MPLS IntroductionTime to Certify Nov 2011. Version 1.0
This MPLS Introduction Training is a courtesy ofTIME TO CERTIFY“YOUR ONLINE RESOURCE FOR IT CERTIFICATION”email@example.com Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS Introduction§ What is MPLS and how does it work§ MPLS Labels and Label Switched Paths§ MPLS Forwarding§ MPLS Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)§ MPLS Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)§ MPLS Layer 2 VPNs§ MPLS Layer 3 VPNsPage § 3 Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
What is MPLS?§ MPLS = Multi Protocol Label Switching§ MPLS is a technology that tags traffic with “Labels” being used for fast switching of packets through the network based on a simplified header§ Originally created to simplify traditional forwarding mechanisms such IP Routing § Slow mechanisms that required CPU consumption and lookups into the Routing Tables§ Providing the benefit of additional functionality: § Virtual Private Networks § Traffic Engineering§ Hardware evolution has made the fast switching (original motivation for MPLS) not so relevant but additional services provided are still beneficial§ Runs on top of a variety of Layer 2 technologies such as ATM, FR, PPP, POS, Ethernet Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS Operation (1)§ MPLS adds a Label to the Layer 2 frame structure and uses it for switching packets in a fast fashion within the transport network§ Key elements in a MPLS network are as follows: § Provider Edge (PE) router: Adds the MPLS label to the Layer 2 frame § Provider (P) router: Switches traffic according to the MPLS label § Customer Equipment (CE): Injects traffic into the MPLS network P P PE PE CE CE P P Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS Operation (2) At PE (Ingress Edge): At PE (Egress Edge): Classify Traffic Remove Labels P P Forward Packets Add Label CE PE PE CE P P At P (Core): Forward using MPLS labels (as opposed to IP addresses) • Label Indicates: – Destination (at IP layer): Each IP destination network has a different label which has local significance: label for a destination network changes in each hop. – Service Class: QoS treatment over the network. Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS Label• Label is added after the Layer 2 MAC header MAC Header LABEL Layer 2 Frame /Layer 3 Packet T Label EXP O S TTL 20 3 1 8 • Label = 20 bits. Used for fast switching • TOS/EXP = Class of Service, 3 bits • S = Bottom of Stack, 1 bit • TTL = Time to Live, 8 bits • Label can be added to the following Layer 2 Technologies: Ethernet, ATM, Frame Relay or PPP Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Label Switched Path§ LSP = Label Switched Path § Path through the different P routers from ingress PE router to egress PR router § Traffic mapped into LSP based on (at the ingress of an MPLS network): § IP Prefix/host address § Layer 2 Circuits (ATM, FR, PPP, HDLC, Ethernet) § Groups of addresses/sites—VPN x § A Bridge/switch instance—VSI § Tunnel interface—Traffic Engineering§ Labels have local significance (among two routers)§ Labels are being distributed using a LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Traditional Routing operation (non-MPLS) Interface E0 18.104.22.168 Router A Interface E1 Interface E0 192.168.1.1 10.125.1.1 Interface E1 Interface E0 10.125.1.2 22.214.171.124 192.168.1.15 Routing Table (Router A) Routing Table (Router B) Net Interface Next Hop Interface Net Interface Next Hop Interface 192.168.1.0 E0 Connected 126.96.36.199 E0 Connected 10.0.0.0 E1 Connected 10.0.0.0 E1 Connected 188.8.131.52 E1 10.125.1.2 192.168.1.0 E1 10.125.1.1 1 3 5 S:192.168.1.15 S:192.168.1.15 S:192.168.1.15 D:184.108.40.206 D:220.127.116.11 D:18.104.22.168 2 4Assemble IP Packet Routing Table Lookup Routing Table LookupDestination Address: 22.214.171.124 ?? à 126.96.36.199 ?? à 188.8.131.52 Use E1 Use E0 Next Hop Address: 10.125.1.2 Host is directly connected • Routing Performed based on Destination IP • Requires Routing Table Look up Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Label based switching Interface E0 184.108.40.206 Interface E0 Router A Interface E1 Router B Interface E0 192.168.1.25 10.125.1.1 192.168.1.1 Interface E1 Interface E0 PE 10.125.1.2 220.127.116.11 PE In Label Network Interface Out Label In Label Network Interface Out Label 22 192.168.1.0 E0 2 32 192.168.1.0 E0 22 1 18.104.22.168 E1 21 21 22.214.171.124 E0 31 2 4 6 LABEL 1 LABEL 21 LABEL 31 S:192.168.1.15 S:192.168.1.15 S:192.168.1.15 D:126.96.36.199 D:188.8.131.52 D:184.108.40.206 1 7 3 5Ingress Lookup Lookup Egress In Label 21 à PE In Label 1 à Out Label 31, Interface E0 PE Out Label 21, Interface E1 Adds RemovesMPLS Label MPLS Label • Fast Forwarding performed based on label • Very efficiently implemented in hardware Time to Certify. All rights reserved. Copyright
Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) Router A Router B Router C PE P PE E1 E0 E1 E0 E1 E0 NET 128.89.x.x Use label Use label 4 9 for 128.89 for 128.89 In Label Network Interface Out Label 9 192.168.1.0 E0 -- In Label Network Interface Out Label 4 192.168.1.0 E0 9In Label Network Interface Out Label11 -- 192.168.1.0 E0 4• Label assigned by upstream router and distributed using LDP Protocol• LDP requires an routing protocol to get information about existing networks Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class)§ FEC = Forwarding Equivalence Class § Subset of traffic that has specific forwarding requirements § Forwarding path § Forwarding treatment (priority, QoS, etc) § Label Information Base (LIB) contains the FECs to Label Mapping. It is router specific§ FEC usually corresponds to destination IP subnet § Obtained by means of static routing / routing protocol § Routing Protocols (IGPs) are used to obtain the IP Subnets existing in the network that will constitute the FECs§ FEC make use of LDP protocol § FECs and corresponding labels are communicated to adjacent routers by means of a Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Label Information Base (LIB) and IGP Routing Control Information IP Routing Interchange Plane Protocol IGP IP Static IP Routing Routes Table Label Binding MPLS Routing Interchange Control LDPIncoming IP IP Forwarding Outgoing IP Packets Table Packets Incoming Outgoing Label Forwarding labeled Table labeled Packets Data Plane Packets 13 Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS all together (1) 1 OSPF – Discovery of Network Topology 2 LDP – Label Assignment and Discovery Router A Router B Router C PE P PE E1 E0 E1 E0 E1 E0 NET 128.89.x.x In Label Network Interface Out Label In Label Network Interface Out Label 14 -- 192.168.1.0 E0 4 9 192.168.1.0 E0 -- In Label Network Interface Out Label 4 192.168.1.0 E0 9 3 MPLS – Packet Forwarding based on labels Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS all together (2) Router A Router B Router C PE P PE E1 E0 E1 E0 E1 E0 NET 128.89.x.x In Label Network Interface Out Label In Label Network Interface Out Label 15 -- 128.89 E0 4 9 128,89 E0 -- In Label Network Interface Out Label 4 128.89 E0 9 1. OSPF runs in the Network 2. Router B learns about 128.89.x.x over OSPF 3. Router B forwards to Router A the label to be used when sending packets to 128.89.x.x (Label 4) using LDP 4. Router A sends packets to Router B for a destination host in 128.89 using the LDP label provided by Router B (Label 4) 5. Router B will forward the packets to Router C only based on incoming label and will switch the label to the one provided by Router C for this network (Label 9) Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Virtual Private Networks§ VPN = Virtual Private Network§ VPN is a set of sites which are allowed to communicate with each other§ VPN is defined by a set of administrative policies determining § Connectivity: Which site can connect to each site § QoS characteristics of traffic among sites§ Two types of VPNs § L2 VPNs. Provide end to end connectivity at Layer 2 among sites § L3 VPNs. Provide end to end connectivity at Layer 3 among sites16 Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. VPNs and MPLS Labels VPN Label Frame IP or Header L1 L2 L2 Header Payload S=0 S=1 Next End Hop of Label Labels • Membership to a VPN is indicated by adding an extra MPLS Label. – New Label is know as the VPN ID • The S bit is set to 0 in the first label and set to 1 in the second one to indicate no more labels have been added to the layer 2 frame – A number of labels can be added to carry VPNs on top of VPNs. Only the last one sets the S bit to 1 Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. L2 VPN vs L3 VPN (1)§ Layer 2 VPNs § Customer End points (CEs) appear as connected at layer 2 § IP Routing among sites is responsibility of the CEs as the network acts as a layer 2 transparent carrier § Routing protocol must be configured among CE routers § Multiple logical connections are established from each end point of the VPN into each of the other end points where connectivity at layer 2 must be established § Mesh of connections18 Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. L2 VPN vs L3 VPN (2)§ Layer 3 VPNs § Customer End points (CEs) peer with provider edge (PE) routers § Single peering relationship using a routing protocol § Provider network is responsible for distributing IP routing information to VPN sites § Using MP-BGP § Separation of routing tables among VPNs § Isolation of traffic in different VPNs § Possibility of overlapping IPs § Different Virtual Routing Functions in each PE for each VPN § A routing function is a virtual router In Layer 3 VPNs, multiple networks with isolated routing can be established between different locations19 Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 2 VPNs • Layer 2 VPNs are used to transport any type of L2 traffic across a shared infrastructure • Two main flavors of L2 VPNs: – VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service): Applications requiring multipoint or broadcast access. Emulation of Ethernet Network connecting multiple sites – VPWS (Virtual Pseudo Wire Service): L2 point to point emulation • Two main VPWS technologies: – Any Transport over MPLS (AToM). Uses MPLS to provide L2 services – L2TPv3 (L2 Transport Protocol): Emulation of VPNs over non-MPLS enabled networks (pure IP)20 Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 2 VPN Types L2VPN VPWS VPLS Point to Point Multipoint AToM L2TPv3 Any Transport over MPLS Frame- ATM PPP Ethernet relay AAL5 & CELL HDLC (ERS & EWS) Ethernet Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 2 VPN. Any Transport over MPLS (AToM) • AToM provides L2 circuit emulation over MPLS • Encapsulation format is defined in a standard known as “Draft Martini” – Historical IETF Draft (2001). “Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Layer 2 Frames Over MPLS” – Draft became RFC 4906 “Transport of Layer 2 Frames Over MPLS” – Name comes from the lead author of the RFC: Luca Martini Cisco Systems, Inc. EMail: firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 2 VPN. Any Transport Over MPLS (AToM) Attachment Attachment Virtual Emulated Virtual Circuit (Emulated VC) Virtual Circuit Circuit Attachment Tunnel Attachment VC VC LSP CE Pseudo CE P Wire PE PE CE CE MPLS Network Virtual Circuit• Circuits at each side of the MPLS network are connected at Layer 2 by an LSP tunnel know as pseudo-wire• Attachment circuits can be Ethernet, Frame Relay, ATM, etc. Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. L2 VPN. Any Transport Over MPLS (AToM) • Transport of L2 frames over MPLS is build around two concepts: – Tunnel LSP: LSP between two PE routers acting as end points for the devices willing to communicate at Layer 2. Every tunnel has a tunnel label (external MPLS label) – Virtual Circuit (VC): Communication circuit over a LSP tunnel: Every VC has its VC label (internal MPLS Label) Virtual Circuit FR Circuit FR Circuit PE PEATM Circuit ATM CircuitEthernet Ethernet801.Q Ethernet 801.Q Ethernet Tunnel Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 2 VPN. Any Transport Over MPLS (AToM) • When AToM is used to transport Ethernet frames is known as EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) • EoMPLS is a mechanism for establishing Layer 2 VPNs Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 2 VPNs. Control/Data Plane Operation Control Plane 2a 2b 2c LDP 10.10.10.101/32 10.10.10.101/32 10.10.10.101/32 Label: L1 Label: L2 Label: L3 10.10.10.101/32 10.10.10.101/32 10.10.10.101/32 IGP 10.10.10.101 1 1 1 PE1 P1 P2 PE2172.16.10/24 172.16.20.0/24 .2 .1 .1 .2 .5 .6 .7 .8 .1 .2 172.16.1.0/24 10.10.10.0/30 10.10.10.4/30 10.10.10.8/30 172.16.2.0/24 CE2 CE1 Customer A L1 L2 L3 Customer A Ethernet Site 1 Ethernet Site 2 Frame VC1 VC1 VC1 Frame Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet Frame Frame Frame Data Plane Note: Frame Format corresponds to Draft Martini Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 2 VPN. Point to Point Services (VPWS) PE PE CE CE • Set of point to point circuits (Pseudo Wires – PSW) established within the MPLS cloud • Mapping into PSW: – EWS (Ethernet Wire Service): Mapping based on port – ERS (Ethernet Relay Service): Mapping based on VLAN ID. Interface PE-CE is a trunk • Multipoint topologies emulated by multiple PWSs27 Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 2 VPN Multipoint Services (VPLS) MAC 2 MAC 1 MPLS Network PE PE CE CE 201 102 301 302 Address Tx/Rx Address Tx/Rx MAC1 Ethernet 203 MAC1 102/201 MAC2 201/102 103 MAC2 Ethernet MAC3 301/103 PE MAC3 302/203 Address Tx/Rx MAC1 103/301 MAC 3 CE MAC2 203/302 MAC3 Ethernet § MPLS network behaves as a switch for CEs § Mapping at PE into VPLS circuit based on physical port or VLAN ID § Full Multipoint topologies (made of individual “circuits”) § PE Routers are aware of all MAC addresses in the VPLS domain 28 Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 3 VPN. Architecture CE P CECustomer A P Customer A Site 1 PE Site 2 PE CE CECustomer B P P Customer B Site 1 Site 2 • L3 VPN provides isolation for traffic coming from different customers crossing a shared infrastructure (MPLS net) • Isolation provides further benefits – Security – IP Address overlapping capabilities • Two planes: – Control Plane: Layer 3 reachability information interchange + Label Distribution – Data Plane: Labeling of unlabeled traffic (PE) + Forwarding of labeled traffic (P) Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 3 VPN. PE Isolation of Traffic• Routing and Traffic Isolation is achieved by means of different routing instances at the PE – Routing Instance = Routing Context = Virtual Routing & Forwarding Table (VRF) – Each router instance is only aware of the subnets belonging to a specific VPN à ISOLATION of VPNs – Default Routing Instance – Traffic not mapped into a VRF is processed by the default routing instance. – Known as Global Routing Table (GRT)• Once traffic goes into a LSP, the P routers treat it according to the FEC specific policies• In a Layer 3 VPN, routing among sites is transparently provided by the MPLS network to the customer – PEs are aware of all the networks belonging to a specific VPN/VRF – Routing information is exchanged among PEs by means of MP-BGP (Multi Protocol BGP)• PE becomes aware of the routes existing on each customer site by means of a routing protocol running between CE and PE Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 3 VPN. Routing Instances CE CE Customer ACustomer A Global Routing Global Routing Site 1 Table (GRT) Table (GRT) Site 2 Net 1 Net 2 CE to PE Interface Customer A VRF MPLS Network Customer A VRF CE to PE Interface Customer Routes Net1 Net1 Customer Routes Interchange Net2 MP-BGP Route Net2 Interchange Interchange - Static Routing - Static Routing - Routing Protocol - Routing Protocol (RIP, OSPF, EIGRP, Customer B VRF Customer B VRF (RIP, OSPF, EIGRP, BGP) Net 3 Net 1, Net 3 Net 3 BGP) Net 4 Net 4 PE Router Net 2, Net 4 PE Router CE CE Customer BCustomer B Site 2 Site 1 Net 4 Net 3 Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 3 VPN. Route Distinguisher • L3 VPNs allow for IP overlapping (two VPNs using the same IP Space) as VPNs are being handled by different Routing contexts • Route Distinguisher = RD is a 64 bits identifier prepended to any IPv4 route used to identify the VPN the route belongs to – Unique RD is configured per VPN/VRF – RD Format: Autonomous System (AS) Number : VPN Identifier. Example: 1:200 • Route Target = RT is a 64 bit identifier used as part of the MP-BGP Attributes (Extended Community) to signify which routes should be exported/imported into a specific VRF – Export Route Target à Routes Target attribute on exported routes (multiple possible) – Import Route Target à Routes to be imported from MP-BGP Updates – Route targets are used to have a site belonging to multiple VPNs. Also known as route leaking Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 3 VPN. MP-BGP Operation 1:100:220.127.116.11/24 RT:1:100 VPN LABEL: V1 NH: 10.10.10.101Customer A 4 1:101:192.168.10.0/24 Customer A Site 1 RT:1:101 VPN LABEL: V2 Site 2 NH: 10.10.10.101CE MP-BGP MP-BGP CE 3 5 Customer A VRF Routing Table VRF A RD: 1:100 MPLS Network Customer A VRF 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 Export RT:1:100 RD: 1:100 126.96.36.199 Import RT:1:100 MP-BGP Route 6 Interchange Routing Table VRF B 1 2 Customer B VRF Routing Table VRF B 192.168.10.0 Customer B VRF 192.168.11.0 RD: 1:101 192.168.11.0 Export RT:1:101 RD: 1:100 188.8.131.52 Import RT:1:100 Import RT:1:101 PE Router PE Router Loopback IP: CECE 10.10.10.101 Customer B Customer B Site 2 Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved. Site 1
MPLS. Layer 3 VPN. MP-BGP Updates Routing Protocol CE-PE Routing information is propagated from the CE to the PE routers by means of the 1 routing protocol running on the CE to PE interface (RIP, OSPF, BGP, EIGRP) PE Router 2 Routes get injected into the specific VRF/Routing Context 3 Routes get forwarded to the MP-BGP process according to the export RT MP-BGP 4 Routing update is being propagated through MP-BGP (iBGP) to update the neighbor PEs. Routes contain the RT attribute (extended community) PE Router 5 Routes get populated into the right VRFs/Routing Context according to the import RT criteria 6 VRF Routing table gets updated Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 3 VPN. Control Plane ProtocolsCustomer A Customer A Site 1 PE P PE Site 2 CE CE IGP/LDP IGP/LDP IGP/ MP-BGP IGP/ BGP BGP Static Static Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 3 VPN. Control Plane Operation 1:100:172.16.10.0/24 MP-BGP RT 1:100 NH: 10.10.10.101 4 VPN Label: V1 CE to PE Static/ 3 6 IGP/BGP 172.16.10.0/24 172.16.10.0/24 2a 2b 2c LDP 10.10.10.101/32 10.10.10.101/32 10.10.10.101/32 Label: L1 Label: L2 Label: L3 IGP 10.10.10.101/32 10.10.10.101/32 10.10.10.101/32 5 10.10.10.101 Routing Table VRF A 1 P1 1 P2 1 Prefix Next Hop 172.16.10/24 PE PE 172.16.10.0/24 10.10.10.101 CE CE VRF A VRF ACustomer A RD 1:100 Export RT 1:100 RD 1:100 Customer A Export RT 1:100 Site 1 Import RT 1:100 Import RT 1:100 Site 2 Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 3 VPN. Control Plane Operation (1) Intra MPLS Cloud IGP Routing information about IP addresses reachable within the MPLS cloud gets 1 propagated LDP2a PE assigns to 10.10.10.101/32 an Implicit-Null Label and propagates it using LDP (penultimate hop popping)2b P1 assigns L1 to 10.10.10.101/32 and distributes this label using LDP 2c P2 assigns L2 to 10.10.10.101/32 and distributes this label using LDP CE to PE Interface (static/IGP/BGP) 3 172.16.10.0/24 network is made known to PE router (static/IGP/BGP) MP-BGP 4 MP-BGP propagates the route to 172.16.10.0 using the following attributes: NEXT-HOP (NH): 10.10.10.101 (IP address of PE Router) Route Target (RT): 1:100 (as configured) VPN Label: Assigned by PE to the VPN Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 3 VPN. Control Plane Operation (2) MP-BGP (continuation) 5 VRF A routing table gets updated CE to PE Interface (static/IGP/BGP) 6 PE updates CE by means of the IGP protocol running in the CE to PE interface Note 1: NH, RT and VPN Label are not attributes per se but fields on MP_REACH_NLRI MP-BGP attribute Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 3 VPN. Control Plane Operation. RTs/LIBs Label Label Information Information Base PE1 Base PE2 Label Information Base PE2 In L Out L In L Out L Prefix Out L L1 L2 L2 L3 10.10.10.101/32 L3 L2 L1 L3 L2 Routing Table CE2 10.10.10.101 Prefix Next Hop 172.16.10.0/24 172.16.2.1 PE1 P1 P2 PE2172.16.10/24 172.16.20.0/24 .2 .1 .1 .2 .5 .6 .7 .8 .1 .2 172.16.1.0/24 10.10.10.0/30 10.10.10.4/30 10.10.10.8/30 172.16.2.0/24 CE2 CE1Customer A Routing Table VRF A Routing Table GRT + VRF A Customer A Prefix Next Hop Site 2 Prefix Next Hop 172.16.10.0/24 172.16.1.2 10.10.10.101/32 10.10.10.7 GRT Site 2 172.16.10.0/24 10.10.10.101 VRF A Routing Table P1 Routing Table P2 Prefix Next Hop Prefix Next Hop 10.10.10.101/32 10.10.10.1 10.10.10.101/32 10.10.10.5 Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. Layer 3 VPN. Data Plane Operation Label Information Base PE2 Prefix Out L Label Label 10.10.10.101/32 L3 Information Information Base PE1 Base PE2 Routing Table GRT + VRF A Routing Table VRF A In L Out L In L Out L Prefix Next Hop Prefix Next Hop L1 L2 L2 L3 10.10.10.101/32 10.10.10.7 GRT 172.16.10.0/24 172.16.1.2 L2 L1 L3 L2 172.16.10.0/24 10.10.10.101 VRF A L1 L2 L3 V1 V1 V1 IP Packet IP Packet IP Packet IP Packet Destination IP: Destination IP: Destination IP: IP Packet 172.16.10.5 172.16.10.5 172.16.10.5 Destination IP: 10.10.10.101 Destination IP: 172.16.10.5 172.16.10.5 PE1 P1 P2 PE2 CE CECustomer A VRF A RD 1:100 VRF A RD 1:100 Customer A Site 1 Export RT 1:100 Import RT 1:100 Export RT 1:100 Import RT 1:100 Site 2 Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
MPLS. The real horse power of MPLS • FEC = Subset of Traffic characterized by: • Forwarding Path • Forwarding Treatment • MPLS has powerful mechanisms for influencing the FECs and therefore the paths and treatment that traffic is exposed to. MPLS Multicast MPLS MPLS MPLS Routing Routing Traffic Quality of VPNs Control Control Engineering Service Label Information Base Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.
This MPLS Introduction Training is a courtesy ofTIME TO CERTIFY“YOUR ONLINE RESOURCE FOR IT CERTIFICATION”email@example.com Copyright Time to Certify. All rights reserved.