ? (I dont tksak). Therefore: : + h 3 .A (%L~)$~~)-SAI~)F;~?LPL;~P@~~;JP~~~~,B~~ST~ ft;&t think Mary likes ~ a k e s h (=l think Iw"a"ry doesnt like Takahi) f
  171. Second, license to use short forms is not mutual; senior partners may feel perfectlyjustified in using short forms while expecting their junior partners to continue addressingthem with long foms. Thus if somebody who is older, say, your Japanese languageprofessor, talks to you using short forms, they would be greatly surprised if you shouldreturn the favor.Here are a few observations on the grammar of short forms as they are used in casualconversations. .In the casual conversational use of short forms, question sentences do not end with the question particle but with rising intonation alone. + T h e I ending of 3-adjectives and noun CT constructions (b in the previous sec- ? tion) is usually dropped.In casual conversations, C d and 2 are often replaced by the less formal .j and-i i t L .To request that someone refrain from doing something, one can use a negative verbalshort form plus t { fF 3 I.. 2 z -c*F&$$&(, L l T LPLL Q Z < fZ3 L, l, PEeme dont take pictures here. negative short form + T <Tz"eL Please dmt ...Short forms are used in constructions where verhs and adjectives are to be treated asnouns. Thus M L t2--$s"3$ 3 TTf 3 b l-iI" T can, besides describing your preference for 8 *items denoted by nouns, such as $3, also describe your preference for activities, such as h lswimming, drinking coffee, and studying Japanese. Add to a verbal short form toexpress the idea of "doing x." (5%EA)3E2@%-P4- hii -.r @h45bbW-P, + - ? < I dont like clea~z.czrag y room. m
  172. "To be good/bad at doing something" is --9~~13--I-3 good a t . . . and -&zT+T? Uii f (is f : - 5(is bad a t . . . ). UY<.- 3 Li3++3Z!24+6 -- CTJ&L+TT~ Iri I 7 ( - L i i -f Robert is good at cooking meals. k C L 3 kla~z%%-if~1T4-I"To j . (2% -. r: 1 - Takeshi is not a good speaker o f English. like doing . . . doesnt like doing . . . person (a activity (verb) G l ) ~ i good at doing . . . s is pour at doing . . .It is a common mistake to use the te-form of a verb in such contexts, misled by theassociation between --S L~ b and the verb in the -ing form in English.Consider what n b $ tt l3iT,%h tcfi 3 3 t f= means. This sentence of course is about f- Z*f1 8,>Robert and describes what he did. It is likely to be uttered when the topic of Robert hasalready been breached. Grammatically speaking, (I) the noun ol{- I- stands as thesubject in relation to the verb 4 ( (he was the person who performed the going), and 7(2) the noun is, per the function of the particle id, presented as the topic of the sentence(us for Robert, he went to Okinawa).What if we both know that somebody went to Okinawa recently, and I know that it wasRobert, but you dont. I will say: ROBERT went to Okinawa.To describe ones skills or Iack thereof, we also often use a different set of expressions, namely, --h2Z { LxTT (is comfortable with . . . 1 and --71rzl:75.ilf P (is uncornfortabIe with . . . 1. 4 , hf:L * 5 z % , ,A% T { * T o I am good atlcmnfortable with speaking Japanese.
  173. This sentence means that Robert went to Okinawa, which in English would be utteredwith an extra emphasis on the name Robert. His identity is the new piece of informationprovided by this sentence. It is one of the functions of the particle 15." to (1) present thesubject of a sentence in a way such that (2) the noun will "fill in the blank on theinformation sheet. "The "blank on the information sheet" is a question word like f z h and FJ. The above Q [Zsentence will fill in the blank left out by: t?i#%754iPR 3 $37 2 L fz $, f;_i%$, Compare: X -$+%t tfi 3 3 L f z dao U6 3 Q h I Who went to Okinawa?As we learned in Lesson 2, a question word that is the subject of a sentence is neverfollowed by the particle lat, but always by the particle h2. As we have seen, a noun thatwill provide the answer to such a question is also followed by the particle h. Z * n Y 7 ; r h 4 S %LSLT*T~~)>,, Whkh class is (fhe most) interesti~g? S * ~ O ? ? X & ; ~ ; &L & L ~ * * o i: I X / L z Japanese class i. s ( 2 ~ , 7 - 3 ~ - C + ) i F ; ; f i h ~ & d ~ ~3 . - C ~-$-hh, 2hht k a Who wears glasses fin this class)? & T % % t ~ ~ & & ~ # a 3 To 2 ;t)*dfCC L rt 2 Lf:+&.ttt> Professor Yamashif does. a h: l and the word for "anything" in negative sentences isThe word for "something" is m;b-,Hz & *tlr "Some" and *anyMin: positive statements $iIhx something aE questions @fix a~ythiw? sl;: negative statements @% + l negative alL nof . . . anythiw
  174. These two words are used in places where the particles 13, 75<, and 2 are expected. Inthese contexts, they are used on their own, without the help of particles. We will learn inLesson 10 what to do in cases where particles other than these are expected. 2 k x %&2N$*87 3 3 L fzo I The cat has brought something. 4% tJ-Rba&<3 .: a Biz f; t7LZ?Po Did the cat eat anyfhing? LL&. %13m%+t^;:3*hTL.fto h all f: No, the cat did nof eat azythizg. -Fa b Most irregular verbs are compounds of nouns and the verb T8 . If you have learned an irregular verb, therefore, you have also learned a noun. verbs nouns %%3-& ex. E l & $ o ) ~ i 2 % L ~ l T % -A323 +"Sx-3 IZA. z : ( - A *s *a to study study Japanese language study is fun. NBT& 9k.j s HE! 9di 9 ex. o2f- E P t L O l ~ l 2 f i Lb3TTo d D b~ to cook cookilzg Roberts cooking is good. Some of these nouns can be used as the "object" of the verb 9.3. $L kiH$zaB%%L3 bPL tLfX.z- xAs~7- Lk,, I studied Jopanesa 4 Compare: $h i2EI&s%BBL$.t k o bf:L c IZAUF 4 " 3 ~ 3 TLt3LSA6&~BaBR% LT<, P Sic- ? tz Tukeshi cleaned his room. Compare: ? t? t 3 k t&3Ef:RR L t L t<, .-.P +5L
  175. /- r Short Forms :i~/A. Change the affirmatives into negatives. @ Example: h ( $lh ? LB. Change the affirmatives into negatives. @@ Informal SpeechA. Answer the following questions in informal speech, first in the affirmative, then in the negative. @ & . Example: Q : .k < @. 2 &* , % .. di r: 8? A : ?A, * - - G o / ? ?A, & G Q b ~ o t: f<
  176. B. Answer the following questions in informal speech, first in the affirmative, then in the negative. @ Example: Q : 3% ? ish- 3 A : 5 A, Z%,o/? A, Z F ~ J + % L ~ ~ 3 If& 5 If& zA. Make a guess about Mary, using --tBLlLf. $35 Example: good at Japanese 1. often cooks 2. drives a car 3 . doesnt smoke 4. listens to a Japanese language tape every day 5 . doesnt go home late at night 6. doesnt drink alcohol much 7. often goes to see movies 8. not married 9. likes Takeshi 10. busy 11. a good student 12. not tall 13. not scary 14. not quiet 15. not a freshmanB. Make a guess about the person or place below and answer the following questions.
  177. Picture A Picture BC. Make a guess about the following things, using --&EL%$. 8% I . the weather tomorrow 2. the next test 3. what your classmates will do tomorrow
  178. A. Report what the following people said, using - - t Zi = Z L t Lf;. @ L Example: % 7 ~ - / ~ f l l d 8 T & ~ ~ ~ T ~ o :,&If7 I .i f) + Q : %7"1--3htJBZZ-;,ril~3 t . 6 ~ ~ EX. ~ i> A : +aCd*rt L L Z ~ ~ - C L ~ LLI* :&It-? +7i: IIB. Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions. Take notes and report to the class later, using --&FTTLI% bt;.
  179. What would you say when you want someone ... Example: not to look at your photo + % ? ?? r, 3 { f? 3 L io I. not to speak English 2. not to calI you 3 . not to come to your house 4. not to go 5. not to smoke 6. not to sleep in class 7. not to forget 8. not to stare at you 9. not to start the class yet 10. not to be late 11. not to erase the blackboard yet < ( 2 I%A)A. Tell what Mary is good/poor at, using L~P 7 d or T q T t . l T t . Example: tennis (good) +, %~J--$~IAY=X~:~_~~+T-$, ci+ 7 swimming (poor) + % r 1 -3 hl;t*(aa7Sf7;+T-j-, 2 - 7 : 1. French (good) 2. video games (poor) 3. cooking (good) 4. making sushi (poor) 5. speaking Japanese (good) 6. taking pictures (good) 7. driving a car (good) 8. eating with chopsticks (good) 9. writing love letters (good) (77b9-)B. Pair Work-Ask if your partner likes to do the following activities. Example: studying 1. eating 2. sleeping 3. singing 4. doing shopping 5. playing sports 6. studying Japanese 7. doing cleaning 8. doing laundry 9. cooking 10. taking a bath 11. driving a car 12. washing a car * If you neither like it nor dislike it, you can use $f 3 T& 3 h i T% W 1 I *A.
  180. A. Use the table below and answer the questions. @ Example: Q : ffdL2~d XAT?6xo UX. Robert British is good at cooks often went to Okinawa doesnt like cooking last weekend cats Mary American is good at does not cook had a date last likes dogs skiing weekend Sue Korean is good at cooks went to Tokyo likes cats singing sometimes last weekend Takeshi Japanese is good at always eats at had a date last doesnt like swimming cafeteria weekend catsB. Pair Work-Use the table above and ask your partner questions with Ehtii.A. You went to a party but did nothing there. Make sentences using the cues. W Example: .f -7 4 - b e 3 L 1z 6. =3 i (eat) 1. ~ f - 7 4 -I=?f3 3 Lf.:hS, (drink) I r 2. fi 7;573-Y&& 3 L Ah.", (sing) 9 3- 7 - b W & & 9 3 tf:&.. (watch) 4 . fJ % 7 2%- T L L-fz7fii, (take) P ~ 5 . @ A /t,tz+~3 L ? Z & ~ (talk) 3 , A 6. 2 f - 7 4 --i=@3 3 t f z h 2 , (do)
  181. B. Answer the following questions. Example: Q : 3 j @RZE3 X/ 3 3 L 7i 15 . , I fX. 61: 7 ( A : 1 3 ~ 1 ,Z/pY.;r?-f (spaghetti) & @ 3 3 Lk, 7<A. Interview one of your dassmates about any future plans and report to the class.6 Pair Work/Group Work-You . are planning a party. Decide on the following points and fill in the chart.
  182. C. Class Activity-find someone who . . . I. likes to study Japanese 2 hates to do cleaning . 3. Iikes to sing 4. is poor at driving 5. whose mother is good at cookingD. Pair Work-A and B are making plans for a one-day trip with two other friends C and D. A knows Cs schedule and B knows Ds schedule. Play the roles of A and B. Discuss your own and your friends schedules using --&E=ZLSbfz, L and find out which days all four of you are available. Example: A : ~ * E l C ~ P ~ TTha, Uni6 < L:T B : Lc;Z, EL$@~c?T~ 3 -f, 12, Z+3 TT6*0 b- LO bl Unili%l:& A : $AGJ., b: fL FJt L 3 * k , T k , C ~ X , h & 9 2 W , I = f i { ZZ9-C 2: 4 1 k k k ~4Lk,Student A1 As schedule 16 23 17 24 C told A that he would . . . I8 25 19 26 study 20 27 quiz 21 28 party 22 29 part-time job 18th: go to see a movie 24th: meet friends1 26th: go to Osaka to have fun
  183. Student B1 Bs schedule 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 shopping work tennis 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 work D told B that she would . . . 19th: do a part-time job 27th: go to eat Japanese cuisine 28th: go to Kyoto to see temples
  184. b,3<*- Kabuki L -n& ~ D i a l o g u e a g @a Mary and Takeshi are talking.@ During intermission at a Kabuki theater.@ At a concession stand.
  185. Takeshi: Mary, do you like Kabuki?Mary: Kabuki? I dont know it well. But Robert said it was interesting.Takestti: I got two tickets for Kabuki, so would you like to ga to see it?Mary: Sure. When is it?Takeshi: On Thursday. From 12~00 16:OO. toMary: It was beautifuI.Takeshi: The people who appear are all men.Mary: Redly?Takeshi: Yes. BY the way, did you already eat lunch?Mary: No, I havent eaten it yet.Takeshi: Then, shall we go to buy it?Takeshi: Excuse me. Two box lunches, please.Vendor: Here they are.Takeshi: And then, one tea and one coffee.Vendor: That is 2,800 yen. Thank you very much.
  186. V o c u b u l a r y good child color boxed lunch spa; hot spring Kabuki; traditional Japanese theatrical art guitar g medicine %Pikk to take medicine concert 4-EZ near future 42 7 essay; composition $$$& exam #-%&$ Shinkansen; "BuIlet Train" ski %I last month .E W word; vocabuIary piano illness; sickness blue red black lonely white young mean-spirited to dance (somethind ends (-dc)* Words that appear in the dialogue
  187. / b=L?d Z & 6 XR1ScaBj Q to be popular l3~2& *$ 6 (something) begins (- BS) V( @< to play (a string instrument or piano) to get (from somebody) = (person t t h i w 2 ) to memorize (1)to appear; to attend (- ) : 4 (2) to exit (- 2 ) I r r e g u l a r V e r b s 5 h Z * j -33 Z%-f4 to do physical exercises 3 x/lx? 6 &?WZJ to take a walk A d v e r b s a n d O t h e r E x p r e s s i o n s * v&~C; from . .. * -tf-V 34F by all means * ZZ6-P by t h e way * &A3 all * %$ already N U m b e r S [used to count small items) * VY3 -9 one * ,i9it;7 z-3 two A77 27 three 1-37 m-3 four Lh 7 7 57 five k77 k7 six, 239 -k9 seven p39 rk 3 eight tL69-3 h7 nine Z S 3- ten
  188. a Past Tense Short FormsWe will now contirlue the discussion on short forms, which nre started in the last lesson.Here we will learn the past tense paradigm of short forms. ------ - - 1 Past tense, affirmative : + a compare with: 7 1 verbs: Lbadjectives: Jhfe kb pbh? d - fP;f3IlL I Td-adjectives: noun + TT: 1 Past tense, negative I verbs: ~bt6fP~f;~ %+;5tsL! I LI-adjectives: 2 h % t < Z X ~ ~ T7zb h;hlI< t6L I &-adjectives: % h ~ +d h b 7cb LF t %hGI;;ZKf6L LF noun +~ b : ~9l;-~tdh3t fi<ttLI F%Lrf&p 7Y<*LI I I-.--Kelow is a brief discussion on the formation of past tense short forms. ----- I -- Verbs in the affirmative (a above) 1 3 replace T / P in te-forms with k / f 2 1 I,-adjectives in the affirmative, and all categories in the negative (b above) + replace the final L with h3ft ! $-adjectives and noun + T b in the affirmative (c above) 3 replace f2 in the present tense short forms with 7?7fz L - . ------ _ IThe two irregularities that we noted earlier are observed here once again. They are:Short form predicates in the past tense can be used in the same way as the present tenseforms, which we discussed in Lesson 8.
  189. In represented, or quoted, speech X-3,&[3., * % a % & h s & 2 $ x i ? f b h f : Z s 9 T ~ 1 2 Lfzo Y:3 Y 3 6% Sug said that she wore (had worn) glasses i high school. a ($.Ed) b A 3 h d 5 9 3 f ; Z , % L ~ $ , ink T m did it. C f; In casual conversations RC*iAL,> *Sf< ? - 3 A. @x+=o If X. Have diHne/yef? ~ h - h z l hdid ~ ~ ,~Note that in Japanese the tense of the original utterance is preserved when it is reported.If you are reporting somebodys utterance in which the present tense is used, you mustalso use the present tense inside the quote. Thus, if your friend Sue said 4, E $W & % l r.9 Ir11X.Z -X,5$ L ril L 13 T, using the present tense, your report will be:$17 X - ~ A I & H ~ % ~ & % L ~L f~ o ~ ~ Y S ~ T ~ ~ ~ z b: HX, : - i X . t r i 15 Sue said that she was studying Japanese.The short forms of verbs can be used to qualify nouns, much like adjectives can. In the 2 13X. 1 +example below, the phrase & Z T 5 % A, h c 1 ((readinga book over there) is used as .a qualifier for the noun ?F &. +?L 1 & + tT$42%kT~G IIX. a [F&ta&%rx i ~ T , 3 *:( Y L . The studelet lwho i readkg a book over there1 is Michiko. sThe following table shows various forms of noun qualification. The phrases in the boxesqualify the noun f+ (person) to their right. Example 1 is a straightforward adjectival A Yexample. ~ x a r n ~2l contains a phrase describing a persons attribute (Lesson 7), example e3 has a verb in the short form (Lesson B), and example 4 has a 3-adjective, which isrelational (Lesson 5).2A quali£ying phrase l k this, which has a sentence-like structure of its own, is technically known as a ie "relative clause."
  190. u persun [who is interesting1 a persim lwho has long hair1 1 a p e m n who wears glassed a perso* I who likes cats 1 adjectives and verbs noun used as qualifiersHere are more examples of verbs used in descriptions of people. (Who id the persm taking pictures over there? People who do physical exmc&es mery day (are healthy.) (like) people who I do mt smoke. (A letter c a m fmm) a f r i e d who got married last year.Consider first the following pair of sentences in English. Zelda has lost her key. Zelda lost her key.These two sentences present the same fact, Zelda losing her key, in different ways. Thefirst "present perfect" example describes the event as something that is connected withthe present: hearing the sentence, one will understand that Zelda is still without her key.On the other hand, the second "simplte past" example describes the event as somethingthat is independent of the situation at the present moment; we do not know whetherZelda is still looking for her key or has later retrieved it.In Japanese, past tense forms do double duty on the affirmative end of polarity, but thepast tense and the T L 1 4 construction share the work on the negative end. Thus in the
  191. affirmative, the past tense is used both with words like 3 3 (disconnected from thepresent) and t i ("already," connected with the present). ?At33a,3%5%2 Ld- tk, and $L,ld%?j~&~&~?zo bt:L La<f:it hf:L Ln(t:r> I did the hamework yesterday. I have already done the homework.With the negative, the past is used to talk about a finished time period like 3 -5 , butT L 1 & is used if your intention is to talk about how things stand now ("not yet7). 3.At$3@.i%SSB2 3 - @ L T t k o t and $ L i d 3 f?@B% T ~ ~ ~ - + k h 0 L bt:~ ~s<f:r, +&I- ~ ~ ( f < r h 1 did not do fhe hmework yesterday. I have not done the homework yet, 3E-7313i2h have mt . . . yetThis use of -iI & 5 can be found both with verbs describing cha~ges and with verbsdescribing activities, as defined in Lesson 7. ~ - 3 h E 3 3$533 ccr~3*&0 (change) k i Sue has not woken UP yet. $2.12 3 t<& L*13A, ?i TL 3*Ao (activity) hf:L v& tz I haveat eatgn lunch y e tWe learned in Lesson 6 that ;Ira& added to a sentence means "because." q ~ i a ~ ~ r * t a ~ ~ e - ; . ~ *~t L i ~ . ~ f ~ ,T z T T ~ ~ ~ , ~- t t = M L Bjs * t I didnt have brhkfast. (Became) I was busy.In this lesson, we learn to incorporate the explanation clauses in the statements them-selves, rather than adding them as separate sentences. You can simply transpose the b"explanation+ 6% " sequence to the beginning of a sentence for which the explanation isoffered. = (situation), because (explanation). = (explanation), fherefore, (situation).
  192. &Lf=SR&pib6-hab, : L I A X L3ri L it& ~Alf+R%Bt3Td AM L beccame we will have an encam tomorrow. I will study this eve~ing, (= We w l have aft exam tmorrow, therefore, I will study this evming-) il 9S&h7khaL;, *haCf2+thTLfto ?t- T We didnt go out, because i was cold. t ( = I t was cold, therefore, 1 didgt go ouA)Note that the resulting order of elements resembles that of a "therefore" sentence moreclosely than that of a "because" cIause in English.Before the conjunction hS6 , you find both the long and short forms. Thus the 75% 1; clausesin the above examples can be rewritten as i L SRhP& 3 T h xi3 and Sh.9ft TTh- h L IiX. 9 2 t- h . The long form before 2~ b is more polite, and is frequently found in request andsuggestion sentences. &G:3a!a%d2;fj9 &T&lL;,-->$1:RC-$T3a L k 3 . 3- . i: x k i?L 1 Lets go to see Kabuki 1 have tickets.The long form before z k i3 is inappropriate when the entire sentence ends in a short fom, however. Thus it is inappropriate to say:X S ha7 f" TTh3I;, &hhlf237 k c $2 T
  193. ,$!#El P r a c t i c e h Lw5: 1 Short Forms Past A. Verbs (a) Change the following verbs into the past affirmatives. Example: 75 ( 4 haL ?= (b) Change the following verbs into the past negatives. Example: 5. ( -hihi%$7 ?.. 1. & & 2- T-c& 3 - Tt2 4. Itrhd? b (to throvi away) 3. 1 ( i 6. t d U 2 b 7 . 9 { & 8. *X/k ( T 6 9. i$lbq lo. ( a 11. ~ 1 5 12. $ A , Y ~~5 13. S i 3 2 6 14. 9 f z - j 15. h x k ? , $ 16. qif-;t; B. Adjectives and Nouns @ (a) Change t h e following into t h e past affirmatives. Example: 7"z -ha L 1 + ~ ~ P S ~ r 3 ~ 7 ~ ~ G?X,3 2 + -.f,L3f?3fz $<(*L -+ &*(*Lf;*<f<
  194. (b) Change the following into the past negatives.@ Informal SpeechA. Using the cues below, make questions about yesterday in informal speech. How do you answer those questions? @ Example: ?- t W & 3,b k + Q : 4@.jTLY2R?:? k. A :3 h, E7t=,/.j 9 A, R Q $ x qf z , k k 1. t0Y2&*8 f : 2. &*T& SA, (3 3. BS@T$i?% 9 & z L / " fZ/v 1 h- 4. ? G ? ? % E T & +-i r 5. i&TH=T6 I 9x3 6 . &??Gi:&? Y C A 7. S32%2& B11 f;X.Z 8. $%&I* b hf?li < 9. S%i:%%2rSx13$ d. F < T/L h 10, ~ 2 F ~ - Y - ~ f ~ ~ -2 *. 11. .7f $A % % b j .& 12. 2giy*bzfi< h+ Ir 13. %%T$ i/Lri 14. F47:ztTgb .Y G
  195. Make questions about childhood in informal speech. How do you answer those questions? @ Example: Z% Irk I + Q :T E a e . Zf R tE 7 i ? ?z :rt r ~ / c A : 5 XI, Z%t57 Ifd 5 t=,/-j A, X a U e Q h x 9f:, 5 IT& 3@Z%f2.ot=tE~ltd lfh d %%A. Make a guess about the childhoods of the people below. @ t Example: 2 %, T* ?z hso ITX. 3 + Q : L o3ACATiEa%, %%T t f ~ 6 ~ ur ;rt l f k 3 r3 A : IdLh, Z R I ? =Z4%Ll&To if/" 3 t~ ~st LL&, Z ~ ~ : Q & ~ ~ ~= ~Z 3 -3 U ? Z ,0 IT/" 3 i4 b (a) 7F > f l Z 3 L j T (about ~ a d o n n a )
  196. (b) E~*Z@%*~Z~LTyour Japanese teacher) I I z WhWL! (about6. Choose one classmate and guess what they were like as a child using the following characteristics.A. Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions about his/her childhood and report to the class using --&EgTLZLfi. 11 Example: L :ib Q L ? :B. What would these people say/have said? Make up your own quote for the following people. Example: 7 - 30 jf ( : s & +g C ? L f = z $ - ; , ~ ~ ~ L @ I 5
  197. Ex. 3a71t;lz%~Z*- ? / f 9 1 L - (1) 7~9"/> I I ~ F Z - ~ ~ X ) - (2) (4) @ 1[my] mother) 13 nA. Look at the picture below and answer the questions. Example: €El f: 35 3 7. + Q :E3+3hiiZ*QlAT?ha, fz of i. vr A : b&rib2$*l-f.lil~&hTT,L - - f - 2 % T ~ l ATT, f i ~bvz L5 4 rP Y
  198. B. Pair Work-One of you looks at picture A below and the other looks at picture B (p. 188). Ask each other questions and identify all the people in the picture. Example: k L5 A : $; L 2 3 h i d ~C?lh"i.~fi, Pr_- B :~ ~ ~ " ~ R T L G A T T , A z L Picture A Ask which of the people are the following: 1. f-zs -3 2. 3 k j L - 3. ~:-L$C+ 4. L . i rC. Class Activity-Descri be your classmates. The class is divided into two groups, A and 6.Each member of group A acts out something and freezes in the middle of doing so. Members of group B answer the teachers questions, using --TLl5APT. Take turns when finished. U& Example: Teacher : T 4 7 3 A, C i F~AT"p;tra, Dr Student : *$Z$ZLTi:LbATT, (32 jL:/< It r @A. Answer the following questions using bk--?ILbl2h. Example: Q :&j& YS X/ ?? &< 2 f: L ?=fia,
  199. B. Pair Work-Ask if your partner has done . . . yet. Example: 352 6 2 &< 4 +A, f: 1. H#Mk:*%n L 2. : i g t c X b t;h-%/, i i l l 3 . LvbY ?. (Lesson 10) ??% L -f-%% d 4. 75;: 3 -2R k c 8 ( A li 5. &W,b h (a name of newly released movie) 6. 5 3{ (a name of newly released CD) 7. & 7, +* v76 a (a name of current best-selling novel)A. Match up the phrases to make sense.
  200. B. Complete the foltowing sentences adding reasons. 1. &> b , %&75WL*&& "I 2 * A o Ak -I 2. hXL;. Et*%%%i% 1: (TX- z </,,3~ L T ~ : T o ~ L 3. sfixb, QA,CIP~ wL m 7~ 1 3 t~ x 3t 7 1 t ~ ~ ~ 5 ~ m i 3 c>+e d r 4. h S L ; , 3~3?FR21*&4.3 k o i r i L Q ~ T Zmgefr3cnag ;(zhrbwJ5A. Role Play-One of you is working at a fast-food restaurant. The other is a customer. Using Dialogue IU as a model, order some food and drinks from the menu below. Be sure to say how many you want.
  201. B. Answer the following questions. 2, T 9 - 2 % ( 9 h z k . f T - P h h , U c= 7 kJ 3 . %&c3h3*3Tj-r3>, %f -f 4. E!%@e, < S 2 f k A 2 3 - h ~ ~ 5 rl k 3 7 0, 5. ~9 t a w , { ?A IT 6. &q@S*El (birthday) I ~ f l & ~ & , L $ t k - h h , & 3 1 h& f=h.Lii d Qt: T:t-Ltzm$ Tt b b 3 t k 6 x 0 r* bt 7. +B. 9 ~ x r a + m = w t4 t ? z $ ~ , ~ + t : , % b $ha, 3 93 31 i &?LC 1iu Q/" r i ; 8. 1.P t T T Y ~ ~ ~ 9. f%a%. k < &Ti& z sv+3 f<h>, L r L rt he 10. zAQEa b k - T - W + 9 T b d T6ao tp, t , cX,r . Lllh. CTh. Lt r 11. + ~ o i $ ~ ~1 ~ s -w, ,ge 12. &3?=9ETIJ. Z % 2 X $ - Y ~ ~ J . % ~ ~ 9 3 - f * h o & { 1: IIX, 3
  202. Pair Work @ B. Example: k L2 I picture B . Ask which of the I people are the following:
  203. There are two kinds of words for colors. Group 1: LI-adjectives I X~J> <& black fi b i L r, white I h Q- 3 w 5 k h red yellow SLX &84 8g blue brown I 3 597) %+&1 These words become nouns without the r>. red bag I like red the best.I Group 2: nouns I * , 7* - 2 % 1) green % a3 %3 7 I3 & light blue 1 I kTr.6 F>7 pink ( %$/;/,b~.t-- ?kt& silver I There words need a in order to make noun phrases. =I - >B/7*1]>Ql-k-9- green sweater Here are some words related to colors. You look pale.. bhck a d white picture Mary hQs Blo& hair.
  204. &#&(n-f;z Vacation Plans "srs, * ifww Winter & Ft"r@ At a travel agency.
  205. Mary: It is getting cold.Takeshi: Yes. Mary, what will you do at winter break?Mary: I am planning to go to Korea or Taiwan, but I havent decided yet.Takeshi: Thats nice.Mary: Which do you think is better, Korea or Taiwan?Takeshi: Mm . . . I think it is warmer in Taiwan. But Sue said that the food was deTicious in Korea.Mary: I see. B the way, are you going somewhere, Takeshi? yTakeshi: I wont go anywhere, I dont have money, so I will stay here.Mary: Is that so? Then 1 1 buy some souvenir for you. 1Takeshi: Wow, thank you.M a y : Id like to reserve a plane ticket from Osaka to Seoul.Travel agent: When is it?Mary: December 19.Travel agent: We have a morning flight and an afternoon flight.Mary: A morning flight, please. Can I me a credit card?Travel agent: Yes.Mary: How long does it take to Seoul?Travel agent: About one hour.
  206. Nouns 2 3 3 fall LLP doctor 2.3 station g&5ifa%% ~3ch person face 3 429 season* ? k = s ~b73-F ;~ credit card ZZt this year ? b y & - soccer ./ ; * 7 shirt 4&bhX-3 life; living *$*L world bhx-c=) subway T"2 { 4 gloves r r+i3 barbers rs a spring J$>,!I pants VL9 beauty parlor* VXI flight 2,&I ship; boat +,4@5 baseball v p i #~tk celebrity* k*( reservation i k&P-=l ; 3 next semester 3 &2* apple Warm slow; late cool (weather-not used for thin& cold (thing/~eo~le) sleepy* Words that appear in the dialogue
  207. easy; simple t o take (amount of tirne/moneyl (no particle) to stay (at a hotel, etc.) (- 1 ); to become to pay to decideI r r e g u l a r V e r b ;izhL@iTB &ET6 to practiceA d v e r b s a n d O t h e r E x p r e s s i o n s & & f%T . . 9 ~ b - C on foot t%l%k --+I$ best or for . . . months in . . . time; after . . . these days for . . . weeks b y (means of transportation); with (a tool) how; by what means which which how much; how long . . . years (do something) early; fast
  208. In Japanese, adjectives have the same shape in noncumparative and comparative sen-tences; there is no alteration as i "great/greater." The idea of comparison is expressed nby adding something to the nouns that are compared. 1 A tDMjjbt B @ property), = A iS more @ r ~ e r M B. than IYou can ask for another persons opinion on two things in comparative terms. A t B t ~=?3~133~;hf k (pro~ert~), = Befween A and B, which i m r e s (property)? XCX Z e* Z Z9 3; 9C3 j V ~ L L F TT&a, ~ L ri Which zs cheaper, koing by) bm or (by) $rain? yrIn comparison among three or more items, the degree qualifier S; 1% k is used. [(class of items) a271 A tiiL18lbh (property). A i the most (property) [ a m g ( a class of items)]. s I ~ F ~ u Z 75 L -. 7~2 Z p ~ ~ ? - >3*n+T1~ : & ~ ~ ) ~ L ~ ; E % X / & $ ~ , L + ~ " S Z , S L ~ = 2 73. 3 : Cri 3 H& 3 -f+, Betwee% Pavarotti, Curreras, and Domingo, who do you think ZS the best si~ger?In red life, the phrases A 1% i h. and B I 1 often appear in the reverse order, making it very easy to be misled into believing the opposite of what is actually said. Dont rely on the word order, therefore, to decide which item is claimed to be superior. Listen carefully for the words n 3 3 4 and 1 1. CThere are several alternates for Z-9 t;@ 13 i . They are: ft;b C 5 , F 7 &, and f% 41. Any one of 3 these can be used in question sentences seeking comparisons between two items. Y 7 3; a d Z+T f3 e) (3 5 are slightly more colIoquia1 than rS; b and If% b mi3 =I .
  209. h I."J.RY.?.F hi~3;t%X/&-h.k+T~o if: U r i ?" Pavarotti is best, naturally.Note that the words 43 i and Y-;1% not used in statements of comparison among arethree or more items. Normal question words like fzh, Z*&, and a(- are used instead.When a noun follaws an adjective, and when it is clear what you are referring to, you canreplace the noun with the pronoun CT), one." You can use a to avoid repetition. (I $ . A . ~ & , ~ k ~ - k - 9 - - ~ $ + 9f b 3-f0 *bW%%-3 0 4T o (a=*-5-) hf;L < -5 C ha. - b I haw a bkack sweafer. I h ~ o e a 9 me, . d to. S L ~ F S ~ R W I a LTZ,~ - ~ - $- ~ a -~ ix t t ; , (@=%$I CE ~ a w &lq c* U L l ?F ," , c Lk I wmf to buy casa inexpmsiue dictionary, bgt there were no goad mes. LI-adjective 1+ noun + Ll-adjective 1 + &-ad jeclive %-adjectiveSimilarly, a noun following another noun can be reduced. Here, a sequence of the form"noun, cF) J I Q U ~ ~ wi1I be reduced to "noun, fl." You simply omit the second noun. t t-LtdX- 3 AahhtbA/TT&x, -3 ~ l t i i ,*&Lt2%T1) ha T- 90 1s this Sag3 &? No, that is Marysp. 7 % I J f i m 7 4 ~ 7 ~ ] - A a t &?H*4) 3j - k 3 SL~LL~TT, 4ZCflU Americm ice cream is more dekicioas fkaa Jupawse m.3The tendency is to use Y h when a list of items is presented, and to use IbJ when a group is referred to r* ,- collectively. Compare: 1A,z*Zsih*Az 3 { bLtTa+T. YhLJrGCdA333C?h4, =,+. -t Whkh do you like best, apples, tangeriaes, m cham-es? < f<% n + T FJifJz~~.fjt%X/%5TThho a . -r m a t fmiF";EoyoGiike best?
  210. 9$ 9 follows verbs in the present tense short forms to describe what a person is planningto do in the future- You can also use a verb in the negative plus 9 t 1 to describe whatyou me planning z o t to do, or what you do nof intend to do. verb (present, short) + 3% f: 9 @ i ~ t e n d do . . . ) to bGL L.+ja7 7 - ~ ~ (3t.1d)S$.t-k13 L ~ X I Z T - C - X ? ? - $ - &T-j-,% 1 z&md to play f m ~ i with Tqkeshi thik weekend s &-F*&t3& L k A T t = * Q ~ ~ . 33 TTQ S 9 2 Lf;++/t+r, %L,&*{ := Professor Yamushifadoes mt intmxd to come to schol tommow. & + Q W , t ~ f i ( 3 S 1T L k i - f Y , Xah" l 3 2 ~ ~ 7 f z 3 ~ f i;3 3 - @ k . T L i ? ~ , 1 . Ti) k I -IX: 2 LT We were plawna~ vbit a tempk, baf we diiht, became .the weather was no f good. toThe verb 3 5 means "to became," indicating a change. 3 8 f ~ l l a wnouns and both types sof adjectives. - - nouns: 9 3 SRHKZx5 fo become a company enaplqyee %L-PLG fplItrpClh- B*ZGF)&B&~%L %!I L f z o I: [EX, : 3 La, { 3 St86dyzyzng Japaaese h g u a g e is fan %ow (fbugh it was like fortare hefore). theWith L-adjectives,the final r is dropped and ( is added, as in their negative canjuga-tions. A common mistake is to expand the pattern of 3-adjectives and nouns and u s :twith -adjectives. It is wrong to say, for example, X @ $-L 11: Q 8. W. 3zWhen an adjective is used with ta 6 , a question axises whether the sentence describes anabsolute change (ex. "it has become warm, hence it is not cold any longern)or a relativechange (ex. "it has become warmer, but it is still cbld"). 3 6 sentences are ambiguous in
  211. isolation. If you want to make clear that you are talking in relative terms, you can use thepattern for comparison together with b & . Mary has become-befferi i - ~ a p a i k t h a ~ e before.In Lesson 8 we learned the Japanese expressions for "something"and "not . . . anything," 1: and r, 2,. As you must have noticed, these expressions are made up of the question4Ff2~- Itword for things, .*i: plus particles h* and S . Other expressions for "some" and "any" in PT,Japanese follow this pattern. Thus, something 3: 1 - someme fz+h$ - somewhere Y Z fi* - a not a z y t h i ~ g Q-:1 % xot aflymP: 7"Sh- L mf anywhere tl" LSAs we noted in Lesson 8, these words are used by themselves, where particles 43, $5 or2 would be expected. It is, then, interesting to observe how these expressions interactwith other particles, such as i:, 2,and C. These particles appear in the places shownwith underscores above. Let us look at some examples. LL;?_, rf~-~t7,4 T L T Z . - ~~L c Did you go a~ywhere? No, I didnt go anywhere. ~3&7Ft,&L 2 L iF= f i s o LL;~_, t:fit~$&t~3~LTLfr, - d R Did you see anybody? No, 1 d i d ~ see aaybody. f rnd. L 2 Lfz75%, LWL, a$t a*tt-cLI-=, 2* 1: gid you do artything? No, 1 didnt do anything.
  212. You can me the particle Zt with nouns that describe the means of transporktian and theinstruments you we. We eaf our meals with chopsticks. Let% talk i Japanese. n I went to the station by bus. I saw a m v i e on TV. ;f%&q%cfl@15f&g%Tfi******b We sometimes use t ZhJ 2 z uv 7 and tf E at the 5 end of a sentence when we want our partners to treat what we have just said as a given, common ground to buiId upon. These words often indicate the speakers intention to give her partner a chance to react and speak up. By relegating the right to speak to ones partner, they also contribute to the politeness of ones utterance. In the dialogue, the travel agent lays out the relevant information on the table; there are two flights, one leaving in the morning and another in the afternoon. 6s attached to her sentence indicates that she wants to build upon, and move forward with, these pieces of information. Instead of asking the obvious question, namely, r lij 6 aft1tlT?ds, the agent chooses not to finish her sentence, and lets her customer come forward with an answer immediately.
  213. !RE!nh Lm5 P r a c t i c eA. Look at the pictures below and answer the following questions. @ Example: Q : ~ ...$ Z I ~ X Z % ~ K I [ ~& rii+& ~ ~ T T h i o . -, , 7. - Z . : ? , A : @+o,t2 j$cr;xa 9 :&LTT, -. , .n L-: .- , .Il, Picture (a) (a) 1. $&$$$$!Y)GZ L L.+.x.+~.L b 9 1 2 3 2 l~r ~ S ~ l T - j - i ~ ~ ~ Z Z% a 2. $fi$qR,#l z %* z Z+%b a 1 2 9 & ~ s ~ T T $ ~ o LXd./V+?A, TALC 2 3. #fie>#$ Z Z*G i Pli3 5 & % $ ~ h T ? h ~ , ZY S Z , L/~$./~+L, rf 4. Z$ Z y C A Z Y h i Q I J ~ i &2T$~Ctha,, , T "L I 3 ? ,;a Picture (b) Picture (c)
  214. B. Pair Work-Make questions using the following cues and ask your partner. When you answer the questions, add reasons for your answers, if possible. Example: E/* 7 .;.* (% 3) T + A : Ez*? z * G ~ - , ( Q ~ I ~ ~ ) & ~ ~ ~ T T & ~ O 27 J.@ t 6 :E ~ c-hx(+k 9 )e3T"Po Ji.VP ~ ta.-i 2 ( o rkX % % S % 3 T $ , / $27 Z - & 3 ~ L ~ T T , ) 7 T.;,W S .;.rb A : r - 5 l/?-i?T6L~ I . 4 7 !zlH 3 z / %*?~<II? 1 El *$+39I : I (i3 ) 35 @~/%.5=i.#%? 0i3 ) ; . lP : i 3 E3*93/F4 I: 1ik (62 Y (Germany) <&? ( ~ k t l ) i%F/?5 a?- i 6.A 9 (7S~&f<x.) 3 3 7 r t 7 ~ + - 7r - / ; t y ; n-> (~E$LL) &fS ?.55rt*= i ~ 5 ? " / - s * F > - f (%&#+%) o.n I ; %/$AA : - (83 ) I T a;$;a+/%Qf=ama+ (gjt,.~) I1I3,L : . $f;S; a*a*i%/&Qfzama&i& (fA~ELo r % L k ) 1i 4+xd.7 :i -. 7:- 1: 7A. Look at the pictures on the previous page and answer the questions below. Example: Q :t Qd. T, Y.*#Ldf L & i y k;z+ ~ T T & ~ ~ $ A : *%&&?k% L&iJ-/L4&L, lTtL*~T-fO : F Picture (a)
  215. Picture (b) Picture (c)8. Answer the following questions. Example: ex%/% t: Lo -r 3 - 3 -+ Q : *<rna+T, fz to 25 7. rn7SS~% QiI la&% 3 T-P&, % A : $LhP~-f;Ea*X/%3T-$-, iC. Group Work-Make a group of three or four people. Ask each other questions and make as many superlative sentences as possible about the group. Example: t 2 * T,A 3 I~~L%LT+T, bd% B 3 X / h 2 W i 13k%+hP&bT-fo f:d. t: t5 * CS/L$i~Gl%kL ({ 9 7 ~ I t t & & - j - ~ +D. Class Activity-First form pairs and make comparative and superlative question sentences with your partner. (You should know the answers.) Then ask ques- tions to the class. The rest of the class answer the questions. Example: Y l.x L X . b Z Z*% b e)C3 5 ; s ~ & L - c " - $ - ; ~ ~ , -3. r ?& f;h. 3A ZAB3 Z% & @ I 3 9$s35~hT?hho f; B d . 9 3 f; a% h. 9 7 z a * T + a f : ~ $ ~ ~ ~ % i 2 A ~ T2L 9 * # ~T&~~ It- 13 h.h b @ % ~L ~ ~ + T F z - ~ ~ L ~ ~ ; E ~ ~ . I J ~ ~ L T $ < Q d.i, Qh. %il
  216. @ ZihJ2+h(nT6 ;hkLA. This is a refrigerator in a dormitory. Tell whose each thing is, using 10.@B. You are a customer. Look a the picture and tell which you want. t Example: Store attendant : Z*C b t --.hC~h~TThxo Customer : &~(n7 " P s ~ ~ &7 { @ % ~ h -3
  217. A. You are planning to do/not to do the following things next week. Tell what you will/will not do using -7%9723. @ Example: a@Eltt+@&d2-% Y) TTo lT?Ai LF 3 b. cf7L i. V EX.to read books (1) to practice the piano (2) to do exercises 7b$ El U: J i r 1 ? (3) to do laundry ft k i a t u; (4) to write letters to friends (5) not to go out (6) to eat dinner with friends (7) not to study Japanese - $ 7 (8) to stay at a friends (9) not to go home l r % l i UC (10) to clean a room (11) not to get up early
  218. B. Answer the following questions.@ h f i l ( ~ t a : 2 bk DA. Describe the following pictures. @ Example: 3$LL + L 3 3;kZ~t=a Lik, Ex. ~#LL
  219. 6. Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms.A. Look at each picture and explain how to get to and from one place to another. @ Example: i3 Th%Z$TB3 2 To 5 %&*bR&U rT&Le Ex.
  220. AwxA - 8 hours 1week , , L 8 . 8B. Use the same pictures and describe how long it takes. @ Example: j f ; $ b - %3R d Tl-37Sx&x97 , 5 r,m>;:A 3C. Explain how you get from your house to schooI. Example: ? % & x b F % RU~? hTi .b $ Z ~ T ~ $.A%?jadq 3T0 J&k2 5 - -L IL Z?-o 1 .;-AA. The chart below shows winter vacation plans for Mary and her friends. First, answer the following questions about Marys plan. Mary will go to Korea by plane 3 weeks will stay at will do shopping and with Sue Sues house eat Korean foods Robert will go back to by plane 2 weeks will meet friends London Ken will go to Tokyo by bullet 3 days will stay at will play at with a friend train a hotel Tokyo Disneyland by boat 2 months doesnt know will take pictures with pengui~ls(4 T 2) Takeshi will go nowhere
  221. How about t h e others plans? Make pairs and ask questions.6. Pair Work-Talk about your plans f r the upcoming vacation. oC. Role Play-One of you works for a travel agency and the other is a customer. Using Dialogue I[ as a model, make reservations for the following tickets. (1) From Nagoya to Los Angeles Jan. 1 1 person smoking seat ( ) From Tokyo to Paris 2 Feb. 14 1person window seat --- (3) From Osaka to Rome Apr. 18 2 persons aisle seats (4) From Tokyo to Bangkok Aug. 20 4 persons nonsmoking seats smoking seat = *@% aisle seat = SSBJ f 7*/"+!5 9 3 5 d:h *3 window seat = %$@3 nonsmoking seat = %%% 1Ydih +k3 3/y%/ylt?i
  222. 5R TIilz3A-t t h e S t a t i o n Types of Trains +Fa 1 9 . i local 9e 3 t.s h ? C i express R& z-kpi super express Destination -fi 3 I bound for ... -3Z3 b serving . . . areas If? & Types of Tickets and Seats %$% C r i L T-LIX. (boarding) ticket coupons b-t > T !+A, = J commuters pass T t > 3 I?/y %3X% 9 tfX, +kc> vouchers; zone tickets M! &:( h7 student discount #g53% L - r l b i t reserved seat El @ i * f U &% general admission seat %@* ?/viL.Cc nonsmoking car %%a s < 5 A, round trip J?S 9.fi-t tj one way Places in Stations n4E~@ track number . . . *m exit ra~+x T ti5 % % % q % if 3 7 i 1 : ticket vending area AnC% s1r) entrance- W L 21.t-37 gate k$& ?!!A,b stairs &--A platform C%X/%- first car; front end 3i 3% kiosk t 3;tf ,4,,qE5 -last car; tail end lfii& iC
  223. Miscellaneous Public Transportation TermsS9&2 06. transferRlJ- next (stop), . . .clp%% departing first*X.lI7:2 k%L ti7 departing second@* zL =Lm7T-Xr last trainAnnouncements3 % Q < %1i3 LL 3 - $ *C We will be leaving soon.%WzS TT&L+ dl 3 I A train is arriving.;kid-- I=& z 2 3 3 3-73 -- * Next (well stop at) . .. In - r 7 S f )I woL;X,B { E ~ L - m L 7* - tXpi ,I The doors are closing. Please be careful.Useful Expressionst c3 %* la&%& I= Jk3 9 TX/L.r A i A l f h L a T7F, Does this train stop at Akihabara?sEtmeT-j-dxoLsiTL QL U What time is the last train?z ;3ri 2 T(Q%zJi$8j *g* @ k ?? - - L 4r>+&3 r > % hd- t3 $.-One reserved ticket to Tokyo, please.Fs!l;trr.5rFr 3 -j-a"{ h O 7h. 2 75., Can I get a student discount? Which one is the t7ai.n bound for Kamkura?
  224. { & & After the Vacation *a&rr,mi L , a D i a l o g u eMichiko and Mary meet after the vacation.
  225. Michiko: Mary, I havent seen you for a long time. How was your vacation?Mary: It was really f n I went shopping, ate Korean dishes, and things like that in Korea. u.Michiko: Sounds good. I want to travel, too.Mary: Did you have a fun vacation, Michiko?Michiko: It was okay. I went for a drive just for one day, but I was working part-time every day.Maw: Michiko, I want to introduce you to a friend of mine. This is John. He came to Japan Iast month.John: How do you do?Michiko: How do you do? Nice to meet you.Michiko: John, where are you from?John: I am from Cairns, Australia.Michiko: Is that so.John: Have you been to Cairns?Michiko: No, I havent.John: It has mountains and the ocean and is a beautiful place. Its famous for the Great Barrier Reef. Where are you from, Michiko?Michiko: I am from Nagano. Please come to visit me sometime. The food is good, too.John: By all means, I would love to.
  226. Australia gz? snack; sweets %&El Mew Years % c3-3- boy toy ftQ1-T girl 9b@ foreign country Fk F* singer camp this person (polite) this semester president o a company f class future drive beer art museum host farniIy lake mountain dream roommate to tell a lie to become hungry to own (a pet) to cut dasses to take (a class); to get (a grade) to learn toclimb bket-) to work* Words that appear in the dialogue
  227. to get tired to quitI r r e g u l a r V e r b s ~ S L Wa to have a fight; to quarrel* t 1 j 21~~1-p & to introduce herson I: p e r m & ) to go on a diet t o be late (for an appointment) to study abroad (place 11)A d v e r b s a n d O f h e r E x p r e s s i o n s &z $5 after (an event) (eomt a)* L@9LX, *% - coming from (place Ql)* .fz"{ vew ;iLQ and then* -?St+ just . . . ; only . . . --TA . . . points* V 3 tli:3 it has been a long time* 3253% okay; so-so % 7 Y more
  228. You can use a verb stem (the verb form that goes before 3 + ; b f : to cl-9 describe yourhope or aspiration. +Eas*b2, && -2f t f i b T - j f , or &BIh2EJi c.C"T, $: & - . C Z/Y L~pj3-3 j r r b: I*- i % x I want to see a film thzs weekend. L-=>rS+rn t c B 3 k LTTo be?:< 1 want to go to Chim someday. verb stem &cr>Atc&a i 4 ~ ( ~ 35 VK +fiLT$ & &*XI, I dont want to see that person azy more. a + - ~ -*- v ~ ~ ~ ) t ; ~ ~ ~ f L ~ z+, ~ , ye>+- t~ci=$3 ~ , 1 want to d o . . . I went to a department store, because 1 wanfed to buy a sweater.you can use t = b Z , g - = , T ~ 2 - i f2 LT? L; b L I ifAs you can see in the first example above, having L attached to a verb slightly affectsthe composition of the sentence. A verb that takes the particle & can have either theparticle 2 or 5 when it is followed by ? t l. Particles other than Q remain the same. .negative and past tense t A : sentences. :The combination of a verb and f L conjugates as an b-adjective. Here are examples ofIf your wish is one you have entertained for some time, that is, if you "have wanted to," instead of fz=TT. sentences are not usually used to describe wishes held by others. Somebody elseswishes are usually reported in Japanese either as quotations, observations, or guesses. T oquote somebody, saying that she wants to do something, you can use Z Z-;,T 5 L f= * Lwith 1 L. " : %7J -3htd L-tz, b4 Pitfiitz~lZZ9T~h3 II L I Mary said she wamted to go to the bathrom.
  229. To describe your observation to the effect that somebody wants to do something, you .must use a special verb f= 6% T -i:~ B instead of f; I If a verb takes the particle & , thederived verb f: P7 T C:L & will retain the 2,unlike , with which we had. a choicebetween the particles 75< and & . $ 7 1 --3h/~33-t-~R&f-z157T~~aT, rr) (It seem) M a u waxh to drink coiXe@-The verb I?= V-7-I L S , which comes from the dictionary fonn i3< 6 , indicates "I thinkthat she wants to, because of the way she is behaving." We will have more to say aboutthis type of sentence in Lesson 14. 1 want to . . . /Doyou w ~ n to t . . .. ? They want t o . . . verb stem + f=LlTT verb stem +TC ~ ~ T T L ~ ~ f=tconjugates as an t-adjective fchl& conjugates as an u-verb % = fix or Z onlyYou already know that you can connect two daum with the te-formof predicates, as in: kRTFkl%% gh?d.ri. 60 LX. % E R7s T 2 & ~ 3 T o +,4,:<71i C h Osaka, 1 will do s m e shopping a d eat Korea% food. zThis sentence, however, tends to suggest that shopping and dining are the only activitiesyou plan to perform in Osaka. If you want to avoid such implications and want tomention activities or events just as exemplars, thus leaving room for other things whichare left unsaid, you can use a special predicate form - 2 3 -15 3 -if 4 . A P Z T R L *t~k q , s ~ a ~ 3 3 2 + t q ; t 3 T , L ~ * tO SJ%?fJ. S./Y: ( 9 2 3 1 fz In Osaka, 1 will do szcch fhz~gsus shopping a d eating Korealz dkhes. 1 (activity A) ft 9 (activity 8)k do such things as A and B ITo get the f: 3 form of a predicate, you just add 9 to the past tense sho?t form of apredicate. (Thus we have L t= for the verb rf- 6 , whose past tense is t and &x.f= 9 , 9for $€%6 , past tense h-tk.) Note that the helping verb -5. .3 at the end of the Lktentence t: : iindicates the tense of the sentence. You can change a --f= 9 --f: 1 T 4 sentence into the
  230. past tense, or incorporate it in a bigger sentence, by working on the helping verb part. sssa. & ~ ~ t = t~l , ~ ~ Y t3 L E , ~ S L = ~ Lq3 2 9 <L>li rt :1 d I sfudied a d talked wzth my fnmds, among other things, ooer the weekelad. G-z~tz, 9 +%&M~hf7t 3 T6@h2S3TT0 fir C;LA:( 3. -f I like danckg, Zisteni?rg to music, and so forth.The past tense short form of a verb + t Z 5& & describes that you did something, orsomething happened, in earlier times. - E&L, ?T~kLZ&~dk,33-j-~ Ir Have you m e r been to Europe? Yes, I haue. t S A /LnSii ~ c7 ~ Z ~ ~ ~9 1aktt, E + X / ~ Z Takgshd has never been abswt from classes (in his life). verb (past, short) + Z&&t&& bane the experience o f ...9connects two nouns, as dues Z . 9 suggests that the things referred to are proposed as <examples, and that you are not citing an exhaustive list.
  231. M in negative sentences) In negative sentences, you often find theparticle t$ where you expect 752 or %. Observe the reply sentences in thefollowing dialogues: Q + P L f i t l ~ % r . i 7 t GR 3 T o DOyoit watch TK Prof: Yamashitla? T + A : LltlL, 7 v k + t ~ H 3 - e A o No, I dont. -A Q : ~ - t - f i ~ B & f ? ~ ~ T T 7Do~ ~ want to have a cup o f coffee? 3 you < 03 A : b l b l 2 , x-t--t$E&4.7~ & 9 &*Ao No, I dont. - m8 and fir, respectiveIy, would not be ungrammatical in the above examples.Many Japanese speakers, however, find the tk versions more natural. The rule of thumb is that negative Japanese sentences tend to contain atleast one tA phrase. If you add $Lik to the sentences above, therefore, the httneed for is already fulfilled, and Japanese speakers feel much less 3EZTi$SLk < & 9 3 @ L o ir. Z lbta I dont want to speak in English. EL f c, f E 2 L5 9 5L o 1 have never been to Hiroshima.e(fb You can add E t r f to numbers to talk about having just that manyitems. E tf implies that you have something up to the amount needed, butnot more than that. $Li2*9Atz-!ElI-2tf23fzZ b2L 3 k Si ~r,abr,- )5755:&3 23, I have met that person just once.f2 tf suggests that you can live with that few, though the number admittedlycould have been higher. We wiII learn another word in Lesson 14, namely,L75>, which means "only" in the sense that you do.not have enough of.fLb You can use the particle tL to indicate the occasion on which you dosomething. @zst&kgY5 2 IdX Ye$E42 I ate salad at dinner.tz can also indicate the role you want something to play. &&+t?+t~&3iZS%Et>& I bought a postcard gs a sozlvsnir. i IZ lss 3 . fi. tk,
  232. 3 ) F .7 4 7 is used when you go somewhere by car for pleasure. To say "to have a drive" or "to go for a drive," use F 7 4 Y t Z f5i < or F 9 4 7 r 3-&* i a a - r w w 7 f i m g ~Z/I."Y,WLB aT% * L tfz0 I went fur a drive to the kake. When you simply want to say "to drive a car" (not necessarily for pleasure), use B$Gf 5 instead. 3,..T/b HM$ T @ ~ S % L ? Zz k&%9 & T A h o E A 3LTL Have you ever driuen a car i~ Japan? =b S , like the English word "dream,"has two meanings. One is the dream 9 w you have while sleeping; the others the dream that you wish would come true. To say "I have a dream," in Japanese, you use the verb W 8 for & sleeping dreams, and l$F 9 T L1& or h .5 for your visions. WJ~Z~~.GFB!Z~! LLz. I had a scary dream Iest night. ~ W % 7 7 b r ? ~ ? @ r l r & 9 &To I have a dream- An b a f z c n ~ ~ c n l s ~ . i %7~a~ ~ ~ ~ L.€i4b. @Q tc& ~ t is your future dream? t EfabThe particle h i often follows the particle: 4 in sentences describing a place in terms of the things that are found there. Bs29-ss I Z ~ & A ~ ~ ~ ~S~ & 9- &ToV . . < 53 B L~ ~& There are lots o f big departmsnt stores & Tokyo. %a,%~tsh~rf.t~t~B$=q,%*&~t~&f,. i-YkL etlN- E anA? +=A+&> We have a good Japanese feather & my college. These sentences would be okay without iA, but there is a subtle difference between the versions with and without I&. The d sentences are about the ir places; they answer questions (either explicitly asked, or implicit) like "What is Tokyo like?" The sentences without b& after E , an the other hand, are answers to a question like "Where do you find good teachers of Japanese?? See the grammar note discussing the difference between 21s and ki in Lesson 8. In the case of the particle E,the contrast is between the simple 4 and the combination iz 43. (See also the grammar note on counting people Z in Lesson 7.)I
  233. k j f i L@5;fzh # P r a c t i c e IcA. Change the following phrases into --f;l sentences. Example: >I <- ~- &< 6 2 ( i a ~ k ) + 7h ~ ~ i ,TTo- ~ - ~ ( 2 ) -. ~>~<-fl-&:&<f= { $j9 $ + - A oB. Pair Work-Ask if your partner wants to do the things above. When you answer, give reasons as in the example.C. Change the following phrases into --kt+ sentences in the past tense. @ Example:
  234. D. Pair Work-Ask if your partner wanted to do the things above during their childhood.E. Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions and report the answers as in t h e example. Example: A : i7h$X,dAN13z&xf=~T?y5x, tac fz B : k0tf-*$&<fZ~~-fO f: A : i f ~ / 3 ~ / i a k ~ : o & ~ e <-f = ~ a z Cg ~ il~ L ~ . f: Ih A ijX,;X/l2tz"~*&&^=i%%$7 ~ - $ - , TL t: I. & z * i 2 h b : @ $ ~ * < f = ~ ~ T $ $ ~ ~ u.6 t*tI t: 2. f i h 2 ~ %d t hE~~?=~~$~~ 241 3. Additional V o c a b u l a w H 9 (Occupations) M si5 (*%I 3 921% writer Y J ~ - ? - ~ ] Zb journalist l-f S 9&+XI L (%ST) police officer L @ (Z*> - ; a housewife td~@?~ (#HZ) actor/actress L*kLg? (*@I actress 75* A ZL. (SS*) nurse L 1 9 t a i L (iiP$*) firefighter <AZ"L ($FZ&) lawyer 93 @ @ ( 3 baseball player 5 91 (9&%%) president of a country
  235. F. Complete the following sentences. 6. 1. + B l a r . ~ . x % f < h ~ i :- / > ?= TT~ 2. % t f z t 2 * 5 t : $ + J , +T t. T-j-, L 3. &if/Lf-~ ha6 , $39 2*ho 7h. 4. l 3 + 2 L I d ~ ~ C b & T ~ & ->%I: %, t=<&92*tLo f: Uh. t l>? * 5 a Z 5 - i Z? , t72 t bb7 7". TT, :@ERbt=3.%Zbftr3I/ZT 5 3 L; @AJ f-,<A. Tell what the following people did on the weekend using --k @ 9-fz 995. Example: 9 3 y : saw temples in Kyoto, went to a museum, etc. f L: 1. ?z G went camping, went for a drive, etc. 2. 3 a 3 Z : made sweets, read books at home, etc. 3. X - : went to Osaka to have fun, went to eat, etc. 4. HA: cleaned his room, did laundry, etc. 5 . n If- : met friends, watched videos, etc. b 6. P b LI:PX+?lhk went to a hot spring, rested, etc. L T !: L%B. Look at the pictures and make your own sentences using --7"!J--fr r3F5.
  236. C. Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions. When you answer, use --tz!ZI--tzg$6 as in the example. Example: A : EI*TfT% L t ~ ~ 1 T - j - h ~ ~ i r ~ i h , 2:: B : a +Ql%SF ~f%~t. 1. f 1: 13/,, 1. L : : .. r , 5 (Mt. Fuji) mia if 1 Lf z ~ h t t ,A. The following are what John has or hasnt done. Make the sentences using -z ty . j p j hasJ. Example: 0 eat tempura + X;: b ?i fk<f: < X. 7: 3 3$ , .L Z &a&, x goto~~kyo + ~ g t : f i ~ f = ~ t ~ ~ ; f i ~ a - w ~ , - i I, V + % . 1. 0 eat sushi 2. C study French 3. 0 work at a restaurant 4. x go to Hiroshima 5- x write love letters 6. C sleep in class 7 . 0 climb Mt. Fuji 8. x drive a car in Japan 9. x see Japanese movies6. Pair Work-Make questions using --Z&hxS5 and ask your partner. Example: H$-Ql%$B??&c 1: i3A 3 *+ @ A : a+a%ra2Rhfzrrh~Ek,9aTh~, :: !:A 5 0 B : Cab, $ 9 5 # T o
  237. Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions. When you answer, use -+-as in the example. Example: A : rX/QsB*Hm??k { IiX.9~i 1- J f Z ~ ~ ~ d x o f: B : - j - L ~h-x ~ i : b ?u%<3T0 i ?l f: 1- z * & ~ x $ - Y 1 { B& T k -2 A 2- r+,4,5333$*2*33$ a o T-$- -F 3. Z+tLd*~~FCL Iri 7 < fi 9 a Th*o < -3 4. &Qf:aAFa&nI"GcG3. z*XIQ*-;l*;J2& 3 a-po 9 f : Li<Ti f C0 5. & t a t z @ A ~ t ~ G AY Z O EI- E lZ~i hCfLi3 -j-&.o f:rxBr( , < rl 6. Y b Q &cfi-=l?= 2 Z $$I 3 3 Ti$>, 2 TT-h, ?f +, i { i 7. r " m g s g R 9 c i : ~ ~ar 5 . , L t r * r: 8. 1$F13$ (actors) @+T, ?<kl.~%3 h o T T -f *+ +T, I i ~ r @ i kh. 9. G3 f2-;kl.6f* 3 T - f d a 0 d- Ln 3
  238. A. Talk about your dream for the future or what it was when you were a child. 1. &at~mpklmT~d~~ rph Example: h$Lid#&,r %&%GtzQ f;L C i i i IS.& f 9 ? L L ~ T T~ - ~ L ~ & L , & Q E I : ~ ~ . LT, (!: i. f;.b Tj-,B. Class Activity-Find someone who . . . I. has seen celebrities 2. has never used chopsticks 3. wants to live in Japan in the fut~lre 4. wanted to be a star ( 29 -) as a child 5. wants to cut classes tarnorrow 6. doesnt want to go out todayC. Class Activity-Bring pictures of your hometown and describe it. Example: 3 Z i t & rpihr, 3&4$3@9 { 3 LTLm3d./, f : [f (theater) Ql@j*% $& 9 3 $o 1 { ~ Z L - ~ ; ~ J I L $ X2HT%k%Lk!J I-2 L : ~ " Z ~ !T, k f. :ii& E+kA b z J @ 7,r L a ~ r id..? ~ &fii.% 1 : 4 + ~ i f = ~ ~ T T , A
  239. I l n t h e J a ~ a n e s e l a s s C II Useful Expressions YG6 T% Both are fine. ElCTT, 6V Same thing. f : ~ ~ f = ~ q q j y - More or less the same ~ ~ &k &l 7 Ygk2To A little different. 3 h; $224 * A , 1111. Cant use it. ~ G& 1 T L~ 3 To 3 4 S~ Its wrong. - 3-% 513"T < ft"%, 7 2 Raise your hand. ( 7: b h o "3 Read it before coming to class. I L*<f;L> E L T { ?53bi0 Hand in the homework. & e ++ 2 H C T 315 6. L e Z <f5Sh0 Close the textbook. Z Q ~ O A ~ Z W L ~ T < ~ ; ~ L ~ ,the person sitting next to you. Ask VY 4 9tbf < ?<??L, The time is up. Please stop. +El ldZ-h-?.#%b Y) 51 =I f; ATo Thats it for today. Useful Vocabulary %% , L t fz-1. homework < T~I~?=EL~Z- colloquial expression n.f: L&3 1 deadline $at; bookish expression~ r b &tz RF k X b 1 exercise T L ;2a L s Q $L 3 -polite expression &% meaning sg dialect1 k [ X i If& pronunciation Gq3 iYr7UtpL Z standard Japanese k Z 2 i2 . for example question t36.E~ anything else 8 33 answer -%licv number ... #!I example -<- - V " page number . . . hrI 75.7 s ( -%T k i *I line number . .. 3& 0 (correct) L.f: I two people each
  240. 3% x , Feeling Ill l@ Mary and Michiko are@ At a hospital.
  241. Michiko: You dont look well, Mary.Mary: Urn . . . I have a little stomachache.Michiko: Whats the matter?Mary: I went out to have dinner with my friend yesterday. I think maybe I ate too much.Michiko: Are you all right?Mary: Yes. Dont worry about it. Oh, it hurts.Michiko: You had better go to a hospital.Mary: Doctor, I have a sore throat. I had a stomachache yesterday.Doctor: I see. You have a fever, too. It is just a cold.Mary: WelI, I wiII have a tennis tournament soon,so I have to practice, though .,.Doctor: You had better not exercise for a couple of days.Mary: I understand.Doctor: Take medicine and go to bed early tonight.Mary: Yes. Thank you so much.Doctor: Take care.
  242. Nouns &L leg; foot LA meaning* SQah. stomach* cold 2Jaolc~ girlfliend hkL boyfriend 3 i5& temperature (weather-not used for things) cloudy weather match; game juice politics grade (on a test, etc.) cough throat tooth flower sunny weather clothes hangover present homesickness thing (concrete object) snow business to take care ofL - a d j e c t i v e s i i 5 3 ~ h V L sweet* L$=L %L hurt; painful G ~ L 9L l there are many . . . %?3 l L d%~l narrow; not spacious -3Z*? W$3 & L , b inconvenient; to have a scheduling conflict hbl ,%L bad* Words that appear in the dialogue
  243. fantastic to catch a cold to be interested (in . ,. ) (tupk I = ) to lose to have a fever to become thirsty to cough to break up; to separate (person Z )I r r e g u l a r V e r b s 3X/Gkj$& 6 to get nervous* LhEA9~T6 ~cBCT4 to worryA d v e r b s a n d O f h e r E x p r e s s i a n s ~ 1 #j 9 always* ;~;&=LL"~Z Get well soon.+ l7&3$3~ dont look well* fz=,i=tL probably; maybe T 3 4 ??if as much as possible* -TLa i probably; . . . , right? -- r" . . . degrees (temperature)* 6-3ttCcG for two to three days* -QlT because . . . +ah7 for the first time very soon; in a few moments/days
  244. 2 %is% lZ5 G r a m m a rThere are two distinct ways to mahe a shternent in Japanese*One way is to simply reportthe facts as they are absmed. This is the made of s p e h that we have learned so far. In-this lessan, we will learn a new way: the mode of apla:ab-ak things.A repor5 IS m isolated description of a fact, When you are late fur an appointment3youcan already report in Japanese what has haapened, sqX #% 2 +FATL fi . TEs sentence,however, does not have the right apologetic tone, because i; is not offered as an explana-tion for anything. lf you want to mentian the b u m fail= to m on time as an excusefor being late., YOU will need to lrse the explamfi~a mock af speech, and say: (As it h i z ~ ~ e ,fj la B d&t come~ h l wAn explanation has two components, one that is explicitly described in the sentence (thebus not corning), and another, which is implied, or explained, by it (you being late for theappointment). The sentence-final expression &-il-9 serves as the link between what thesentence says and what it accounts for. Compare: & L ? 72 b $: ;ti ! 3 To : I 1 haue an exam tomorrow. (a simple observation) & L ? z T X b -h% 21AT-$, 1 haoe an exam tomorrow. (So I cant go ouf toflight.) I want to go to the bathroom. (decIaration of ones wish) I want to go to the 6afhroona. (So tell me where it is.)hTT goes after the short form of a predicate. The predicate can be either in theaffirmative or in the negative, either in the present tense or in the past tense. tLTT itself 1is invariant and does not usually appear in the negative or the past tense forms. Inwriting, it is more common to find P TT instead of LT-3-. I @@;Jr Qi>Q3 1 < 3 b Pt T?, (in response to the question, "Why do you look so upset?") (As a matter of fact) My grade z not good. kIn casual exchanges, k t T appears in its short form, tLR. In casual questions, hTC;-f;ba is repIaced by a.We will examine these further in Lesson 15.
  245. b fz A T 7 (explaining to a person who has caught you smiling) L If6 6 The exam i s over. (Thats why Im smiling.)When it follows a noun or a 2-adjective, 2 comes in between. report sentences explanation sentences &-adjective: wPT$ SkZJhTT noun: 8 9 ~ ~ fP<i?Ll Lb ?%ahTT #<wLl-You can use k T-P in questions to invite explanations and further clarifications from theperson you are talking to. It is very often used together with question words, such as ri L -I (why) and r 9 L TZ (what has happened). Q : Y-f-J f @ t : $ q ; h t z hTT&, L s.n ha!,. Why did you break up with your boyfriend? (Youve got to fell me.) *, A :h.n *&*A~aS: t L ~ ~ h T " P o . l.=Xr; tat Oh, him. He never takes u bath. (Thats a good enough reason, isnt it?) Q : Z * j tJikTTha, What happened? (Yozc look shattered.) A :T ~ ~ E , L P A C T . ~ L y cat died. (That should explain how I look today.) %You can also use X/Tf to provide an additional comment on what has just been said. A : z 7 $) ~1kqkf+gT-$-t2~ 515 L3 That3 a great textbook that you are using. B : 22, f ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ & 7 5 ~ ~ ~ ~ 7 ~ X I - I " T O Lj, :!$ i.ttA,trr h. You bet. The professors ak my university wrote if (for your iafomation).A f ? ~L kX.II*Trls question is best answered by a kCT sentence with the subject marked with the particle i3. rather than 13, as in this example. See Lesson 8 for a related discusion.
  246. Verb stems may be fdowed by the helping verb T P 8 , which means "toomuch," or "toexcess. F 6 conjugates as a regular ru-verb. You musb mt eat too much,-ifF4 can dso iolluw L - and 3-adjective bases (the parts which do not change inconjugations); you drop the L and 3 at the end of the adjectives and then add T ,4 6. This book i too expensive. s That person is too flice.t 3 9 75% b xT? . "it is better (for you) to do . ." is a sentence-final expression that you canuse to give advice. When you suggest an activity with I2 i Q x b h~ h t j , you are giving avery specific piece of advice; namely, that it is advisable to do it, and if one does notfollow the advice, there is a danger or a problem.13 j f i Z k L T:"-if peculiar in that it follows different tense forms, depending on whether isthe advice given is in the affirmative or the negative. When the advice is in h e affirma-tive, 4 9 .hzr k l T T f f generally follows the past tense short form of a verb. When the advice 3is in the negative, however, the verb is in the present tense short f o m . Youd better eat more vegetables. I is better mffu skip classes. fYou can use @Tto give the reason for the situation described in the balance of thesentence. Semantically, e> T is just like f i x 6 . Stylistically, T sounds slightly moreformal than dL h . (reason) DT (~ituation)~ (situation), because (reason).
  247. ~17% ElrQ;%T%T@T,1I& SI i U i+ T= Q 9 3 LL:, It IfX. r H+ h l t ItG. - t- i My Japanese has zmpruved because 1 always speak Japazese. did not sleep last night, because I had a lit of homework.The reason part of a sentence ends in a short form predicate. When D T folIows a2-adjective or a noun, Q comes in between, as it did with the explanatory predicateAT$-. A u.l: a -- , 3 c;~W-9-~ I do not like that persola, because he ;is mean. + a t ai :a qi s =a- w r , mca+w-r-?, 3 %k U rl 7 Banks are closed beca&e foday i a Sunday. sWe use 2 { G + ~ 1 ? 2 * p L to say that it is necessary to do something, or "must." 3 *a72 FfiQEk,4fiab, { 3 X /-LL?L? L Q a % + - L I ~ ~ * X / , &brLlpl ?< %% I have to stzkdy u lot, because there wtlZ be an exam next week. i *2 { t + means "if you do not do . . ." and 1 I X, roughly means "you cannot go";2 { % 9 i . ~ l f -kt& therefore means "you cannot go not doing . . ." with the doublenegatives giving rise to the affirmative sense of the mandate. To form a 2 < 5; e 1. Ij 2 -@/V sentence, we substitute fd: L in the negative short form of a verb with 3 < 6 + . verb short negative "must" ma 1= B<&l t B6t6<5+LIfSl2hr k e7 I- zaaL GI - E%3fg<5~L~lf%lr3/v Ll $5 I/= La<S F Llf%I&hr <a tdL C - Zt6<5*L~n%ehrL t$2 -&A, is grammatically the negative long form of a verb in the present tense. Youcan change 3 { G + 613 3 to 2 { %s 3 *AT L 7L= (past tense) to say you had to,and to 2 { t;+ kC?Qb (the short form, present tense) in casual speech and beforeelements like t TT. LIn writing and in very format speech, td < a k l f 3 ++A, is more common than Q ( - r d f 3 +?A.
  248. 133 t i , fiett%33 4< U % 2 { - 1 ; + ~ t - f 3 . t S - k T L f(long form, past) =~ 1 had to get up at six thG morning-. GH. 3 : kh-Llpi LQ { & P L ~ ~ - ~ Q L(short form,, present) ,&T? (The truth is,) I mzcst practice every day.We use the sentence-final expression T L 1 3 (probably) when we are making a guess o . ma prediction, -r" t 1 =I follows verbs and L-adjectives short forms, in the affirmative in 4and in the negative. (verb) I will probably rain tomorrow. f It will probably ~ o rain tomorrow. t It i probably cold s Hokkaido. ~TZ I is probably not cold k Hokkaido. fT L I ? may aIso follow Q-adjective bases and nouns. Note that T L 1 5 goes directly .after theseelements; we do not use X - --T L a i , x - - G ~ ) T L I 5 , or X - -- + L i 5 . Q - TX tr ( fa -adjective) Professor Yamhada probably likes %h Professor Yamkita probably doemt like %kk (noun) &aAtA;S-X U I: I- 7 I T A T L $ U/, $ o That pmm & probably an Australian. $ - 2 b?j"IThC:Qkr"Ldt 3 . Thatpmmis~oba6bmtanA1~~~akia~ U L I i rnay also follow predicates in the past tense. We will, however, concentrate on t h e present tenseexampIes in this lesson.
  249. T L d; 9 sentences can be turned into questions (--T* J 5 51 which can be used to L .,invite another persons opinion or guess. ~ h k w u ~ l d say i more difficulty.. h you s or ~apanese Korean?The short form of T L a j is f."S 3 . You can use it to cautiously phrase a prediction oran analysis. t=cjLShtAR%7S%4f:5 3 Z , B C ~ - ~ , 311 k i4k I think Takeshz would be intermfed i if. nIn casual exchanges, you can use T L L 5 (with the question intonation, and most oftenpronounced as somewhat shorter T L a ) when you want to check if your partner agreesthat you have the correct understanding about what you have just said. 5 h > , +ElSrSrb75*bTLa ? Z h , t l &T I L, Johzy you uwderstand Chinese, rzght? Caa you read this for me?
  250. R E P r a c t i c eh.h, LJ95i, t*5LTchTf hA. You are in the following situations. Explain them using - - h P b . @ Example: $5&& ?7$ hi:.? . ,-: Q : Zei L. f LTTda, (I) L; ZSp52 n.n TL h &33Lk
  251. @B. Respond to the comments using --&Pf. My fathers + X 4) X,TTo 5l I received them Italian ones My mother made it. from my friend. It was cheap. kind
  252. C. Pair Work-Your partner has said something nice about what you have. Respond using -hT-7.D. Pair Work-Make up dialogues asking for reasons. Example: I went to Tokyo last week. 1. I am very tired. 2. I have no money. 3. It is not convenient today. ( % & Ni 2 Zhb 3 k) Z ? 4. I want to marry my boyfriend/girlfriend. 5. I am going to Japan to study. 6 . He speaks Chinese very well. (% i@<szh . " k 1+i -F T ? ) +Z C f 7. I dont want to watch that movie.A. Describe the following pictures using --TSb. Use "verb + tb5" for (1) through (4) and "adjective + 335"for (5)through (10). Example:
  253. B. Look at the verbs below. Think about the results of: over doing these things and make sentences as in the example. Example: r: + &4?yf:&hh, i 2 Q $ h h 1 % ~ & T T o r: T=
  254. A. Using the cues below, give advice to a friend who has a headache. Decide if you should use the affirmative or the negative. a Example: %??&;t (tl u, . + & : m%~&rS, bf3 L * A : <+I 3 &&Lf?l3 7 F ~ h b T T kB. Pair Work-Give advice to your partner in the following situations, using --I35 Example: El :4 $-g&fleI fz L I 1 3! : / L r i T- 1 + 8 : B*g-hk+l:taqf<~k~~, r: I, ;& : Uri 7 A : E3$-Xa)&f% I: I / rt 2 + $k13j & z ~ ~ T ? k . ~ 7 ( T 3 & 7?513sZ233f d : ~ i Z c & IJ 2 ZI, Z j S L ~ L T T ~ : ~C. Pair Work-You are a health counselor. Someone who hasnt been feeling well is at your office. Ask the following questions. Complete this form first, then give your advice using --IZ5h%Il.l.
  255. A. Connect the two sentences using -@T.@ Example: ~LX.%TT/%~$L$T -i/y[r 1 5x.B. Make sentences using the cues below as reasons, according to the example. Example: &x-k???V32 z Lf + $9$2j$A$ L f z o -hh-@$7.F~~f:~T, L ~ ~ 3 a .t*$ iC. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.
  256. v - G R I L E ~ % L < %Z tLhI ~0,s L 45 ~ tIA. Look at Toms schedule and make sentences, according to t h e example. @ Example: 7 : 0 0 ~ . ~ . / & 3 $ 3 ~ L ~ & ~ A + ~ ~ I & ~ Q { ~ % C I% ; ;B. Pair Work-Invite the partner to do the following things together. Turn down the invitation and give an explanation using --a< 5~ LUf &L. Example: play tennis 1. do homework 2. eat lunch 3 . drink coffee 4. study in the library 5. go to karaoke
  257. C. Answer the following questions.A. Here is tomorrows weather forecast (XZfsE). Play the role of a meteorologist 5kd lEJ and tell the weather forecasts for each city. @ Examples: + &i3, +~ I J A L ~ t~ = % Tj o K i M LL temperature in Tokyo/around 2°C city weather temperature Tokyo Ex. snow Ex. around 2°C Sydney 1 (1) sunny (2) hot I (3) around 30°C Hong Kong 1 (4) rain (5) cool (6) around 18°C I Rome 1 (71 cloudy (8) warm 1 (9) around 20°C6. Pair Work-Play the role of a meteorologist. Predict the weather for your favorite city. The other person fills in the blanks. Switch roles and do the same thing. city weather temperature
  258. A. Using Dialogue I as a model, make skits in the following situations. -Your friend looks sad. -Your friend looks happy.B. Pair Work-A and B are deciding when they can play tennis together. Play the role of A and 8.Discuss your schedules and find the day on which both of you are available. Refer to p. 245. for Bs schedule. Example: A : $ k ~ c 3 f i ~ E I C = - # % ! = ? = X $ L $ % ? h f i k o %r,L@i I-T-3li UF B :& a aI Tal q Wa i i % 7 irxLrsi - i ~ 9 - ? h Z S S- 6& Z Q< G + : ~L 5 ~ ) ~ h t - f a a h X , ~ - j - , a % a ta r i T-j-$1, L:%Li V As schedule Sunday go shopping Monday Tuesday read books Wednesday Thursday Friday meet friends SaturdayC. Role Play-Visiting a Doctors Office Using Dialogue I as a model, act the role of a doctor or a patient. Doctor-Fill out the medical report on p. 245 and give advice to the patient. Patient-Describe the symptoms you have and answer the doctors questions.
  259. Sex: Male Female Age: Symptoms: E Sore throat l Headache Stomachache Any other pain Cough Fever UAllergy ( 7 ~ ~ t F - ) OthersPair Work @ 6. Example: A : ~ S o ) f i % f il> t L~ - - , % t ~ 7 ~ 2 2 L 3 ~ h h ~ , GLxLni I V - r 6s schedule Sunday Monday teach English Tuesday Wednesday clean rooms, do laundry, etc. Thursday Friday Saturday practice karate
  260. I ~ e a l t - h n d a I I i n e s s At-t h e Reception o the Clinic f Patient: 3 % -@A,p u "C i tbhTT&2, % : E x m e me, thzs is m firsf &if- y Receptionist: td L , I%R3 T ( ?: S L , i IX IlLLki r* OK. Please show me your health i~surance certificate. z a & l =ta.P? t $PzL~ ~ d- f i i 2 ~ ~ ~1~ 8-k % L ? r F { E Z T Please fill zn your name- a d address m this paper. Patient: Zt ~ l d f l ~ 3 % ~ ~ - h * , t*X. <TI What k i ~ d s medicine are these? of Receptionist: %&k&TT, l Y @@t=&X/TZ 2 b, c7 (f 1 These are paiPzP;alIers. Please take one afler meals. Patient: b a a9 a L f:, I see. Receptionist: S A$L- b - , f<l Please take care. Useful Expressions for Illness (% %) and Injuries (13 ) 5 7 Uii ? TfiTT0 if 9 I have diarrhea. @ f ?7F0 3& -(& W I am constipated. &9 T - T 0 ~ I have my period. ZB&TT0 fi. L - A L t - j I have hay fever. ( 4 1 )T Jb?-~5~25 9 2 - have an allergy to I .. . &ah& 9 3 To I have a bad tooth. t-L (I <L+A~;~*~T, T I sneeze. 2 a. 4 7 ~ " idQz*j P I have a runny nose. 3p+)5s75~@~~Tj-o My back itches. $75, %%v& To 5 3 13-3 L A I have rashes.
  261. bj)$~h~L3T, I feel dizzy. - .12f 3 2 t k o fin 3 .i:& I &, b 5 L T?, :% I threw UP. I; am not feeling well. 3+-I?Z*t2 L 3 L f:, I burned myself. EQ3%&#69 2 L k 0 &.L lib. s I broke my leg. 13753%t 3. t f z o I hurt myself.Useful Vocabulary+ ES (Doctors office) La LI E $4 l *I & physician &@f# u. . d. ; dermatologist YbR If 7. 5 surgeon &%A?+ S h i. UX. 6. obstetrician and gynecologist !E%ybH t f - r > l t i l i h- orthopedic surgeon fl/E$* ophthalmologist d/v 75- %$3 L 25. dentist EF&R C U: 6. otorhinolaryngologist; ENT doctor antibiotic X-ray -operation injection -thermometer
  262. (v) %79=3hmlp383 Marys Weekend 266 ( %_)ab(Da b 33 IbX ) ;hf=l, M y Favorite Restaurant 2761-( %7 9- & / u @ ~ A ~ a r ~y s e t t e r ~ F ~ 282 = () H*)=aa 1LWu bLL+Llhr Japanese Office Workers 287
  263. 1( - @a u e 5 The Folktale Kasajizo 298 ( T I gE)s% is Lw3 Looking for Friends 304 0 12 a%9 tts (% 2 Tanabata Festival 310
  264. (Refer to "Japanese Writing System" on pages 18-22 for more. details.)
  265. @ Hiragana PracticeA. Choose t h e correct hiragana. 3.me $2 bj 6 - chi % 9.e X,B. Match the words. Persons name PIace name 1. &Qi55 Akai 9. 37126 - Gifu 2.Tp&Z* Nakamura lo. j a jZ - Beppu 3.$57p~ Takahashi 11. $#2 - Sapporo 4. t a t %Z - Tanaka 12. G g 3 fib - Osaka 5. t Morikawa 13. 3523 1 = Kyoto 6. Q-hxk& - Sakurna 14. y4is - Kanazawa & 9 -hab 7. Yamarnoto 15. Nagasaki 8-$<2 Hashimoto 16. -b1 2 ChibaC. Whats wrong with the hiragana below? Rewrite the correct hiragana.
  266. D. Write as many hiragana as possible which contain the following parts.E. Put the hiragana in the right order to make sense. Example: &=. & % + . % ? f2.G ! ---- 1- b&T@ Reading PracticeRead what the following people are saying and answer the questions.
  267. 1. Who is an office worker?2. Whose major is Japanese?3. Who is a high school student?4. What is Haradas major?
  268. @ Writing PracticeYou received a letter from a Japanese friend. Read it and write a letter introducingyourself. * f j F k & t <f;#a~lrl.t3Tis more polite than tf 3 P k 6 L < .
  269. jII9hf Katakana r- * e 75, 9- 3 * ki ku k&? ko -tj- so 9 shi su se Y so 7 tu F chi is t, ?- b te to 3- . - - ni 3 fiu $ ne / no I ha t hi 7 fu % -f- he ho ma mi A ma % me * m* Y. Ya 2YU 3 YO 3 ra 1 ri /k%Ln? 13, 7 , a yo [Refer to "Japanese Writing System" on pages 22-24 for more details.)
  270. @ Katakana PracticeA. Choose the correct katakana. 1.6 7 4. shi 2 y 7.m t ILB. Match the following words and pictures.
  271. C. Match each country with its capital city. Countries Capital Cities 1. TL--27 $ 9 7 2. $ 7 27 73=/1.>DC 3. 7-%1Y7 2 3. - 11 - 7 4. z97p 7Axylby~LA 5. $---;Cb717- 7731~>7--1~ 6.29~-7.9 7 - z l x P - tv x 7*4>F +* 9 x 3 8. 7lb%.>F 2 7S4u 9. 7W-Y. Xhy?rf;~LAD. Word Search-Find the following country names in the box of katakana. b t- L. (Vietnam) 3 3 iS*$ -Jl. (Singapore) ?- s 3 (Czech) 7 % 1 f i (America) 2 5 r - 2 (Sweden) X 57 7 F IL (Ecuador) % +3 3 (Mexico) 7 f 7 2 9- - 7*?3 lb (Brazil) jK2 7 (Bosnia) (Holland) 4 ;/ F 5 7 (Indonesia) 3- 7 (Canada) J 7 2 ?* (Rwanda) t 9 4 (Thailand) 7f -2 P 3 1 7" (Australia)
  272. E. Put the kafakana in the right order to make sense. Example: 3 .f- -- + 9 -*@ Name TagsWrite your name in the box below and make your own name tag. . .Example: 7 1 9 IL -2 3 1 9+ =/@ Reading PracticeMary wrote about the things below. Find out which item she wrote about. 1. ( ) 2hli h k L o C4i L U ? W 9 2+?&, +?.i-Sh@ EZi LTT, - -.z-3-7T=/+-XO I % $ LTTo
  273. @Writing PracticeWrite about the things you or your classmates own. Use Marys sentences in 1 asa model.
  274. 4 V?f I-*& ( 4*% p* 4 fit-year student -9 (4 Y 7 2 )one minute -9 (U 2 7)one &?& (-3- >* ) second-year student 4 r (ak~) q two sag7 (a%n?l two days Eq& (YY;l; 2-kd1 third-year student 57 (G3-33) thee (k % 2-k4 ) fourth-yearstudent W 9 7 3 ) fow (P8Yl Apd 1. * ~ f .,- $ - T&. .. 3%- . .. (t373) : - H e1. . 3 * . 5 . -- five . (%a31seven
  275. t $13 7 . k (+z 91 nine he (39 ) nine oclock LZQI kg I+=~I;l+f4) nineyearsold %7( Z Z a ) ? ) nine (nine) (Vz=LS) bn -- +q (9393) tenoclmk -f-% ( 9 z ~ S f - 4 ) years old ten -5 ( k g ) ten (2) -+ +- (t: 9 1 Aand~ed 2s (YL F T 3 ) three hundred (u Y ? 3 six hundred r k z ( ~ 1 l* 3 eight hundred012 (hundred) (6) - T R % 4 2 -lie=/ 2 =k (*9)thousand C?f2@&-33y~ee thousand 1( .) -k ; 21 eight thousand (thousand) (3) T013 7-2 -5 (-4# 7 2 ) ten thousand fx014 T (ten thousand) (3) ( 9 =L 9 T y ) one hundred thousand SZ ( k ~3 2 ) one million - 3 5 x> ( .P;.p;m@*~&a~&Un~~ yen015 F 9 (yen; circle) -2 (4)1 F¶ n fl f l circle --% .E3$%7$%3 oclock z3 ?fE ( Z F b r7,k 8 in ones childhood El+ (time) 0011 ~ 4 ( k 3 Z I * = i ) s o r n e t i m e ~q $ + ( F 3 - 4 > w a t c h n R fl R 8+ (In this chart, katakana indicates the omymi [pronunciation originally borrowed from Chinese] and hiragma indicates the kuz % i[native Japanese reading].) m
  276. @ gTa@a h L fihL93 (Kanji Practice)A. Read the price of the following items in kanji and write it in numbers. Example: T 3 ~ k - b (l))h)fi?B. Write the following prices in kanji. Example: T5,420 + 3 ? - ~ i Z ~ ~ f l
  277. An international exchange student writes about his daily routine. Read the passageto find out about his schedule and fill in the blanks below. 7:OO ( 1 go to the university 9: 00 ( 1 eat lunch 4:OO 6:00 I ) watch T V@ a< @g fS hhrLw5 (Writing Practice)Write about your daily routine. Use the above passage as a model.
  278. $ 7 --tCyCr)I/c;b 583Marys Weekend 59 C 7 J =.y a E l ( ~ 4 f F everyday -&Gr)EI(kib$.o)UI) MothersDay ) B ~ C ( ~ w + f = ) d i a r yE ( 5 ~ A ) t h r e e d a y s ZI (day; sun) -. -- a* [**2)*~*& El *% (z* 23)Japanese language I&$-$ X/ (+& & 2 3 L) Mr./Ms. Ymamota I (book;basis) ese peo& Zah ( Z 00 k 1this person = A (92 =>) three people I / (moon; month) J(41 ) fl fi a K (U) fireozr Y $542 (%&lda) money
  279. F &% El ( F 3 9 IF) Saturday5 5G - Isoil) zk ( 7 %soil (3) - ) + +s.%sha=d%~0g 39 (weekday) ~3qz a (= 0 I n 1 B E~ $ B PPFFTq1$q%@q i2 k t i k ) top; &OV& 34- 733 (UP) l+2 ( V 3 P A & ) good at E L (73-3 3 9)rooftop (3) 1 F 1 9 tfz T (Lk>underTi) %T%(9-2 Y > subway Y - T*fa (-?:a> poor at+ (down) (3) T T 3 &% q(a;b.)inside +E(Q=.fdP)China f23 q? (#23#3)juniorhighschool yip -*+ (4+ % Y 9 = 9 ) all year around (middle) .- EqF (*&gqPW) F%( / Y Y j . ) half. .+!r*-f, . - . (half) (5) . P 1> - - P. - * (In this chart, katakana indicates the on yomi and hiragan@indicates the k%c~yomi.)
  280. @ hhl I ; fLhrbD3 (Kanji Practice)A. Match t h e kanji with the English equivalents. Sunday Monday Tuesday = Wednesday = Thursday Friday SaturdayB. Look a the picture and choose the appropriate kanji for the blanks. t%711-3PU[2SfidS*hIZ%€S;hSZ I/koRead the memo and answer the questions.
  281. Read the following passage about Marys weekend. &+k store SaPtC:? sweetbun % k;% ( lateArrange the following activities in the order Mary did. 1. studied Japanese 2. bought sweet buns 3. went to a restaurant 4. watched TV 5 . went to a park@ g <f i ~ v ~ ~ 3 a (Writing Practice)A. You are going out. Write a memo to someone in yourkouse, telling when you will be back and whether you will have dinner at home.6. Write about your weekend.
  282. 9 d ; Z j Travel 8. am& S-f-A (7992)t Fuji M. (mountain) %R (YY+) electricity (spirit) XR CF~/+) weat& xg (72 9 3 ) heaven (heaven) $A&A* (P Y 9 1 5 I - 2-f private university (I; private) E e h i Z (fzL&X) field rice (rice field) (511 n m w m
  283. *ah(%jh.&E~Uk) woman */$i (93-k4> woman S Z Z UlX - (Zizk Z$YU.k3 man *.% (man) (711 Wy*--fl man n m w m 9 35 2 9 RZI taseeR (to see) E% (92 ?Y > sightseeing (711 n H a , F , q , 1 (to go) I k B t o eat &-% ( f i % & ) 339 &<% (ke60)food fke V 3 9 F 9 )cafeteria ( (to eat) (9) / h + & e * & *-G ;@a) drink $0 (a& @k&% 6 a)) drink &%g% ( 4 Y ~ . z ~ Y ? drunken driving Y ) I (to drink) 03 . 4 4 4 $ $ f pf$& (In this chart, kutakam indicates the myomi and hiraga~ara indicates the kmymi.)
  284. ~ ;hk t; fi/vb@J ->.*A. Using the parts below, make up the correct kanji. Example: a +B. Match the following sentences with the pictures.C. Match the kanji with the reading. l.( )-s 2.( )=a 3. ( ) S3 F 4. ( 5.( ) 5 E l 6.( )*B 7.( )+€3 8.( 9.( )*a lo*( )+a 11.( )=+a
  285. A. Match the following katakana words with the English equivalents. cake coffee cafe classical concert ViennaB. d;3Z$h13&SZShlZ12htSSAS6bt~~ Read the postcard below. Write T for the things she did or d o e s a n d write F for the things she didnt or doesnt do in Vienna. ) see an old castle 2. ( go to see a ballet take pictures 4. ( ) drink beer at the cafe enjoy sweets 6. ( eat at McDonalds 3 Mr./Ms. (used in letter writing) ;k; L 5 castle h-but dt: 6 night f again
  286. C. a/x- ~-&hmafjisexeZ , L~ Read the postcard below and answer the following questions in Japanese. 1- U j C - 3 AI&+Z*Z L X O ~7 j - 5 ~ ~ 2. YA QX3,T-$$10 3. ,4@3 la Q I z - 2 La L f = h s , 4. + E l i Qdz$i L a L?=dh., KhZ L 3 Li?=Qb, 5. s 3 Qbrn&<% TT7F0 aiJz*5 mountain ?z L tough T3 , 2 % Take care.
  287. @) P< @g (Writing Practice) hhJL@3The following are your Japanese friends addresses in your pocket notebook.Copy their addresses on the postcards and write about your vacation.
  288. $hQ)q*fd L/J, b 7 9 My Favorite Restaurant L045 $g===&; gq$$* $ ;; I. I [tz L-pg *&t<&& - - : $kB (& 3* 4 ) northwest mi5 ( f i YV-4$ Kansai region I I (west) I (south) $9 r3f4 $C3LIb9*3)Tollokuregion Z t j ( $ ~ & F 9 ) Hokkaido 4 (5) - 4 3 3 Jt; ( 6 ) mouth An (32 9)population 3 I t; I b-f (fZP) to take something out 3ZL-y (to exit> A.- -- -. " C& 3J & g - 7 Wi (wr) right t- && ( 9 ~ 9 ) and left right (right) (511 ? $ - & I SM i t 7)left turn .+
  289. 7 3 7-2 .&* ( 37 2) five minutes ( Y J Y Y Y ) minutes ten 7+> h5?(972)0neself Te(~h272)haIf (minute; to divide) (4) / 7 ) n %2 %& *l I (+z > . teacher 33 ki!%(+=/V=9)lastweek %11(23l~)ahead (5 to be born ~CZ--& (4 Y Y S 9K-4 F) once in 9 a life (learning) (8) . ? r p, * * 5 $, 3 2 - 77.4 5b C 4 .J 3 E S foreign country 5Y pb@A (84a 3 Z;j?) foreigner Yb ( % k ) outside (outside) (5) P 9 9 9b 27 ~ * 9 9blSLY8?TY%rZim COU~~I-J~ { t= C+1939) m a El ( C E) country (country) cs)~ n n m m n ~(In this chart, katakoau indicates the onyomi and hiragalaa indicates the kunymi.) .. I . .-*. . *.., y?.:,; -.::i:, ,, . ,. ~ 8 : . I0
  290. @ gTa&a bh, ;nlut@5 I ; (Kanji Practice)A. Combine the following kanji and make compound words. You can use the same kanji more than once. Example: y + a + yb@B. Indicate where each place is located on the map. 23 station &b to exit 37 (. straight@ rh L"h[dk(Bulletin Board)Look at the bulletin board on the next page and answer the questions. 1. If you want to buy a bicycle, who are you going to contact? 2 - Where will the party be heId? Are you going to bring anything? 3. How do you get to the concert haII? 4 . What can you do for the winter break (from December to January)?
  291. Mary writes about her favorite restaurant. Read the passage and answer thequestions. 9 1 9 1 cooking b > 95 always 3 .tr JL everyoneA. Where is the restaurant? . .. . .. A 0 .: .....LA"...", , ..>4".+?: . ..<?%&>,?? ? ,,""-LTA&*.~&=:**, "<**:*~--~~EG+.--- @ .~:::>..*?~*b -:... *.?*..-*.F>?:~-. .... <<
  292. B. Circle the food or drink the writer has at the restaurant. C. Choose the correct answer. @ g <#@= h (writing Practice) Ah t ~ 3 A. You are organizing a party. Write a flyer about the party. Be sure to include: what kind of party it is, what time it starts, where .it is held, what to bring, how to get there, and so on.d . B. Write about your favorite restaurant.
  293. 1J -$by@rn;&. Marys Letter I (capital) >4% J% ( 9 s 93 Y 3 91 elementary school ( 9 a 93 3 Q d ) elementary school student 4a.R ( k d 9 ? 4 2) office worker (to meet1 X - - C = & ~ ,- -- .-gx3 7:- .. t ~ k -g&) -fa* 3 x%?(7$1 father and motherI I (father) .$.g ($9) mother tongue
  294. 067 35 $% ( A b & % > i - - ~ & d . ~ Z& ( ~ 9 ~ i3 h s ~ h ~ l ? h g ) %$!?& ( 2 5 3-3%$1 high school student * +%E ( # = 9 f l39) junior hi& ~ school 068 (school) a - f 4 a airv?t.tv@ ~4 *El ( ~ 4 2 &every day ) %g[ T ~ V X J )every week -@El!! (74 every right 069 (every> r a @ * ~ * . - a 3 B.*% 4=& =* 9) ~ a ~ a g e i i ]language) -8 $$% (x-43 English (language) 1 PW (word) 04 . - . . - + 3 2 - n - 3 s- 5% *== - =xx i i i 5 v v u ~ i m v o 07007 1- 072 (In this chart, kut&m indicates the myon%iand kiragana indicates the kunymi.)
  295. A. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate kanji.B. Which new kanji from this lesson include the katakana below/? Example: X + & I. 3 + 2. ; + i.C. Whats wrong with the kanji below? Rewrite the correct kanji.
  296. ..? Z i- a little-6. I; from . . .L I-$ { cram schoolk literatureZ 6 t take (a class) o[--??)f:~,LkG=-j-& to look forward (to).h-i,f-.-.i=3,~7CI B to take care of oneself
  297. Summarize what Mary wrote about t h e following topics in Japanese. 1. Japan: 2. Her town: 3. Father: 4. Mother: 5. Sister: 6 . Brother: 7. School:A. Write about the following topics.B. Write letters to your Japanese friends. Describe your town, host family, friends, and so on.
  298. $(7)z+t Japanese Off ice Workers A / -
  299. #k;i; (*?Qts) to be absent; to rest (%FA>holiday; absence @El I+z3YY1 holidayI I (to rest) Sj W 3 ) to say ZZF (Y Yyfl33) linguistics (to say) % . ~ B % @ read &: 30, %@ ( F 3 9 s reading books . = - - - . (to read> 04 5 g * e * 53- $Z g - $ + $ + z 31 *5- z * 3 .(W%5 ) to think ,%% Q (7 9 Y a) mysterious1 1 (to think) & ( 7 S y &&k % (9 s ) ones second daughter ;& 9 (next) (6) ; ; ik ? I = ,sA (&El w&& (t~h.9) time what BA (&L=Yl "howmany people (what) (711 ( r 4 ? r (In this chart, katakasa indicates the 0%yomi and hiragana indicates the kun yomi.)
  300. A. Using the parts below, make up as many kanji as possible. Example: X + X6. Match the following phrases with an appropriate verb. l.%MG ++F& 2. ?m-& **t2 3. kk32 .L2 $ 4. EI*SlJ% S L5 ~ 1 Y * T4 5. SSP-@ , 5 % 6.@$bI - *M( 7.57-3r;re 4,B Read the following questionnaire.
  301. 7 9 - b questionnaire ( 3+."Xl 1 i overtime work X b L 7. stress - 3 - &) after . . .B. How would you answer the above questions? b$-bTZSSZ b k oC. 7 - 9 ~ h l 3 7 > 9 - b l ~ 2 L ~ T % I Read the report below and answer the questions. -GI9LT about; regarding to % 6 ( f: 2 8 t o answer 8 7 to be tired XCC secondly 2 -jt" first of all 3 % (3i ) lastly
  302. Make a questionnaire and ask several people the questions. Then, write a reportbased on the result.
  303. - Ez Sues Diary P (after) 1 (before) 17 @,% (* 3 9 ) blank sheet (white) ~33% (9 rainy season sx*<&&*-y- ; a - $ - %s ( 9.=/ s ) dictionary I (friend)
  304. 752 ak,~f: qrd (9732)time - ~ e r d~ S 9 & 2W O ~ O U Z S ( ~ ) r (&t>E) d between ABB~ Z Y Y Y ) humanbeing ( --3Fa7 ( 4 ~ 9 3 9 A 2 one week 1 (between) 108 1 I P B B Bq B9 rl fi9 M fl El % ( b h k ) hpwe %& (kP3) family % ( 3 6 ) house; home (house) 133 sT(ikhT)tospeak %fk$Q,L)talk;story 7 %$# ( 7 7 7 ) telephong &%k (a4 7) conversation (to speak) (little) (old) 5 + TF- 3; * L %% ( t a l to k m w 9- %A( - f 9 acquaintance 2) (to know) (to come) (7) - - "=*$*(In this chart, k-atukam indicates the m5mi and hiragana indicates the kuayoma.)
  305. A. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate kanji.B. Choose the most appropriate word for each blank.
  306. H Z (b:-3) diary ~ & L 5 various 3 ?Rq in the morning 8 8 to have a talk &Xb7~fl- host family *LT and Z"3; % j excellent foodA. Put the following pictures in the right order according to Sues diary. ( + > + ( > + ( >
  307. B. Mark T if the following statements are true. Mark F if not true.C. X-*/vl&%Y J-ShCnfix b 7 7 S J - ~ Z ~ M & S ~ Z L ~ ; ~ T -l ha Read the following letter. A$?& % El (*A L 9) the other day 9 ~ 5 dormitory %Ll3~)T2i to show someone around
  308. A. What did you do yesterday3 Write a journaI.B. Write a thank-you letter to someone. I _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ - - - - ~ ~ ~ 2 - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ - a - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ a - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - ~ I I I Useful Expressions for Letters and Cards: I 1 j b- ?? 3 C 7 { ;F; 3 L 1 (Please take care of yourself.) f , i - - g b t , T Z j ( Z * $ * L ~(Congratulationson.. T). .) ! S k h r 1 9 vgblL,TZ 5 . (Happy Birthday) L _ _ _ - - ~ - ~ - _ _ _ _ _ - - _ _ _ _ _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ - - - ,
  309. fit&< - . . &G733 f&?fi ( 9 x 3 9 3) address(to Iive)*sf? %EB- a 3 39-1New Year -f:%>%f-f2- b - Z L L (fzELt3) right(right) next year. ++ K t - 6 ) this EV Oq/l? stand;(to sell) s-3 %&4:>:3- Itd ( Z J I b ~ shopping ~ Q>)(to buy) q W3Y-h Sk1LFJ ( 3 f.P 9 4 3 9 ) Kitayama town @TR(FJ34 3 3 ) mayor of a town -p [&!$<I) j & &% (F3 9-f2) first son ones(long) f - ~ f%wap;-r&d ~ ~ ( 5 3 F ~ ) c a l l i g r a p h y @ ( $ ~ 3 P 3 ) judo & 3 c a (di .Ih 4 F 9)Hokkaido ;
  310. 110 @3 e 6@%3snow1t -kY %% C ~ Y + Y ) new snow 9 (snow1 Ofl - , - + i ~ r ; ~ =r 3 ~ + q * fz &9C 3 >to-stqd e) ) Y @&AT ( 33 1 Y Y-13 3 national university $A&&E (9 !Y J 9 3 9)private high school 31 (to stand) 5 " r" ff & 2 9 l;r-*< .n@ggr) m Tf f TiT - l 3 (self) & $k$$ ( Y F 9 Y T ) automobile (6) I ( V . 5 2 9 ~ bicycle f ) k & $6 +& & L T (night) (8) I) midnight r $7 p @ f i 8 " c ( 3Y P ) tonight 63 $H (&-$I M F H + $ A3) this morning (if $1 (morning) $fl& (FEI 9 9 3 91 breakfast 0 + t- * * -4 # 8 3 $Tl$JJ$Ji! t &2 %8-> tohold2:-$%3T ( 6 ( & 3 T < tobring #+ 23) Ffi$*~% ( V 3 9 t 2) belongings (to hold) ( 9 ) .f 4 - # % ~ (In this chart, katakuna indicates the o~yonai and hiragana indicates the k m y m i . )
  311. A. Add strokes to the kanji below and turn them into new kanji from this lesson. Example: -+ & -B. Write each antonym in kanji.C. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate kanji from the list, and add hiragana where necessary. I. y7-C- 2 L 2 Lk0 2. 75>3% T~ -jw, a shopping have 3. &5TEA7h$ 0 To 4. 1< i!lcwi* 2 To 9 (are) sell(ing) snow 5. g L" L 5 ,&~rl$#ia 0 6. 71f- 1: n4 To was long live 7. $AQl$&5 C=-k@AiF o was standing
  312. 1 A. Answer t h e following questions. 2. (Picture 1) 2&t~&c:3 h ~ - jR E j -~ Z,%~H-~~, 3. (Pictnre2) La)%EL$ hZ %if& 4)%+#Q>%Xe characters) (main L@UX.:i B Read the Japanese folktale "fPi4G323" on pp. 302-3. . C. Put the following pictures in the right order. + > +
  313. i 6 L ;t;-h. L 2. once upon a time 7.5. S bamboo hat %&fi New Years 4 year rice cake && to sell hats LL> sad &g mountain road cj?? guardian deity of children Q snow - 4 - to put (a hat) on a persons head la+ oneself ra to take off L& tZ gmd deed F ( ~ 2 ) voice F (0 door to be surprised L&;b+?td happyD. Mark T if the following statements are true. Mark F if not true.
  314. Choose one topic from the list below and write a story about it. For example: Whatdo people do on these days? Do you have good memories? Do you know unusualtales about these days? 19 8 (Birthday) 1 I &a% (Thanksgiving Day) d.A,L.rl 13aom~a fzh, W 0- i
  315. Looking for FriendsIS b@3
  316. 75" & ( ~ 2 0 movie I@ 41 ] 3 (picture) @%(#&)painter (8) - - - I n 35(3-/1&3)plan 7 5 % f i & g $t; 75 *.j +=5.r~-T) sing to * ( 5 f.1 songR R+"(%K$vF~. singer* 0% ( 3 Y ;5 national anthem - (to sing> 08 " " " g j g q q p a 9 I (&h$?i%+%,:~-awagu~hi city Oi ; $ r ~ $ ( V P 3 V 3 ) cityhall i$E(LFa9;7)mayor *%$2 market (t13 6 ) (city) (5) A" " * 1 m Z r5 =j 3 L 4 L 1% ~j$j?$h~>s&$~~$& 2 Z 25) v&c&&&la~es -. . ~ a $?g?~&~$hh~~d !&-FFi r*t5 (place) 33 $ % ( Y d Z Z 5 ) kitchen (81 - 4 -# - j j 7. T j -f*F%(9=95/~) jjF 76 address <> M & i& % + p q & $ & * $=$F & : 7z &&"r9k&&) totry hardj& (to make efforts) %$&Q ( + Y e Y & ) diligent (101 * r a p % & +3 9 , , 9 $%-c4gisj$@%~% *- %-fastudy v ?5 $&I f ~ m 7 ~ ~ 3 ~ @ . .* 3 ( =f 9 9 s 9 $1 obstinate (strong) On " 5 fL ; " ? s f P 8 5 $ 5 . 29 %;%Fs ( ~ 9 9a) famous 4 * 5 i %# ( ~ 11 4 9)toll; fee 3 % 6 (&a>to exist . +: ._ . 1, , :- (to exist) @)I p ? ? 1J 3 .( s 3.3) l tmpelR v=f (travel) -a (Y sI 2 ) inn ? @ A$ (IN $ (0k 9 Tz U) traveling alone " " J $ T R (In this chart, kutakana indicates the onymi and kiragana indicates the kuleyomi.)
  317. A. Combine the parts below to form t h e new kanji from this lesson.B. Put one kanji in each box to make compunds.A. EBIZEZT L.=.%lv Zk < Z*LI, (Answer the following questions.)
  318. --%& ( 1 % L I$ 9 ) looking for . . . 111 river * (i%&Q) woman *3r t :) girlfriend man Vl% c- cheerful outdoor activities near place Y.> F bandI. The person who is 18 years old (2. The person who is a college student (3. The person who likes movies4. The person who likes climbing mountains (5. The person who is looking for a girlfriend (
  319. &% neighborhood $ 3 { A ) shrine ( A t t h * ) culture 9 9 (279) festival3 3 fishing Z 1 reply
  320. s C %L old t i m a % 33 ; f - s: %% (bt31tiift~ old tale t)(ancient times) e-? (&;1PL&SLI once upon a timg &.+-a: (-~pk-tFkJ --jj$Qple(symbol of repe @e ( 2 3 F 3 ) sometimes Ee 3 ( L 3 . i ; ~1.5 &) varioustition of a kanji) p* @ - S&b.& 3 g j G&- F5 * -- c- s 9P? * -= - r - , - a- @s IV Y 1.3 Shinto religiork ) $&3T 6 to (b&+g37&) get up early ?$A ( Y 9 .f 3 7) early morning(early) (61 r, FI & 2 ? (% Z 2)to wake someone up &&rf$ (+1) Y$&) to stand up(to get up) 4 (9 9 ) ambassador ( 9 399-=9) "Occupied"(to use) i6-=brjk - - * I 3 { )r G tiff: G 3 1 both husband and wife working !& foraliving 5!%$(p9F93)Iabor(to work)
  321. 3 i$&9% f 6 ..(3kLT Zi ) -to take home I/> B ( 3 3 L 2) United Nations &* + ( 1/ Y .IL 5) consecutive holidays (to link)(In this chart, katakana indicates the onyomi and hdraga~aindicates the kwzymi.)
  322. A. Match the reading, kanji, and translation. Example: 15. L - to use 1- l A - P ( b h ) - COW 2. i % ( 3 & ) to get up 3. - h a ( j ) early 4 . b-ha(h6) color 5. Ahx -$- ancient times 6 . 25% to separate 7. L l 5 blue 8. 9 L red6. Which new kanji from this lesson include the katakana below? 1. *5* + 2. * -+ 3. + 4. jz +C. Which new kanji from this lesson shares the same component as each pair of kanji below? Example: $1 90-t;Idk ktdA. $2 (picture) ZHT<tZ*L, X Z f i I ; t ; ~ t c " t E L ~k T tE lL1+95Ta ~ U ~l ~ 9 I
  323. 3 i3f..a - --, L L C3 la t I t r f -- l L~ : - ( T e 1 2 % -i " & E J 3 + $ PL et=gf-.1t 3 4 % ~-k$T &tt,. i B : L e 9 C 7 b 1 f J 3 El L9 : ,#&Ti ( s 5 -- l-f 7 U h 1 js2~7.; -3a 3 2a A &=$A m:t-. 7 L d T h O 7 O -- L 0I= i: 3z. 4 ,c .at; , Ll G la - - A o > L S +f: a- 0 &rib& bh Q L 1 L 4% T $2 L a k ; 9 vl.& b b + S * e, c3 " 7 L Z L t3 j L G 3 +? rm n T 0 Z 7 ~ t ta r~zhz L-Ba L a a -j-Q L t~ & C~I + a 5 + L O I Y t3 % a # % Q 5 . b L2 r t r * 9 $1 a 12 fs - f2 1%ss3 L 2 i Y 3 -kt: r La 3 T A 755 -i 14, T x;a 3; 83 t:$ 3 " O L a) z t= a td -& - 9t t & F H i ; TV y$ rtlga -il L " .la TEZn 2 P z &@a,+ - Tz <$Jx " a & , ~ t a m ~42 o 3 $+-& i~ 9 e
  324. the heavens; the sky to get angryGod to take backdaughter to cryserious pitifulto weave once a yearone . . . ( & 6 El one day) by . . .adult wishto find to be realizedthe Milky Way wethe other side; over there and so forthCOW strip of fancy paperfarm people
  325. *<lh1 ,, ,Japanese-English 316s<lh2 + ,English-Japanese @+, Numbers fY4 342 ,sm$w+? Conjugation Chart ?Y7 &52)&3
  326. 8BH17)~~I&12T~~~&fK30 ZdI urn . . . $2 L1 Items at the end of each entry indicate the fol- -dS@ that . . . (over there) 12 lowing: PIT-b apartment E L7 e......~ ~ ~ * * ~ @ ZSLI g ~ sweet SL12 (Conversation and Grammar section) $i%03ht;h XQIlIT the Milky Way % L12-TT %.*.*.. S&SS% + 35%g negative not much L3 (Reading and Writing section) 6 rain $2 L8 G ...... % L 1 5 3 (Greetings) &@;bP1315 15-h" ki$8 it rains $2 L8 ...... (s) 3L,(Supplement) I - I1 m------RE%e(sm&g) 7% 93 U.S.A. $555 $k$ towash 52L8 1 ,$12 1 (number of excercise in the Reading and Writing section) dS3;ht&5 Thank you. G G i65;hgLjZ S L I Z s Thank you. (polite) 5 G 2 &3 there is . . . 5 L4 2 $ 6 one . . . Z% L12-?J 5- B between 2 L4 4 $SLIT % L T on foot 2 LIO& 4-5 to meet; to see Ia person) % L4 7JLlT-f b part-time job L47 3b F 7 outdoor activities 3 L11- IT 5 & that, (over there) 2 L2 $ one I&&Ll % L x blue 5% L9, Lws) 7>3-b questionnaire S L8- fld5hl.I ;if;b red 52 L9, $2L9(s) &h&L$& $n$& to show someone around&fi&L TI % cheerful S Lll- Il s ~ 9 n-d s 3 +t fall e l 1 0d18 M 8 to open (something) 5 L6 5f 2&* $A morning 2 13 LIl.1 good e L 3%eZl$h RRBZ breakfast L3 LILIX No.; Not at alI. $ GZe3 7Sf the day after tomorrow Lqs), $2 L8 LLZ b L 3 - good chiId 1921 R leg; foot 52 L7(s), % L12 IJ L l L I Z k gooddeed SLIO-II75/Plfh/%@5Y 7 W f Z Asianstudies g L 1 7 L l s , s 3 to say 5 L8 + - 2$I/k tomorrow PL3, Lqs) LIZ % home; house $ L36365 over there eL2 -Lb -fi 3 bound for . . . $ L10(~) to play; to spend time pleasantly -f+!J;( Britain e L 1 , e L 2 % L6 L< tog0 52L3&fr?k;hll I $ , r > warm gL10 L < 5 how much GL2Sf=% 53 head L7(s) L l L + 6% doctor %LI, 2110itSftdh~L~L~i A f L L x bright; smart; clever 93 LIGhZ5 (&I &%,% mean-spirited 2 L9 L7 e Lib chair 2 L2(s)&7~fiSbLI R L L new eL5 L L5htbL IK r busy (people/days) 5 L5 28 3 L l a 6 hot (weather) 3 15 2 LlTe ,%e to h u m g L 6&3LI % L hot (objects) g L 5 L l f i L I b L. hurt; painful 5 L12 2(--a) itS& ?% after (an event) 5 Lil, R L8- n Z LkEh?kb Thank you for the meal. (beforebS&P &T lateron el-6 eating) 2 Gsfsfi YOU s L4 LS?lxT -1 January L4-@)ZlZ X (my) older brother + LT(s) L S I; -r$ one oclock 2 L1, 52 Ll(s) % (my) older sister f L7, L7(s) LSl;hh -4M one hour B L4
  327. LIZ-n Z P 9 1 aerommme S 13s) 5,LlSlgh, --d best $ L1O XLW && movie e L 3L1% l2h-S - 1 last car; tail end & ? X L Z 8 3 Ewlish Oanguage) 5 Lf 3 2 a LI O(S) X Z yes e L 1b%i$h%Z -&a first car; front end X S R station 52 110,35 16-1 e LlO(s) LL(IlL1I.W language lab L3L 3 when 52 13 - - X h -P3 . . . yen e L 2L13h 5 El the fifth day of a month % Lqs) Z h U 3 S $ pencil % L2, 2 L2Is)LlgTfl.1 -3 one year old % Ll(s)L I 7 LAG --M 1: together 3 L5 2L 1 3 3 39 five 5%L9 & L I b L delicious %L2L I 3 ZOZb Il go and come back. 2 G l 1 3 % %H& round trip 2 Llqs)L T T % T L / + L ~ Pleasegoandcomeback. S G &&L @b thereare m a n y . . . ?%LIZL l ~ t S h r --5? one minute 5 Llts)2 dj&$L k 3 b large 52 L5L 3 % always 2 LIZ, S L6-m a-Xb3?)57 Australia SL1, eL1tLl& R dog 2 L4 # u &+?sA mother gL1, e L 2 ,L$ + now e L 1 52 L?(s)Ll& %% meaning 5 Lll(s),$ L12 2 &hX!l a$L Welcome home. 2 GL%3&(&IV) #(9&) youngersister E L I , 8 Sk--f snack; sweets 5 L11 2 a L?, % ~ 7 ( s ) $5fP%l $542 money i 1 6L l S ~ ( I ~ t l $ lWWdme (to ourstore) 52L2 i S %&#% rich person 2 LIOL l 9 <?5 A V entrance 3 LtO(sJ % 4 3 & 3 & togetup g L 3 35L 1 6 (a person) i s i n . . . ; stays a t . . . 2 L 4 S < Z h & 3 A wife 5 L7(s) 2L l 5 to need St8 SZah S 3 3 h child SL7(s)Ll-3 C color 2 L9 S i b a togetanmy SLIP-II 6LI?5Lb3& various ZM-II %% sake; alcohol 5$ L3 8LL I S h grandfather L7(s) LXB B 2 b to teach; to instruct % 1633h uh-uh; no 52 L8 d3L&5ht3 %&,I7 .MewYears $111,3 X +. on 5214 % LlQ-JI3~ +COW 1112-11 Zi b7 buttocks ! L71s)3L3 IF, back %L4 d3b3 castle BE-11.5%&3< to teII a lie S Ll1 &ELI slow;Jate 3 LIO5 k W song $L7 8s < (T . C some&ing) late $ L6, C L4-ID &5kF3 @ i tosiw SL7 3 < d ? P_ e X {_a kbe late (for) % L8 2,55 home; house; my place 5 L3 % &ELL;(~.-. 6%+ii ~t well w n . S L I ~S%ClZ i t;a=S (my) child 5? L7(s) S f awzn tea P L35%milt.& 9 G 69A husband $2 L7(s) 87 & & husband $ LT(s) -3a $5 sea % L5 &T&5Li & f % r restroom e L 25s. $& tosell SLIO-n &iZS S 4 temple g L45h uh-huh; yes 5 L8 3 &&3&k f ; X S x / father 52 L1, 5$ L2, GL7(s)3 h r 7 h Y Z ZST4 to drive 2L8 8 5& ( 1 $ ( 3 A/) younger brother3 h r E 3 3 8 2W-F 4 to do physical exercises 3 LI, s L7, G L71s) 2 2 $2L9 & Z % man SLI1-I1
  328. d3ckZcDZ %9? boy eL11 P L l E h ER stairs Llqs)&&ZII>Utk % a h man e L 7 75Ll%Ql ELI%shopping 8 14&&kt1 the day before yesterday 2 Lqs) 3 B=I to buy S L 4Sk&L the year before last 2 L4(s) h5 Bi 5 to own (a pet> 5 Lt1 2d3ckfd A X adult S L12-11 h X 3 Z? to return (things) 2 L6SZ6 B fi6 to dance. 5 L9 i 2 hx5 9 6 to go back; to return 2 13 3%ah stomach 2 L7(s), 112 ;h8 face S LT(s), 2 L10 <;fi&htix3 to become hungry +L11 hdWd5%L B&"~PL look pde 5 L9(s) to 28 1 L L l e h r S X 3 A orderbrother GL1, a#< ++F science 52 L1 5 L?, 5 L7(s) 2 ? ;hhJQto take (amount of time/money) $ L10B@Z&h % 2 A older sister S 1 ,S L7, 1 tQ registered mail $ L5(s) 3 L7(s) 2 A< S { towrite 5214B;fahTtlLbbI--&I. .. ,please. % L2 h5<%Lr QY student GL1$IddSk grandmother; old w o r n S L6, 8 L7ts) h3<$35 f %J student discount 52 LfO(sj&ld;&5 k d morning. 2 G hlfZ5 t&ht;la%) to put on (glasses) S L7d3ladr3Zif LbT Good morning. (polite) 2 G -hIf3 --&%El for . . . months 2 110&r3?5 $RE bath 5 L6 2 h5 2c umbrella g L 2 i ?&S.SEI3L% A totakeabath e L 6 75% bamboo hat RL10-I1d34hG E S reply 3 L l I - I I i F S hL S 3 snack; sweets 5 111 2h S$F% boxed lunch 5 L9 2 f @ 3 3 singer 2 L11 k& E Z 5 % 2 G tomemorize S L 9 hW R3F cold 52 L12&%h @ bun % L4-ID l 5 sweet ; hWZU.< Q V t to catch a cold % L12&&+If souvenir e L 4 hQ< &% family $175 ,% 5 to think S L 8 k G shoulder % L7(s)L Shr interesting 2 L 5 ISkLLILIhf= 6- z l ZL >$ bookish expression f&%% rice cake 1110-11 3 Lll(s) 2&i*s* toy 3% L11 h,ft8?3 F one way %LlO(s) tS8 8 6 & t 6 ; 2 ~ L 1 Good night. % G f17 parenthesis 3 Lll(s) Z 28k-C & C toswim &L5 flg Z L I L I great-looking & 17618 R9 4 to get off 52L6 33 h ! 3Z 3 %E school S2 L3&a& %h ; 6 (something) ends $2 19 j h z fi corner 2 Lqs)&lvfi< *45 music S L3 haL1 wife 52 L7(s)$hWu 23% spa; hot spring 2 L9 ha5 to be realized L L12-IIGhf6 -k woman S Llf-Il haLLl &Lb sad SLID-II&#u$LLnZ *a3 girl SL11 AZI h money % L6&Pvtdo3U.& ScnX woman L7 ai;3a%?5 4 b rich person & L10 % f @ G a @a girlfriend 5%Ll2,SLlf-II &ldh bag S L2, ?EE ( s )-h- or &L?O h1i53 Kabuki 5 19 %h1 but $2L7, % L5- LI fi13i&%(-E--%) to put (a hat) on a persons head%-FT.=,curtain eLas) 3 LIO-IIh3L <Z PbB foreign country $2 111 A1325 to put on (a hat) 52 L7f f L l $ 3 BL gate % LlO(s) t kB 52 hair 2 L7, S L7(s) 1 8 ; L t campany 3 L7 2 &&b & #-ka God %LIZ-IIhLlL+ L l k 92&.3 office worker 2 1 ,$2 I 1 3 ; & r wife hb h L7(s)hL13-5l3h S&$5 coupoils 5 Llqs) 2 A135 camera gt-8
  329. ;h&3U A%S Tuesday 52 14,52 Lqs) $6 9 8 to cut 2 18a57 3 karaoke L8 t h&L (@.I beautiful; dean $2 L5-fix% because . . . 2 L6 3EuLtS -$-E gold %L9(s)--&%I from .. . I 8 L7-TT LS, ShLlS +E& silver 52 L9(s)7 5 5 E ~ ~ ~ 3W 1: 3 a -2I? ~ 3 & % a 3hrZhrkf~ nonsmoking car 3 L1W) 2 to take care of oneself 33 L7- I1 ~ ~ v ee bank & ~ 2 r 5tP98 ft3 -3 toborrow GL6 S u G & &Pfi neighborhood S L11- II Phfi 4k boyfriend &LIZ t h &5 6 * ER+ b to get nervous % LIZh0 111 river SL11-I1 bPv(83 blonde hair 5 L9(s) 2;h&lltl cute $L-P .&%a sriday S 14, SPvd;jz%. Lqs)h & L l t j t d pitiful SL12-11~xkfi ophthalmoIogist 5 Ll2(s) %hkr.< se Korea 2L1, EL2 <3& SB,. air eI-81h C; 3F kanji; Chinese character 3 L6 5 < ?LEI I $ J September S L4(sj -hJvkht(a) fl$$ easy; simple L10 (G :> &d nine oclock $ Ll(s)hh[$L1 &%T Cheers! (a toast) $2 L8 (6.D * % medicine gL9 < %&sm$ 3 ??$kc take medicine 5 L9 % to % <f",I3JtL~Llh~ft E I S f i t r 3 (bt13LI yellow & Lqs) colloquial expression LIl(s) % Z temperature (weather) P L12 i Q:EfXL+l.t-Z) Please g i v e m e . . . 2 L 23( ( to listen; to h a 5 L3 2 ( 5 u month $2L7(s)< El{ toask $15 ( 3 -%tshoes 5 LZ 2Bi22 b@ season g L l 0 < lL B country; place of origin 2 L7Sf= 3L north 52 L6(s) < 7 "$ neck 3 L7(s)$9- guitar GL9 G$,O B 3 cloudy weather 52 L126 ~ * 7 / v%;BG cafe Z L 2 --B 6L1 about (approximate measurement)$5 3 T 9 + postal stamps L5, S L5(s) 3 L4 20 3 # 3 < W % F . ticket %L5 35x class %L43-;r 1 3 ; j9 1 ?ZJ%f& % ticket vending area 3 I 99-2 ~~ 3L9@) a LI~S) (35 4% tomme 52L3b@5 $13 yesterday S L4, & L ~ ( s ) %* car % L7h&?5 to decide 5 L10 2 9L- gray 2 L9(s)+ t r > l camp 2111 3 L/9sbki-F credit card $$ L103 @ 3 Z 3 ae exearpress %LIO(S) < SL X c black 5% L9, L9[s)$ Z W ~ $ L I h& nine years old 5%LI(s)*l$313th h 8 nine minutes % L ~ ( s )3x3 + today 2 L 3 , SL4ts) IfL%Ll B% economics i l l , el2B&jfPL,k &#f textbook 3 L6 2 tfht injury %L12(s)3 & 5 EL X% brothers and sisters g 17 i IffP#H surgeon $ L12(s) _$? & 5&fit&5 R%3P 4 to be interested (in) $5 if3 +.-9a this morning 5 L8 2 e L12 (3b3& X L T L eraser W(s)- 5 - linenumber.. . %Lll(s) i* 3 Ti$ to turn off; to erase L6b8;tah WF last year S L ~ s ) ($3 Z5Tq #ST-$ That would be fine.;3611(@I 4 % ~ disgusted with; to dislike $2L5 That wouldnt be necessary. 16$5 & tO put on (clothes above your waist) I 3 Z h $ 3 B%%T to get married $$ L7 j % 5 L7 2 l f 3 X j U 8 % E Monday f L4, 2 Lqs) l
  330. IfhtPdZ5 to have a fight; to quarrel 2 L11 Z;bL Ifrightening Z L5IfhS (a) X%, healthy; energetic $2L5 Zhrkt3 b +FBI this semester $2 L11IfhBfil&X Z 9 , d s t s L dont look well $2 L12 Zhr!P-r, +R this month 52 Lqs), % L8IfhQ3 %.% development % LS(s) !I 13/Y- I- concert 5$ L9 Z h l/ i$5 +athis week $ Lqs), 16 Z k r e :"& near future $k L9-Z --Z language $? 11 ZhlZSI3 Good aftmoon. 2 G-Z --j& in...time; after... GLfO Zhrlgh +?% tonight % 13Z 5 Z h * l park $2L4 E S hl$hl& Good evening. 2 GZj< 32% K Z E airmail 52 L5(s) 3 lj E 3 convenience store 2 L7Z3 Zj &R high school % 1 1 I> E l - 9 - computer 2 L1, % L2Z3 E3el.1 &%& high school student 2 LfZ 3 e L I B 3 L3 &3%@ / antibiotic $2 Ll2(s)Z 5 k <& 5 jkX & 1 glossy finish $ L ~ ( s ) 9-74 2 surfing 3 15 2Z j k < t d L 3LjRt~it matfinish S L 5 ( s ) --*I, --it . . . yearsold %Ll, gLI(s)ZX $ voice S L f O - I 1 *LIZ[: %4&6: lastly SL8-n1-k- coffee 5 L3 2 $ L I B F3% wallet 2 L27"-ILF gold % L9(sj &fPa .@ fish b L2Z f 1 9 Afi May 5 L4s) 2 *<,5h $FA may; composition S L9Z < 3LlhhIfLl @BMi?E international rela- 2 sake; alcohol 5 L3 9 2 tions 2 L1 9.~3-soccer S L 1 0 <Z idk E,& black board 52 L2Is) -3 a little while ago & L 47LL 7 here S L4 STI/ %% magazine 5k L3zz 4?&P.M. $ L 1 $Uel/LI R L t > Ionely S L 9Z ZOIh A, H the ninth day of a month & Lqs) to c u t classes 2 L1-fZ Z m 3 h 3 nine e L 9 --&6 -% Mr./Ms. . . - S E - nEel, A& five years old $Ll(s) &LL SL> (weather) 2 L5 coldc" L 5% five oclock G Ll(s) &&3i!X% Good-bye. %GZbt$ Lk Z - l A husband 5 L7(s) ? *% L l f 7 S k F the month after next 2 Lqs) 3 lc e +% A.M. "h Ll $SLL @5 .$-&a week after next $$ L4(s) theZVh%kib 5 ?S+ in the morning % L9- II * G Ll%l/v i$*B the year after next 5 Lqs)ZZ k Z 25 answer % LlI(s) --)rhr Mr-/Ms. . . . 5 Ll 2Z k X S 8 2 4 toanswer SL8-Il &hr;Hc3 ZsB March $2 Lqs)ZSZ.5 excellent food S L9- 0 ShSk5 3 % overtime work ? L8-II 3 &Z 3 % 3 $ 6 Thank you for the meal. (after ea&) 2 G &hr*LI Z& three years old 2 Ll(s)ZSS this persun (polite) % L11 Z h 1 3 4 three oclock % Ll(s) ;Z 3 3 & ~1.S parcel $L5(sf 74hG ~ t S # b Zt5+ thirty minutes % LI(s)Z k L 49 this year 2L4(s),e L 1 0 eh&hTd& 8*tT;Pa Thats tm bad. G L82 % 3$4 child g L 4 $hr13Ghhb &#FAR obstetrician and gynecol-ZIT) this . . . g L 2 ogist 52 L12(s)Em224 thesedays gL10 72hGk 253 three minutes 3 Ll(s) 2Zl$h %fiR rice; meal $2 L4 &krlZY8 #k$-;f-4 to take awalk 52L9Z131h 5 3 five minutes %LI(s) 5Z&/U&*LI Im SOITy. 2 L4-- Z3 at about 52 L3Z h this one $2 L2 --C; --* oclo€k 5 L1 2 t%LI R+ match; game e l l 2
  331. L r & ~ BLht 9 date/time surnething b ready l*@3Ch last train B LIOb) 3 Ws) 2 G U ?~al$&hr S sevenken minutes 52 Ll(s) & 3 $ 4*Q happy %SLID-11b #eK L F lZhm 3 - 2 December 3 L %5 wg->X jeans S?l2 G @ 3 1 l3 +Z4 t@ve oklock & Llls) El/hk &R dentist S L1q.s) G a5(C~34u-.+E* twelve minutes $3LI(s)l/hf.? P 8 April % L4(sS 3 K@3(&5&ql:&@5~I;k3&h +>I*-GBh -%M hour 5$ L4 rrhmks~5 Ll(s) ei~hteend 2Llfh K& exam %L9 ~ @ 3 g 2a * 3 ~ 3L Z L f?k* job; work; occnpatioa B L1, ?2L8 G@6& ,ata -7-D & the fourteenth Bay of aG l/ d; @% dictionam $ L2, S U{s) liianth 5kLsys)b-dflI#L) %a* ~ U k t e LS U9xSdikDb~@3@ $ Sumtea minutes 5 L ( ) 2 isGPS guardian deity of &iI&en & L10- H Lkp5&mSh:3?&%. six.teen minates SL1Is)bfr T under 5 L4 2 & 1sp @& 5 s * . %lass 5 Ll? 2b ; P +H %h 2 July % Lqs) E@<, 3 @mm,S&@d 3 3L?-IILSG -t% seven oclock ?GLi(s) b@ - W I .i@ hmework $$ L5, 8 LIq(s) < @t.t-=rrLl83 ~ ~ - f I~ J W W g~ ~ 7 3 ~ 3 b&U@csl 3% operation 52 L12(s)Lt3%tsA, R M question 2 Lll(s) bbbC;b I h husband 5ZL71s)L.ZLIt&S reserved seat &LlO(s) G@7&LI +% ten years old SLl(s)LThL-ts EE bicycle GL2 t* b95Lh &a comingfrom 2 L 1 1 Edta todie 8 L6 &8.2$h S-53 tenminnb S L I ( s )GI23 departing secmd 5 LlO(s) 2 b&&,?E% howwife f 1 1GbfP J&# a t s r h i n o l ~ ~ o ~ ENT .&c- st; bF& &3$ hobby %iLI*I-II tw 52 Ll2(s) t;a BB&.I;.1~6 ,#.R-T to i r r t d ~ ~G L ~ I 4 eEISih fi 3 a n m l f S LIO-n b&521%3l New Year% f Lll, SLf0-II iEfb&hUd; 5Llh TE E%R Municipal H@Pitd @&5lr?sVh %3?Q iboardingl ticket SLIU@) $2 L6 5 l + F skillful; good at . . . 2 LBL 3 9 deadline & Lll(s) a6 Ir&S%Ll %SP4 future .* L11k!b& & & (something) P L6 I B to dose , L ik < Z5 $ 9 cafeteria; dining mmons 2l3PS then.. . ; if thatisthecase,. . . %?I2 52 LTLt Y. Lrhr r8& picture; phatograph S L4 2 L O butWcIes 2 L7Is)l/ + & 3 Wt president of a campanu $E L+l 129ZePu %l Idonotknow g L 7 &-&A9 7 9 shirt %L10 q bB to get to know 5% L?Lfi@5LlShs3 +--El Nuvember & L ~ s ) - D-JlkJX- siIver 3 Lqs)L;@?LISI; t--9 elevenoclock ZLl(s) castle R E - nL ; @ . 3 L l % l ~ i % +--aeleventh day af a the b5tl Br. white 2L9, SL9(s); month 5% L4(s) b < 5 B % black md white & L9@) ,L @ j t . ~ e C +-% elevenyearsold &Lt(s) t;.S1;5&6 L " % U & K b tostare(nt1 g- I8U@3Ll3;Ss/v +--8 eleven minutes 5?Ll[@ --Gh --A people %L1C;p5ht3 +a October 2 LYs] I/kr##uWCv M%S Shinkansen: " B W Train"--b@jflkp -3IBZI for.. . weeks dl10 52L9Eejglib3aj/u +AG- n i n t m r m i n ~ t ~ s SLI~S) bhZ5 6 4 traffic light S 1 @ 6)C;@5Za3th +ZS fifteenminutes &lI{s) l i k U 9 Ma shrine 3EL11-IIl;@j&Eu~3Cu + Z 9 thirteen minutes % U{s) C/h~lzx) %saw kind 3 L?G I$ jG +B$ ten oclock $? L1@) LhtdLB6 raiR-T 5 to worm 5 LIZ 292-X jnice eL12 Lhr~5h W H nmspaper 2 2 r lL;@54kS B &t general admission &at 5% LIQS) Gh5Llbq< A%% mthropolagy % Ll
  332. $ifL1&5?3&q €I Wednesday $ L4, % L4(s) 33Gbb toclean %L8X 3 I-?> Sweden Ll 3 5 2 Thats right. % L1 573X-/r- supermarket S L4 *5Tb$l Thats right.; Let me see. $2 L3dh(;$) %f3 fond of; to like 5 L5 2 < % 7k3 PS special delivery 52 L ~ ( s )X*- ski e L 9 5 5 there 2 L4d < right away 5 L6 2 P L 7 andthen g L l l , OL9-nbZ< very S L I I rn c that.. . eL2TZLt 9 L alittle SL7-I1 e near 2 L4 z IX$PLLl Z L L coo1 (weather) & L10 413 (my) grandfather L7(s)7 fantastic &LIZ dfs (my) grandmother S LT(s)X b L X stress S L 8 - I I +fi that one 5 L2 2x$-Y sports 5 L3 2 +fihh and then $2 L5bG92i2h Excuse me.; I am sorry. S G3s 9iklt- to live $2L7 @X 3 4 F slide 2 L5(s) -5f-fIyl-$5 to go on a diet $2111sa to do 9 ~ 3 k LlZhrlf L I +$Z# thermometer 8 L12(s)6 & to sit down 52 L6 fil;hf < rk Q college; university $2 1 1 ELht<L l h l d l l k5?%4 graduate student $21 1 ELf < college student 32 Ll, $2 L8eLl;h3 ik% Me; living $ L10 tzLlb5tI($~) to hate L5lkLllfLl(T;h SBW+ orthopedic surgeon ELUkj)S +.A& It i okay.: Not to worry.; s % L12(s) Everything is under control. L5i 2 L l L &%j3politics B L1, S L12 EL33(73) A B ? very fond of; to love 2 L5%!LWS R% grade (on a test, etc.) $2 L12 f t L Z L A% usually SL3e l Ifh %l% L E! vouchers; zone tickets k L- lh (a) tough (situation) 8 16, & L5- 11 5 LlO(s) 2 k;hL & L expensive SL2e l +&$- world 2 L10 ht EfP5 so; therefore 5 L4 2I2h11=hl % - * r s l h s tau L7 f i < 7fhr many; a lot L413fiiU<L +i%3s.l&~ short (stature) 52L7 --Elf just . . . ; only . . . ZEL11dk3 cough S L12 k t t L l i % Im home. g G -&I3%!%fiti28 6% & to cough % L12 ft3 i? to stand up 3 L6 t 2e&k %+ back 5 L7(s) 2 k&ZM for example % L11{s)If0 S 4 F by all means 2 L9 ftCDbL1 % L L fun 52L5edLI $%& narrow; not spacious 2 L12 kmbi4fzT5 (--GI 35 L A K T 4Wul33 % 1 last month 5 Lqs), % 19 % to look forward (to) 3$ L7- ne h r G 3 $kEl the other day I L9-II tz1%2%33f i t % Z % 9%$ to smoke b L6d%b@5 Iast week e L 4 , 2 L ~ s ) ft~3itu 9 r3 probably; maybe G LIZ .W u e L l R?k teacher; Professor. . 52 L1 k 4 B D &-4t1 food el5VArI% +negative 2% not at all % L3 k45 to eat S L 35 the week beforelast Efi who 2212 e Lqs) khrZ 9$&word; vocabulary %L9 <@hft d& ZR? a to do laundry $ L8 < strip of fancy paper Ll2-Ye/ul$3 departing first S LlO(s) A h l .A 3 U: %& €3 birthday 52 15 ;Wul5h $F3 major g L 1 frhl$ husband 2 L7(s)
  333. T P date (romantic, not caIm&u) 2 L3 - ?-I tape %I2%Ll&Lr 4-3 L small & L5 Tfixlj-3 6 to go out 52 L5S;b< nearplace S L f l - n &{ Z;tP& *& letter %l4GfPtrT3 &T& subway BL10 FBbKV . as much as gossible 2 L12%Z <8 I 4 to be fate (for an appoint- TCS &u mit %LIO(s) meno 5 11 % 1 --pb&3 prp,babI~; .* , &ht? 2112 .53 X (my)father S L7, g L7(s) F7eb t&t &L5 %+ & meentea eI-3 5 5 ta~heip 3 L6S . t s L l 3 L I Sf511 b r o w GL-) F-3, t e d s c$k,LS?5@32< +El China ~ L l , ~ l 2 zd, &@bhE, Tiit, S3C.R-T Takecare. l ;%t.g3L+ E& injection &L12{s) % L5- JlS&Q& alittle 52L3 FIT-b d e p a b n t stme 52 L43tlftS --H the £ k t day of a month $ L ~ s ) Ce:@ F ~:kmpk 3 L ? ! 43hL*7Al%3 E~~*T73$7 & to app,ew;to attend; to exit $2 L9, dispasahk camera 5 Ws) % SL6- I ..d 3 &i to use % L6 F L C TV S?L2(s), 5% L33h14l7Llb &@"€ b & ta be tired I B-JI TbEY-br video game S L 63&#l+5 &h B to get tired 5z L11 T h 5% . the heaveas: the shy % L12- l l33 ;5r next S L 6 -T% -A . . . ~ o i n t s hL112SiL Rt- m n d l y % L8-Il ZhS 55% *eather %L53Slf-- 3~12- next (stop), .. . hLlQs) Th3 Wfi, electricity f L2(s], g L 63 C Z $2 desk $L2{SJ, g L 4 Zkr?E&Ef3 X3t3-R weather f o r m G L 83<6 tomake %L8 ThLa %* train f L6313-5 ta turn on 52L6 T h g %& battery 6 E(s)3 Z 5fP;hbL I 3F&Bf,% k inconvenient; @have Th$3 %$& telephone % Li a scheduling conflict $21 2 1 6hb~fPI38 @B B. $&if to make a phone 6-a&&& &&& to w o k f a r S t 7 call @L63% a wife eLT(S)3% &BL boring e L53ak l.1 @ R cold &hing/people) 2 LID ct: F daor SL10-n39 fishing S 1 1 I 1-I -L= person1 52 L4 tagether with (a%rma ; $ k t - r ~ totakeba& m12-II -z -B . . . dew t t e ~ ~ ~ s ~r 1e2) ~3&T<6 @AT C b tobring(apersM1) S,LB FF door +2 L2(s) ~ 3 W ~ YS 7 ~ ~ L t"5T(-&) Hereit is, SL2"r: + hand i L 7 f s ) Z:3?& L 5 < Nice :era meet you. 5 G ?- i by (means of transportation); with (a todl -2 e P 1 How a h a t . . .?;How i s . . . ? s L 3 3T5 3 10 % 1 Z36 Thank you. %L2ZLlbVhd Z#R $ ;.commuters pa& S 1 qs) $ 1 Z3-P3T haw: by what means S?2 1 0 1T 9 + Y Tsit g L 7 -hr &;f3 3- ten 52L974x3 disco 521-8 &$@4- a the tenth dm of a a0ntI-i 5 L4@j 2Tt~&tl&GIL1Skf b i a k . 2 B b . X &*3 when . - .;atthetimeof ... S L 4 polite E@~&QII Lj1(~) t6Z3 $* sometimes g L 3
  334. k I j L e k 3 watch; clock f 12E Z where 12&26 $W barbers g L l 0 ILMf3%Z JI i i two months ago 5 L ~ S ) $ 2tc.3 3 place 2L8- I R February l ~ f t S 3 L4ts)&Z%r by the way e L 9 L2f+hx(Zl) lively 15tL 4 year 3 L10-XJ. lZ< k meat 9 L2&La%% H $ $ ~ Z . L ~ ~ E UL 2 sY EeLI two years old 5 Ll(s) 2C 55 which $2 LIO - f E&hrl~% Z Z for two to three days LIZ&3$@5 smwexpress 2L1qs) Ill, $5 west %L6(s)CDS which 5 L10 3 I, I C ; two oclock Ll(s)&T6 very $15 bldhr -%? hha past two $ Ll&&!3 F% next GL4 Izl;@;p4&2h ,+WE the twenty-fourth day which... 5 L2 2 of a month P Lqs)ZCnCSL how much; how long 52 1 0 1 I= L;@ 3d;/vbLZ!l 2WS 9 24-print rollb 7 b tomato 3% 18 52 L5(s)&5 3 2~ to stay (at a hotel, etc.1 S 1 0 1 I= G 9 3 13h CI- 53 twenty minutes 5 Ll(s) 2&%tc?s XfZ-f; friend 3L-l I L % & ~ U P 0 g 8 Sunday f L3, 52L4.s)Z&5U 3t% H Saturday & L3, $2 Lqs) -1L3L17 about; regarding to 3 M-IIF5-f 1 drive 2 Ll1 IL-=rb $ diary E L9-I1 3( 8 iS 6 to take (pictures) 5 L4 4 2 E13xIu 1 two minutes 2 Ll(s) % $rb t take (a dm);to get (a grade) o IZRh E % Japan 52 1 1 Llj, L7- 11 I [ h a +=8Japanese language $$ Ll&b B% totakeoff %LAO-11 t Z l Z k Lhr B rd;x Japanese people 2 L1C$L which one $2 1 3 t L 6 3 4 % baggage S L 6 3b L-.;f.- sweat shirt $$ L2 E&5l%3 B wife $2L7(s) kkk&3 pork cutlet $ L2 --ft--?Z@13f25put (a hat) on a persun" head tor?Yufd what kind of . .. $215 s Llo-rI --[Lkr --A [counter far people] % L77 @ ILh3;h$5 A % h t & 8 to be popular L9ad;Lh ~ 9 %physician L12(s) 4= inside $$ L4&f~ltlELlong L7 33 nemtive 52 L5(s)a< i&{ tocry ELI2-I1 & 5f 1 @A& hJL wish SLIP-na<* tolose 52112 8 2 % cat 2 L 4&3 E summer S . L8 ;(a3%188 %#&I 5 to have a fever - L12-$LC% and so forth % L12- ZI Z t S L ) %%L sleepy $LIDt6f62CLl ti% years old %Li(s) seven ha aa to sleep; to go to ~ i 2 ~3p ~&a3 -trq seven S L9 -ah -+ . .-years SLlOai;td;&ht B seven minutes $ LI@) +&lh*Ll --%F S . . . mar student $$ L17kILi5 4T&* something 5? L8 +$K[z% negative m% not. .. anything 2 17 - = the seventh day of a month % L4.0 IL3 1-b notebook 2 t2&ZX % T name ZL1 S --CnP because. . . % LIZ 7 tolearn eL11 throat 9L12&a to become 2 L O A < Z S { to become thirsty L122lh/ZIIL FJ what e L 1 C E f% to climb 5% L11 D5
  335. c aa D* &A* drink k L 5 kbfl, %h sunny wexther e L l 2Init: to drink % L3 I%h, % half %LltD 3 hlZ @ 9 8 5 transfer 2 Llqs) ! i -[$h --% number . . . % Ltl(s)Qlb 35 4 to ride; to board $ L5 /C=/ bread g L 4 ; IZhr"3 45% number 5 Li 2 I2hZIZh . !%!ME dinner 2 t3I$, B T tooth % L?(s), 5 L12 %JC-Fd - party 8 1sl-"E+z- barbecue 2 18 2I$L F2 Ll yesI*LLl5 RE gray 2L9(s)(dLjTh $b$ kiosk $ Ll O(S)i;ttWa A 5 to enter $Z 1 6I ; s X$ postcard 8 L5, 8 Lqs) 3hh eag .c.pw~ .S~LSM< to put on (items beIow your waist) L7 Li-Jb b&T b lrllIZb chopsticks LB OAi &= x+@s e Lqs] : it *I$ G 33 % 3 8 (something) begins $21 9 O S l r i I f h B13%,2& receipt eL5(s)I$I;&!IT &&TC forthefirsttime 2L12 ZP ( play (a string instrumat or piano)I&L;b!j$LT How do you do? g G 5 L9 %6 4 tobegin S L 8 DE5S %E$$ airplane SL5/TX bus 2 15 Veb13tg A t 2 3 it has beena long timeJI;1IZL 1 qX@ bus stop S? L4 s L11BkM farm SL12-II E@?t.X:. business $2 Ll, % L2I Z k S t-l-& twenty years old 2 LIts) BD @38h &%@8 art museum 111I B Rb to work 52 Lli PE9 & left $ L4l;t;k%&S t3k2%& to weave %LIZ-11 PE9@43 &@I side 52 L6(s) leftI August 5 Lqs) 2 83 < !33& to be surprised 3i 110-III$.% eight oclock 2 Ll(s) ET43 video tape; VCR % L2(s), 52 L3m?343h 152 eight minutes 5 LI(s) 2 Dck A person *L4I X(wrong) 52Lll(s) Dt3 -9 one 5%L9I&3&kr %"g pronunciation 2 111(s) z).&3&, -T€l firstl$3@ Z-l- I the twentieth day of a month 3 U&U& Aq people PLl2-n &L ~ s ) U&!3 -A onepersan e L 7fdg?ZL ei&t years old 2 LI(s) U.&gP -AT alone &L41 - ; 2 $>5 h eight minutes Ll@) U.875 b*R derrnaklogist 2 L12(s)I#& z flower e 1 l2 ZrZ (a)I$% not busy; h have a lot of free timela& & nose 52 L7@) 5 L5 3iajaLaTa %&3% to haveatalk SL~-11 C & Lh %SE beauty parlor G L10 F3(a&F %T to speak; to t l ak L3 W&.Sth %i% hospital 5% 14-I t J 37 panoramic 52 E ( s ) 7J& 3% &3, ; t i l l s sickness eL9, 2112(s)[&I& (my) mother % L7(s) +4 U&3l;@kL" 4%S% standard JapaneseL B I ?rx earls 5 L3 &L 2 5 Ll 1(s) 2L P P L I PCfast a17 TTQZlaAr W % lunch 52L3I$.+ < 7 ( (do somethind early; fast % L10 Zh BE flight S L I O T$ 5 5 $ 5 topay 52110 e23 pink $Ls(s)la5 5% spring & 110
  336. fi-,!SJY 3 homesickness 5 1122 ik-&XF4 homestay; living with a Iocal family7 41b.h film 53 L5Is) 5 L8 ?13jLa ws Ietter i ~ ( s ) RfiIZ anything else L11(s)3< InZ cloules 5 L12 2 1 % @ I (used by men) 52 L51 3 7 3 =-=,two 2 L 9 Rljh insurance 5+ L5(s)13ft3& = q E4 second 5 L6(s) 2 -3 @5 -8s looking for . . . * 111- 1 WT 13 -A two people 5 1 2 7 7iTXb7759- host family 3Li1,SLS-nr3k 9 83 ZAP3 two peapk each 52 LII(s) 7kFJb hotel 5 L4 2r3133 9s Iocal % LlO(s) IZh book SL2, $L2(s)b3b h fl the second day of a month 2 Lqs) lZhrCr5T-Tf1 +3 TThb Really? % L6iS2&JG L = E @$ hangover 2 1 2 i 1 IZh* +@ bookstore 5? L4~3LgTLl$cd 2 i ? T k 3 T tobeontheheavy side S L713&8 h 6 to gain weight 2 L7 ZSZkbS okay; so-so % LA1SIZKFP~ %E surface mail 52 L5(s) -zL --& [counter for flat objects] L54 4 & ship; boat 3 k $ L10 6LlL@3 everyweek S 8 Lr3@ 4 wintm 2 L 8 %LIE% *I3 everyday 2 L 3I J >b ! print 2 L5(s) %LlIgh W k every night 5 L3 2&St old(thing) gL5 r5.k~ 32 front e L 4IL@> b present 2 112 3 5 6 6 to turn 2 L6(s)3 bath g L 6 2 b Z serious S LIZ-r~ L5K65ILI3.Lla I S l:Ab to take a bath $2L6 $3- first of all 3 18-IIShff culture i Lil-II % Sft again 3L5-n< A 4 literature gL1, SL7-n + %E negative not . yet 5 L8.. 213fwE5 2% grammar SLil(s) Z S rsl town; city 5 L4 2 6 3 5%-3 to wait & L4 % 3 3 C straight $ L6(s), 3 L6- I4-3 page 2 L6 6! 9 3l festival ~ ~ 1 1 - n-4-9 . . - % 11{s) page number 1 --3T to (a place); as far as (a place); tiIl (a time)jt(Z~) T 4 clumsy; poor a t . . . f 18 G 15<3[L + negative $11: not . . . in particular -bT(L b y . . . SL12-II B L7 6C d window 5 U(s), L6 2 ?%*B i3PE room 52L5 ZZCS ED counter SL5(s)49 pen % L2, $2 E ( s ) d S 0(correct) i LIl(s) 2<hrb&jT& %ST? to study %L3 g h G @5 sweet bun 5 L4-HI %4hZb lawyer gL14 h G SF reply % L17-II Z %4h&5 fF 3 boxed lunch 5 L9 2 a! a ? right 5 L4 24hr9 I&) - convenient g L7 &btitb an B;l C&L right side 236. short (length) e L 7 L6ts) B 3 $ water % L3E3Ifh h $ dialect 5 Lll(s) ? &PLl4 $d light blue d L ~ ( s )E31/ B-F hat; cap 2 L 2 &35& 24 lake SLll- - i Z 3 W h --$G serving.. . areas &Llqs] S store i L4-Ul E*--A platform % LlO(s) h Z W the third day of a month
  337. 8313B RqtS a to find sL12-II B& b11 easy (problem); kind (person) 32 L5333 59 three $19 + T L @I inexpensive; cheap (thing) 5 L5 2a"t l3 8% green ?% L9(s) 6Sb #k holiday; day off; absence 5$ L5 !&$Lab EJ./L everyone SL6-HI *d T3 t be absent (from); to t o 5? L6bd c ipj south 5 L6(s) fh 2 + ~ ~ L ~ io be Y S L 7 & thina& rF ear $ L7(s) % to ldse weight $5 L7&+If A& souvenir & L4 933 255, eight SL9 -9&6 R B to see; to look at; to watch 2 L3 +S mountain & L11, 3 L5-ll 5ah& all 2 ~ 9s ~ 7 - n , TZ&EI A,$ mountain road 36 L10-U*hgP a11 (of the people) together 5 L8 % + 3 to quik. &Lld a8 8q7 doj, tq.pedam S L ~;t*Llh1 I A 3 the sixth day of a month $ L4(s) -- . . .,s.. &@$;A L$;-h 3$ T once upon a time S L10- TT CI +$3Uhha< postoffice S L 2it;Z 5 13 ? the other side; aver there I 5 -. Z famaus $ L8 1L12- 1 1 @3bJLlLh * % A celebrity 2 1 0 1d3iL. % Lb difficult 5 15 3fkl 2 @S 9 .sn.,w eu2, i LIO-n sit;$& % daughter % LIZ-I1 % @3;(5 ~Fowly;leisurely; unhurriedly G L6$337 ,49 six 32L9 4% ~fimger 5% L7(s)it.& J@ breast % L7(s) f dream e L11&52~3 3 pwple % L ~ ( s ) . 7 - ." " 5 fie eighth day of a month $ L~(s) 3 eye $ LJ, L7(s) &% Yl T business to take care of 5$ L Z I&&I& Eli%$% glasses % L7 & B 7 f t 5 ifyoulike e L 7%=I-- menu e L 2 &.< often; much L3 &G W% four oclock $2 Ll(s) &r=rb B El the fourth day of a month 52 Lqs)55 already 5 L9 2 & 3 3 1 ~ 9 9four 52L9%5F< very soon;in a few rnoments/days && %;S: to read 5% L3 2 L12 < T k reservation $ L10% < & 3 Cf *% H Thursday 6 14, S L ~ ( s ) &5 A night 2 L6, % L5-II% L% Hello? (used on the phone) G L4 IJ &hr* t D P four years old $ Ll(s]%5 rice cake S L10-I1 E drhtBh W-;J" four minutes $2 Ll(s)%53h o f ~ u r s e e L 7%3 K - F to carry; to hold e L 6% ~ 7 1 < 7Tb.( # totake(something) g 8 L 5 L l i 5 3 . 3 6 *?F?ll next semester E LIO%9C<& @ - T ( & tobring{athing) &L6 5L l I f 3 next month 5 L4(s), 52 L8 2%T & more $2 Llf %L!Jw~ 3S next week eL4(S), el6 F.%Ul 8 thing (concrete object3 5 L12 2 SLlalv 3 4 next year 5 L4(s), % L6 k 2% 5 3 to get (from samebody) 2 L9 @ 0 g1$5fi<fQ g99t.a tostudy abroad 2L11BbBb %3% L reprint 8 L5(s) g v 38 <el1 @ k3 k international student 52 118 3 ~ 5 FfSR basebaIl $2 L10 9 a 5 % d o d t o ~P ~ 9 - I IVeLl EfR vegetable gL2 8s cooking %L6-m
  338. gajg*a RBPT~ O C O O ~ ~ S<iZLl A% sixyarsold PLl(s]9 & Z 5 #t4T travel 52L5 6<L sixocIock gLI(sJs3hZ apple 5 LlO 2 59~3ihA B six minutes PLl(s)Ib-1%-b roommate S% L11 747 wife e LT(s) $2h1tl young 5 L9 2 ;ha% to undestand L4;hLl exampIe & Lll(s) &haz& f l f i % to break up; to separate $2 L12m . i?E& history g L 1 , 32 L i2 * & & h d t0 forget; to leave behind 5 t6 2L/XbF> restaurant S L 4 @ftL e z a L r;t2hl/95 BkEi exercise 2 Ltlts) ;hlr=LkS & k b we % LIZ-nfihrt@535 R%TS to practice S L l O aka X B to cross e L ~ S )L>PY=, X-ray 52L12(S) ; a 1 ,%%I. bad 52L12 h tS<ht3 June 2 Lqs)
  339. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z&<Lh2 E n g I i s h - J a p a n e s e ~ B H ~ z z t ~ N T ~ m ~ ~ z ~ apple 9kkF SLlO o Items at the end of each entry indicate the fol- April t h ! ~ .PI 52L4{s) art museum @G$3fixh &a&@ 3 Ll1 .*- lowing: % . . . gs g... as far aq.ia p l a ~ e ) -dT $ W (Conversation and Grammar section) as much as ,peqsj$le ~3btZIf % L12 s----.* A&ShE Asian:@udiqs Y$7lfhh@3 7 3 7 R R BL1 Z r . , , I (Reading and Writing section) a*-.-S< %LEI G --.*-- ZL?23 (Greetings) atcabout -35, !+L3 (Sk. . . % IS A (Supplement) % a1;thetime of . . . 3 4 G L4 I . .m...-.. MBS=(%&S3@1 attend T b & & GL9 (number of excercise in the Awust 1 A 5 A T 3 214-0 Reading and Writing section) AustmIla &-Xb5!J7 8L1, SL11 ba& 5jr4 &5 2L4about - ~ L ~ L I T SL8-II back kkfdh Q.fi i L7(s)about (approximate measurement) bad h&L) ,%b 2 L12 -<5Li 2L4 baggaw+ lr;62 8% S L 6absence Bd& F,A $15 El@lbhr L2, L2(s) 2absent (from) +b& W$ e L 6 bqnjk.9 bat S L10- nadult tf;&76: AX SL12-II bqn.d /t>F LL1-I-11aerogramme 1 97-L 52 L5(s) 7 bank S423 Rfi SL2after . . . - 7 -4% SL10 barbecue /T--/.t=Fz- 2L8after (an event) (-a>) bt (-a)& 5 L11, 3 L8- II 2 % barbers trsB EFE 2 L 1 0again be I L 5 - I I baseball BS@;P3@?% G L10air < SL8 bath, -G@)B5 ( f ; ) W I ; 2 16airmail Z 5 < 3 D h &ZE Lqs) battery 7thS Z & % L5(s) iairplane D Z 3 6 RE% 52L5 be m t h e heavy side 3~L27tdb n ? T ~ i f 217alcohol I&)hlj ( k ; ) l g L 3 bea~tiful &fit(;F6) e L 5all &hfd 2 L 9 , EL7-11 beauty parlor U+.5Lk XBR d LIOall (of the people) together &h/vT 2 L8 beggyse.. . - 5 2 L 6alone U.&!3T -AT 2L4 because . . -DT . % L12 - -already $5 2 L 9 become a6 e l l 0 "6always LIZ)% 52 L12, 2 L6-m % beer P-Ib & L11A.M. tehr 4% L1 &gin l#U&5 +k&& S 8 Land so forth --$E Z% ~ 1 2 - n (scirtkthing) begins Id;Gb+5 3 4 S L9and then 9 ; f t f ~ S % 15 best L1Slgh $2LiO 7%and then ~ I J T 111, % 19-11 between & L l E c7 g L 4(get) angry ~ Z E J %4 % L12-D bicycle G T ~ L B h S s + Ganswer Z k X S $ Lll(s) birthday ktvLk5U #&a g L 5answer Eft555 Gri. $ 3 L8-II i black (5i.l X L ~ B , $U[s) Santhropology GhBLht< Li black and white L4<9 B E % L9(s)antibiotic ZSlALlr33 LEJ &&4@%? aL12(s) black board z<Ldh ,E& % Lqs)anything else R;hl: 2 Lll(s) blonde hair 9 t v k b &% eL9(s)apartment 7/T-b 52L7 blue &&Li $I. % L9, Lqs)appear Ta & & e L 9 board Db 5 $ L5
  340. boarding ticket L&5bst-fh %$B % Llqs) celebrity @5tBLIl;h, *%A S L10boat 1342 D b L l O chair L W K(s)book 1% + % L2, S L2(s) cheap (thing) FTL1 & i %L5 b 1Zbookish expression ~ I V = L I L I L I ~ ~ L &-f= cheerful &1L % & t r SLII-II 71 x a L b 5 SLIt(s) Cheers! (a toast) gtJhL ( v l &% 2 L8bookstore I3hV +E 2 L4 child 2 % 5-I% 2 L 4boring s d S 1 2 L l g L 5 - child EiZsSA, %T3& 32L7(s)borrow ffv3B E l 9 4 e L 6 (my)child 55mz .jr;ag %L7(s)bound for . . . -LS -Er 3 2 LlQs) China ?5@3Z< +El S L l , S L2boxed lunch L&)<ht45 (&)B3 $19 Chinese character f ~ l ?E+ % L6;hboy BLZUIZ R a - 3 - GLll cl-apsticks k t t $2L8boyfriend t ~ h ; h %E 2 Lt2 city Z S eL4bread IT=/ 2 1 4 class 372 g L 4break up K)&?t& S Q k t Z eL12 class U @ 2 ? & 3 eL11breakfast &*ZHhr B % % L3 R Z clean SfiL(Zx) B L5breast B;& B4 eJLT(s) clean +iLbB #Ra-$& gL8bright ZftdhTLL R-bgb e $2L7 clever ZkdfitlL~ BRhPb L P L7bring (aperson) 3 % l T < ZkhT { B & L6 climb (DEB %?B SL11bring (a thing) % = 7 < 5 3.3- 7 ( & S L6 clack &lf.tj 33 2 L2Britain 4 + 9 X +? Ll, I2 close (something) E & 6 +2 L6 lbrothers and sisters +a5f?L X $17 clothes IS( I S L l 2brown 3 BW(s} cloudy weather < % I 2 L12 B1 !Bullet Train Lhhh&h $ L9 $ clumsy 4fr(%)T 4 2 L 8business E9*X 52 1 ,2 l.2 1 coffee 3-k- 52 L3business to take care of A 3 L HI$ L L12 cold Dl2 mXl 21-12 rbus I x % L5 C cold (thing/people) T & ~ L ~ k b % L10i=fibus stop IfXTLI ? < X I $ 3314 cold (weather) ~ C L ~I L g L5 X Lbusy (peaple/days) L I ~ ~ % L *it c h 5? L5 college f f L I f i < A* S L Ibut T* 52L3 college student fZLfip<eL A%& 2 L1, &L8but fit s 1 7 ,~ 5n- ~ colloquial expressionbuttocks (8)! L I L7Is) < EM.ffLlL1-hf~ ( f . % b S $$ Lll(s)buy t ~ 3 X=l 2 L4 color L1.S C $ L3 !by-. . . --%T~L s ~ i z - r r come <a 4 5ZL3by (means of transportation) -T % LlO coming from L 9 3 Lkr ~ $ f -52 L11by all means -3 RR g L9 I 0 commuters pass 7 1 l h 333% ? LlO(s) 13fr %by the way &Z%T $2 L9 company fPLIL+ 9e eL7by what means Z ~ V Z J T Llo composition $ < ~ 3 h +FA e L 9 computer EIL--~- 8 1 , L2 1s concert 129-I- $3 L9cafe S3ech %2&& 2 L 2 c6nvenience siore 3 Y C = % L7cafeteria La<ZS $%* 7 %L convenient n;hr!l (a) @+!I 2 L7camera A S 7 52L8 cook r3&5!9bQ 6 g-I8camp 4+7;lf %L11 cooking 9 a 5 9 $+a3 L6-micap IX3L SF 212 cool (weather) Tb-LLl S L r . eL10car <&& $17 corner j3l.Z A 2 Lqs)carry %3 $ 9 P L 6 3 correct (0)5 Z3 Lll(s)castle I&) ( S ) % Zi 15-II L3 cough f23 e i l 2cat &Z X S L 4 cough e ; f2 3 6 & %LIZ 3b i 6catch a cold f ~ l f & P < 2V 2 L12 counter dZC% Sn SL5(s)
  341. (counter for flat objects) -911 --& L5 do $5 5 x 3(counter for people) -Eh --A g L 7 do 8% S L 5country <lL E 3 L7 l 2 do laundry ehk<d& 4 $ Lacoupons ;hLl?F3lf A, m&$$ 2 Llqs) do physimk~exercises 5 h Z 5 z f 5 SBT &cow 3 F 1112-n ii r P L9cram school L < % L7-Il E doctor tl l/+ - E $ e 11, $110credit card 9 L Y Y bf3- t i LIO dog ll@ e - 2 L4cross Otc5 & $2 Lqs) dont look well I$hShtt6L %%it;b% b*my a< 3 SL12-II %;.w2--culture 13hr;h AIL B L11-n doar F77 $ L ~ ( s )curtain h-TY $ U(S) 2 door & P %lrlo-ncut S B 975 2L.8 dormitory 5 5 #? 3 L9-11 5cut classes Y%+5 6 Lfl dream @@ 8 11 1+cute ;h&LlL 5 1 27 drink &&= 213 drink @b%@ &A% e L 5 B r i m 5Pv7rCuT3 &%if& S L 8dance 8tr6 RGB g L 9 d i e E - f l a LIIdate (romantic) J - b eL3date/tirne something is ready . . r LWhtD ttL&P1 2 L5(s) ear &b % L7(s)daughter G-8a SLl2-xx early f3W1 FLS L 3day after tomorrow, the Z&7e LA(s), (do sorngthing) early I < . F { S L10 sm east GhTL AC $2Lqs)day before yesterday, the &&&LI % LqsJ eaGy 3hf=hl&l W & $$ L10day off Tbib # A G 15 easy (problem) BeLL) BL5deadline 9 %Lll(s) eat f ~ 4 Q , b Sk L3December Ll;b31cftx3 +=a %L~(s) econamics I L@LI L& $11, 2 L2 fdecide 5&5 *a% bL10 eight F73 91- g L 9. . . degrees (temperature) -Z -E% d k12 eight minutes l 3 ~ 1 3 h / W 1 3 4 ~W %Ll(s) 2delicious &Ll/L $2 L2 eight1 oclock IaS L; ~3 2 Llts)dentist L &# b LI~(s) eight years old 1 & % Llts}departing first t2hi33 & A % LlO(s) - eighteen minutes G @ ~ I & % J ~ ~ ~ / C W ~ I Zdeparting second I X% $ LlO(s) +).K s Ll(s)department store 5/T-b S L4 eighth day of a month, the & & A H 5dermatologist U13b &J## % L12(s) 2 Lqs) -desk 2 < X f i $D(s),2 L 4 electricity Thh %% 5% L2(s), $$ L6development I-PhT5 R%l St5(s) eleven minutes L@511313h +-33 g Ll(s)dialect R 3 3 h 3% Q Lll(s) eleven acbck 5 +--=$ SLl(s)diary 3 aL9-II eleven years old U P S ~ L ~ ~ L ~ +--adictionary G L A %$ $$ L2, S L2(s) 5 L() 3 lsdie L 9 En g L 6 b eleventh day of a month, thedifficult &bhtLL % L L L5 t i m 5 LISILS +-a bL ~ ( s ) dining commons L a < 25 t B g 17 (something) ends Sh25 &+% $ L9 4dinner I$hL"Id;tv %RE 2 L 3 energetic I3tv3(&) %% 2 Wdisco Y d X l &L8 English (language) XLlZ E% g L 1disgusted with h % L ( t a ) % r h g L 5 ENT doctor G U 85% %L12(s)dislike b6LIfd;l 4%t ZL5 enter [315 A 4 $$ L6disposable camera 2fiLWe;h%7 & entrance 1113<"5 h a %LlO(s) f a 9 4 %L5(s) erase 3 ?#sf- 5216
  342. eraser I 1/34 iff 9 . L $2 L2(s) f L five years old Z & L I 5% f Ll(s)essay *<!3k #;4 S L9 flight U h 1 B LlO 2every day & L l ~ 5 &a $2L3 flower I E SL12ev&y night dLjl;fh, 4 % i L3 E fond of b h ( B ) .kSS C5every week 3 L I L w 5 +d S L 8 food ftK%CS, eL5everyone h E S X . SL6-m foot z L a 2 L~(s), ~ 1 2 eEverything is under control. for example TckZkf 5SLll[s) f:t~l;aga AAA S L ~ for . . . months --h11Y3 --+8 $2L O 1exam L I f h R& 2 L9 2 for the first time IaGb3T T % L12example hL W & Lll(s) for two to three days ttrhlzS =3 EIexcellent food ZS+5 3 L9-n . d L12Excuse me. T&&*hr 52 G for.. . weeks -Lw3hh SL10exercise hhrLm5 % $ Lll(s) foreign country < PbEi $? Lilexit 7 5 & b % L9, % 16-I 2 forget ;hm&&;Pzb h L 6exit P<S &tlo 2 LlO(s) four &TT es- 2 L 9expensive fihtL1 % L2 four minutes d;tvt$h, m A $ Ll(s)express 3@553 3itT +LlO(s) four oclock G eLl(s)eye g L7, S L7(s) four years old & h f z L 5 Ll(s) 2 fourteen minutes G w 5 & h ~ S h +m5? 52 Ll(s) face fP.8 & $2L7[s], B LIO fourteenth day of a month, thefall S W eL10 3 + 4Lqs)family fix+?< ?&% %C7 fourth day of a month, the &.=lh1 es Hfamous 5 *% %L8 3 L~s) 2fantastic d7Hta;) && g U 2 Friday SPVA5UI & l a 5 L4, g Lqs) +farm {aftif OL12-rr friend r4%t<S & & Z LIfast I W L l SL7 frightening Z;hLl gL5fast I#+< < F 2 LIO f r o . . . - 5 g L 9 , RL7-nfather &&?*A, G x r A 2 1 $2D, 1 ~ front b X $T 2 64 1 a L~(s) front end L~Sl2hZZ -%$ S LlO(s)(my) father *% x S L7, L7(s) * fun kOlLt GL5February IL~PT gL4(s) future L R R %L11 Jfestival $9!7 Q 1 5% LII-I1fifteen minutes I ; @ 3 Z B / u f3LiEB $LI(s)fifth day of a month, the LDIY 3 xs $2Lqs) gain weight 13&& 2 L7film 7 - f l b l . 2 L5(s) game L & L I St%- eL12find &313& X - l T a s ~12-II k gate hLh3 &+L S L I q s )finger WU: % 5S L7(s) general admission seat l;@32S fi $rbfirs 3 - 9 etas) 2 LlO(s)first ear t3l$hdZ -%@ 52LIqs) get (a grade) t Z i %6 5 Ll1 ?first day of a month, the ~ t f t z 5 -13 get (from somebody) W33 $219 2 Lqs) getoff &r36 A 9 5 52L6first of all ZP 3 18-n get to know L 6 % % f 17first-year student t 5 t a h r - F L -+& $2Ll get up 858 &i 6 5% L3fish $hJt6 . eL2 Get well soon. &ELl;lc. %*Pi- $ L12fishing 2!l S Lil-n girl & t V ~ ~ -4taT % L 1 Z 1five 3 3 A 7 $19 girlfriend h1QIl;& @3c & L12, SLII-nfive minutes ZtBh &Ll(s) glasses eL7five oclock Z L 5 % i Ll(s) glossy finish 5 %iR& 9 Lqs)
  343. A B C D E F G H I J K L M gloves T13;<5 +E % LIO have a lot of free ,time U d (a) E L5 go I<( A SL3 have a scheduling conflict go back R 6 S l-3 2Z5fi34X5L @&$%it eL12 go on a diet b d b $ LII haveataik I;t&L&T6 S 2 s f Z 8 ~ 9 - I I go out mf;ta a64-ta e L5 head %fzd 52L7(s) go to sleep #J& 6 5 $ L3 hatthy IYkrht%) . % 215 % , God S Z 3 3 I~ 1 2 - n hear %< W( P L3 gold OhrL.S &L % L9(s) heavens, the v h X S 112-11 gold 3 - 5$ LS(s) Hello? (used on the phone) % L%L 2 L4 good L I L l $13 help r 3 2 5 i z. . 4i s 1-6 Good afternoon. ZhIc5l& S G here Zi . S L 4 good a . . . Lk3Ptz2) 1 t & L8 Here it is. (--6),E5€ % L2 good child L l L l Z l ~ x 3 ~2L9 high school z 3 Z3 iS+$ $$ L1 good deed L L I Z & 3 LIO- 5 higR:school student Z 5 s 3 & L l ;$%& Good evening. Zhtl%hl;t $2G b Ll Good morning. 812k5/$l&k5Z?Lldd history ;Ylhl/ 4 k 211, 5%t-2 eG hobby b @ & Fs* ZLll-II Good night. 8+S&fa;&L1 & G hod 3 7 hL6 Good-bye. z4&3tm5 $ G hdiday Bb& F,& e L 5 grade (on a test, etc.) @ W f , S LA2 L b i@ homb tGi 2X GI-3 graduate student ELIht< LltvtkL1 Ag@ik: home 5% g L 3 5 Ll 2 hohUsickness *-A9 ~3 % Li2 grammar ~SEhl35 2i-k 2 Lll($) % homestay fi--AxFr( SL8 grandfather & LLx*/V 2 L7(s) homework I < F L Y %*a+$ L5, S Lii(s)