Absinthe
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Absinthe Document Transcript

  • 1. INSTITUT HOTELIER “CESAR RITZ”<br />Absinthe<br />Submitted on <br />By:<br />Alua Akhmetova<br />304738<br />Aida Imanberdiyeva<br />304728<br />Tomiris Mussayeva<br />304730<br />Xia Meng<br />304704<br />Word count<br />Submitted to:<br />Rafael Gross<br />Beverage studies<br />Table of content<br /> TOC o "1-1" h z u 1.Introduction PAGEREF _Toc277422206 h 1<br />2.History PAGEREF _Toc277422207 h 1<br />3.Map PAGEREF _Toc277422208 h 3<br />4.Laws and classification system in the country PAGEREF _Toc277422209 h 4<br />5.How to read a label in this country PAGEREF _Toc277422210 h 4<br />6.Beverage making process and distilling process PAGEREF _Toc277422211 h 5<br />7.The different types of absinthe PAGEREF _Toc277422212 h 7<br />8.Some famous brands in the country PAGEREF _Toc277422213 h 7<br />9.How to serve and how to drink absinthe PAGEREF _Toc277422214 h 8<br />10. Cocktails recipes made with absinthe PAGEREF _Toc277422215 h 9<br />11. Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc277422216 h 12<br />12. Reference list PAGEREF _Toc277422217 h 14<br />Introduction<br />Absinthe is a strong alcoholic beverage that usually contains approximately 70% of alcohol, which is made on the basis of distilled spirit, water and various plants components. The main and the most widespread component of absinthe is wormwood. Absinthe is often called the Green Fairy, as the traditional color of absinthe is natural green. Another reason why it deserved this name is the fact that it was always blamed in causing hallucinates and madness due to the substance in its composition, called tujone. Also it can be pure, yellow, brown, black and red colored. This beverage has a special aroma and bitterness. Absinthe sometimes erroneously called a liqueur , but it does not contain sugar and therefore classified as a spirit. Absinthe is bottled at a very high proof but is normally weakened with water when is served.<br />A birthplace of absinthe is the canton of Neuchâtel in Switzerland. This beverage has a long history of the prosperity and prohibition due to its peculiar influence on consumer health and on the decline in wine market. There is a supposition that absinthe can provoke imagination and inspiration that is why all the time Absinthe was a favorite drink of bohemian public in Europe and America.<br />History<br />Absinthe stretches back to Egyptian times, when people mixed alcohol with wormwood in a variety of concoctions to cure all illnesses from cholera to stomach upsets. Lascelles, A. (March, 2007) But today’s absinthe was invented presumably in 1790 by French doctor Pierre Ordinaire, a resident of a small Swiss village Couvet which is in the Canton of Neuchâtel. He mixed wormwood and other herbs with alcohol and prescribed that elixir for his patients as a universal remedy. It effected on appetite rising and digestion system. It was even added into wine in order to make it more intoxicating. Absinthe became panacea. That's why it has been named as «La Fee Verte» which is “The green fairy". There is another version that Henroid sisters from Couvet had created this elixir before the Doctor arrived in the area. Anyway, the doctor was the first who promoted the green fairy.  Henroid sisters sold their elixir to nearby pharmacies. In 1797, they sold their recipe to a French Major Dubied. In that same year, the Major's daughter married Henri-Louis Pernod, one of the founders of the famous Pernod-Ricard group. The Major with his son Marcellin and Pernod established the first commercial absinthe distillery in Couvet under the name of "Dubied Père et Fils", which began to produce the first commercial absinthe in 1798.<br />Later Pernod opened a big factory across the French border in Pontarlier under the corporate name of "Maison Pernod Fils". He also moved because he avoided high import taxes at the nearby French border. As popularity grew Pernod with his son purchased the land on the bank of Doubs River to build a second factory. He sold absinthe around the world. “History”, (2009.)<br />By the second half of the 19th century absinthe had become the choice for an art crowd that included Picasso, Monet, Toulouse-Lautrec and Manet – painter of the 1859 portrait entitled Absinthe Drinker. Subsequent associations with the likes of the Moulin Rouge and Oscar Wilde further cemented its racy reputation. “Oxygénée's absinthe history & gaq 4”, (n. d.)<br />The Green Hour“Absinthe-a history in green”, (2010.a.) Absinthe became popular in France because of French soldiers returning from Algeria and other parts of North Africa during the 1840th. Absinthe was given to them as a fever preventative. The soldiers brought their taste for absinthe with them, and it became popular at all establishments. Paris of the mid of 19th century was associated with Bohemia. There were many people, particularly men drinking absinthe in each café. Absinthe became so popular that people called the time between 5 p.m. and 7 p.m. “The green hour” because of its green color (L'heure verte). French people even drank it as the most popular aperitif. “History”, (n.d.)<br />There were several reasons why absinthe was banned. The 19th century was a time of absinthe boom and many less reputable absinthe producers utilized grain alcohol, far cheaper than grape alcohol. It became very popular because of its cheap price. At that time two different types of infestations decimated vineyards across Europe which lead to industry-wide crisis. That is why producing and marketing of wine became expensive, furthering the popularity of absinthe amongst drinkers. In the 20th the century wine industry began to pick up and went on a campaign against absinthe to bring back its position back as they found absinthe “unnatural” product in comparison with wine. It is also fair to say that absinthe was in a very poor quality which increased the chronic alcoholism among the French underclasses.<br />The term “absinthism” had begun to emerge by 1860s. The physical and mental aliment came directly from injection of not only alcohol in general, but absinthe in particular. This theory was popular by a Dr. Valentin Magnan. He described the process of absinthism in a very negative way as the most terrifying reactions of an extremely violent and dangerous nature. Though Dr. Magnan claimed that absinthe had horrible consequences his research had been fatally flawed and it is now regarded that the symptoms he described belong not to ‘absinthism’ but to alcoholism in general as it was the alcohol, not wormwood, which was largely to blame. Nevertheless his research concocting the myth about absinthism was widely accepted by press as a scientific fact. “The shaky history of thujone”, (2006.)<br />In the mid of the 19th disgruntled vintners with abolitionist groups were known as “the Blue Cross”. In 1907 they collected 400,000 signatures on a petition to ban absinthe. They argued that absinthe caused many diseases as insanity, criminality, tuberculosis and epilepsy, having “killed thousands of French people”.  “Absinthe - A History in Green”, (2010.b.)<br />The fatal blow to absinthe had been the accident of Swiss peasant, Jean Lanfray, who killed all his family, but he did not remember anything. Despite of the fact Lanfray drank not only two glasses of absinthe, he also had several glasses of wine, a crème de menthe and brandy, he was called 'absinthe murders'. Thereafter absinthe was banned in Switzerland in 1908. (Baker, 2001).<br />Finally after extreme pressure from a misinformed public and press absinthe was officially made illegal in Belgium and Brazil in 1906, in Holland in 1908, in the USA in 1912 and, finally, in France during the WWI in 1915. Anyway, absinthe was not completely banned. In Spain, for example, the ban was never enforced. As a result, Pernod’s operations in Tarragona produced absinthe through to the 1960s in the Val de Travers. Also absinthe was never functionally banned in the United Kingdom either, nor was it made illegal in parts of southern and eastern Europe. The green fairy had never been disappeared, even it was far from the public consciousness. “Absinthe - A History in Green”, (2010.c.)<br />Map<br />The motherland of absinthe is canton of Neuchatel in Switzerland. Now Absinthe has many brands, mainly produced in some European countries. Most of them are in France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy and the Czech Republic. The USA is also one of the biggest absinthe producers where the content of tujone in absinthe is prohibited. (Lipinski & Lipinski, 1989)<br />Laws and classification system in the country<br />Absinthe was banned during nearly a century. The reason for this was still endless addiction all over Europe. “Absinthe - How to Make Absinthe” (n.d.). From 1875 to 1913 the consumption of absinthe per person increased by 15 times, the French drank 40 million liters annually. The growth of criminal offenses, increasing the number of stillborn children, the people with mental diseases gave rise to draw parallels with the amount sold wormwood potion. France's population has steadily decreased. Poison began to spread rapidly across the continent, and similar symptoms have been observed throughout Europe. Only Russia has not yielded a general fashion and prefer foreign “novelty” ordinary vodka. The Belgian government first went into the decisive steps against the “absinthe expansion”, threatening violators with fines and imprisonment. Following the Belgian ban on the sale and consumption of absinthe it was carried by Italy, USA, Switzerland, Spain and other countries. “Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.). Finally, in 1915 it was prohibited in France.Since, only Spain and the Czech Republic managed to keep the traditions of wormwood drink. (Grossman, 1983) <br />Absinthe Law by Nation/Region<br />European Union<br />Currently absinthe is permitted to be sold in all countries of the European Union, with much higher rate of thujone than it is allowed in the United States and Canada. “Absinthe laws”, (2010). In this case it must be underlined that, the policy of the European Union, concerning absinthe, was primarily based on the realia of no prohibition of absinthe drinking in some European countries as United Kingdom and Spain. (Grossman, 1983) Consequently, the European laws had been harmonized in order not to claim the prohibition of absinthe as a barrier for normal trade. The recent re-emergency of absinthe- consuming process could lead to some new problems, despite of the fact that it is scarcely possible to have a renewal of absinthism. <br />The first argument suggests that the concentrations of thujone of more than 10 mg/l were found in almost 22% of commercial samples. It easily stands for that some of commercial samples, appeared in the market, contains higher thujone concentration comparing pre-ban absinthe. (Padosch, Lachenmeier and Kroner, 2006). One of the most striking features of this problem is the questionable tendency of some absinthe manufacturers and also suppliers to use the advertisement the content of absinthe as a beverage with psychoactive and aphrodisiac properties on their websites. Some experts suggest that the solution of this situation will be found in recreation of absinthes according to pre-ban period recipes by high-quality distilleries, particularly in Switzerland, absinthe’s country of origin. Swiss manufacturers also proposed to begin a protection campaign for geographic denominations of origin and indications on labeling of absinthe along with the ban of artificial food dyes. (Padosch et al, 2006)<br />Switzerland<br />Absinthe was banned in the country of its origin for almost a century, from 1907 to 2004. Nowadays only proper distillation and colorlessness of absinthe is the criteria of laws regulated the production and sale of it. At the same time if absinthe from Switzerland is naturally colored, it could not be colored by artificial dyes. “Absinthe_legal” (2006).<br />France<br />In France, in addition to EU standards, the products specified as “absinthe” are prohibited to be sold, although they allowed to be produced for export. In the country absinthe commonly known as spiritueux à base de plantes d'absinthe ('wormwood-based spirits'). “Absinthe_writings4” (n.d.). The government also regulates the volume of fenchone, a chemical in the herb fennel (one of the “Holy Trinity” ingredients), to 5 mg/l. Due to that fact majority of Swiss brands without reconsideration.<br />Germany<br />Absinthe was banned in Germany on 27th of March, 1923. Furthermore, German laws alongside with prohibition to the production and commercial trade of absinthe, they banned the distribution of printed staff which provided specification of its production. The first ban was abolished in 1981, nevertheless the usage of Artemisia absinthium as a flavor enhancer remained under the prohibition. Germany accepted the legalization of absinthe on 27 September, 1991, according to the standards of the European Union, held in 1988. “ History”, (n.d.).<br />United States of America<br />Federal laws of United States have no restriction for the usage of the basic ingredient of absinthe, Artemesia absinthium (wormwood) in foods and beverages, but at the same time all food and beverages which contains this ingredient must be free of psychoactive component - thujone.<br />The usage of thujone is under the regulation of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), not Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) as it is supposed to be. This regulation is accepted because absinthe is considered, in the state’s law, a minor psychoactive chemical, similar to caffeine or chocolate, substances which usage is controlled by the FDA. “Absinthe_faq” (n.d.a).<br />Canada<br />In Canada, laws for regulation the spirits and their usage are determined by the local provincial governments. In comparison with the United States, there are no special laws about prohibition of absinthe, although the laws for control the amount of thujone are exist.<br />British Columbia: no established limits on thujone content<br />Alberta, Nova Scotia, Ontario: 10 mg/kg<br />Manitoba: 6–8 mg<br />Quebec: 5 mg/kg<br />New Brunswick: no established limits on thujone content<br />Newfoundland and Labrador: no absinthe sold. “Absinthe: the Vilified Spirit”,(n.d.).<br />Czech Republic<br />Absinthe is legal in the Czech Republic. Thujone-containing absinthe is available in stores. “Absinthe law”, (n.d.).<br />How to read a label in this country<br />In order to read a label on the absinthe bottle, first of all attention should be paid on the title of product, correctly speaking, on the way it is written. It can differ depending on the country of production. For example, French title “Absinthe”, Spanish and Italian “Absenta”, Czech “Absinth”. However, there is one peculiarity. There are some beverages which imitate the absinthe. (Grossman, 1983) In these cases the title is changed intentionally. French way of writing of this word is “absinthe”, and liqueur, produced in that country, is called “Absente” and only imitates the taste of Absinthe. Also words on the label like “absinthe refined” and “thujone-free” can be usually seen. They are similar by their essence and mean that absinthe is purified and does not contain “thujone”, although it has wormwood in its composition. In this case thujone is removed from the extract of wormwood, because this substance is prohibited in many countries. Strength of the beverage is marked in “proof”. One proof is approximately equal to 0,5 % of alcohol. For example, 150 proof. It means that this beverage contains 75 ABV. Next item which can be seen on the label is word “distilled”, which means that absinthe was not drawn, but was sublimated. And perhaps the most important thing is designation of the amount of thujone in absinthe. There are 2 variants: either mg/kg (milligrams per kilograms), or ppm (parts per million). But also producers do not indicate anything. It means that this beverage satisfies the requirements of the European Union. The requirements are less than 10 mg/kg of tujone and producers have a right not to show concrete figures. “Absent”, (2010) There is a table below and, correspondingly, customers can use it to determine the amount of tujone in some well-known absinthe brands. “Absent”, (2010)<br />The content of tujone in absinthe<br />Brand and titleContent of tujone (mg/kg or ррm)Strength, %Country-producerKing of Spirits1070Czech Rep.King of Spirits Gold10070Czech Rep.King of Spirits Original1070Czech Rep.Staroplzenecky1070Czech Rep.Sebor2-855Czech Rep.Absinth Hills1,570Czech Rep.Fruko Schulz2,760Czech Rep.Red1070Czech Rep.Havels1060Czech Rep.Zelena Muza1070Czech Rep.Logan1055; 70Czech Rep.Logan 10010070Czech Rep.Green Magic5; 9,370Czech Rep.Hypno Absinthe1070Czech Rep.Teichenne Absinth1070Czech Rep.Swiss La Bleue25-6060; 68SwitzerlandLogan Fils commercial recipe1068SwitzerlandLogan Fils068SwitzerlandAbsente055FranceExtrime d'Absente3570FranceXenta Absenta35 (was 7,9 before)70ItalyXenta Superior35 (was 10 before)70ItalyDeva1045; 70SpainSerpis1055; 70SpainFleurs De Lis Absenta1055Spain<br />“Absent”, (2010)<br />Beverage making process and distilling process<br />Absinthe is traditionally made on the basis of distilled spirits, water and various plant components. Main plant components for the absinthe production are wormwood, anise and fennel (the so-called "holy trinity"), but in the recipe may also include other herbs like hyssop, lemon balm, star anise, calamus, angelica, wild star anise, coriander, veronica ,juniper and others. All classical techniques of absinthe making process assume several stages.<br />“How Absinthe Is Made III – Distillation”, (n.d.a.).<br />First of all, a quantity of base spirit is added to the alembic pot still, diluted with water and mixed with crushed ingredients as grand wormwood, anise and fennel and left to macerate overnight in the high proof alcohol. It is very important to control the dryness of the ingredients, maceration period which is around 12-24 hours. The heating during the maceration as it should be either very gentle or without heat at all. “How Is Absinthe Made?”, (n.d.a.). <br />“How Absinthe Is Made III – Distillation”, (n.d.b.).<br />Afterwards, the mixture is distilled. Distillation process needs Egrot alembics which has a capacity of 900l and 200l (see pic.). The alembics are covered with wood and has a traditional shape chapiteau on the top which leads via copper piping up to a rectifying ball above the condenser. The rectifying balls brings some of the heavier vapours back to the pot, at this time condenses balance in the cooling coils settled in water in the grey coloured tank below. Afterwards condenses are being collected in the horizontally mounted cylindrical distillate tanks at the bottom. “How Absinthe Is Made III – Distillation”,(n.d.c.).<br /> After distillation Absinthe is becoming clear and flavourful, as no herbs added after distillation. This type is usually sold  as “Blanche” or “Bleue” Absinthe. It is usually distilled in rural parts of Switzerland. “How Is Absinthe Made?”,(n.d.b.).<br />“How Absinthe Is Made IV – Coloration”, (n.d.a.). <br />The next step is coloration which is very important as it gives the absinthe its aroma and colour. The quality of herbs is important and the best herbs must be chosen. After distillation is complete the distilling pot must be thoroughly cleaned. It is advised to use perforated grille in order to stop the herbs clogging the pipework. Colouring herbs like hyssop, melissa and petite wormwood are mixed with spirit in the clean alembic pot. The alembic now is heated in approximately 55 degrees Celsius. Absinthe can be in various colors: black, violette, red, yellow and even blue. Although only the green and red color (colored with flowers) is historically authentic. Alandia (n.d.b.). Although absinthe can be found in different colors like black, violette, red, yellow and blue, authentic colors are red and green. “Absinthe Study Session 3 – Absinthe´s Green Color”, (n.d.).<br />After the colored spirit is tested, absinthe is being aged from month to year before being sold. Absinthe aging process can be done either in steel tanks or in oak barrels. The aging process has no effect on absinthe’s aroma or color, but provides oxygenation. In contradistinction to other spirits absinthe doesn’t stop its aging process even after being bottled. “How Is Absinthe Made?”, (n.d.c.).<br />The different types of absinthe<br />There are many well-known regulations for governing the classifications and labeling of most alcoholic beverages, while those for recognizing the same features for absinthe classification system is not complete yet. <br />Due to popular treatises, dating from 19th century, absinthe has to be categorized into only several grades (ordinaire, demi-fine, fine and Swiss – not denoting the origin), in the hierarchy of alcoholic strength and quality. A lot of contemporary critics simply split absinthe into two groups according to production method.<br />Blanche, or la Bleue: Blanche absinthe (in Switzerland also known as la Bleue) is bottled directly after distillation and reduction. This absinthe is uncolored, while its name la Bleue originated from a term used for bootleg of absinthe from Switzerland, became a well-known term for Swiss absinthe style in post-ban period.<br />Verte (“green” in French) has a beginning as a Blanche. Then the Blanche is transformed by the “coloring step”, after which a new-made mixture of herbs is inserted into the clear distillate. Vertes were popular among absinthe – drinking people in the 19th century. At the same time, absinthe which is artificially green- colored lost most herbal characteristics.”Information”, (2010). <br />Absenta (“absinthe” in Spanish) is a type of regional variation. Also differentiates slightly from French one. This kind of absinthes is sweeter because of Alicante anise and slight flavour of citrus.<br />Hausgemacht (German word for home-made type, also abbreviated as HG) considered as a type of absinthe of home-distillation. It is sometimes called clandestine absinthe. This type of absinthe used to be produced in small quantities, not for sale, but only for personal usage. The production of this absinthe enables experts to make a selection of herbs personally. Production of clandestine became popular after the prohibition of absinthe during this time small producers went underground especially in Switzerland.<br />Bohemian-style absinth (also called Czech-style absinthe, anise-free absinthe, or just “absinth” (without “e”)) could be described as a bitter made of wormwood. Because of its Czech origin, this spirit gets all its above mentioned designations, although not all absinthes from the Czech Republic are Bohemian-style. As a rule it contains little or even no anise, fennel and other herbs which could be found in traditional absinthe. There are only two similarities between typical Bohemian-style absinthe and its authentic counterpart: it also contains wormwood and has a high level of alcohol. “The bohemian”, (2010).<br />Beside of given classification, absinthe could be recognized by its color. The basic colours of absinthe are: green, yellow, red and black. <br />Green - classical and natural color of absinthe. Thanks to this color absinthe is worldwide known as “Green Fairy”. Almost every absinthe producer makes this type of absinthe. A bright example of it is Absenta Tunel. This is an excellent sample of classic absinthe from Spain with 70% of strength, impregnate anise - flavored, with tones of almond and herbs.<br />Yellow absinthe. “King of Spirits” (Absinth King of Spirits) from Czech Republic is the best example of this type. The producer of this absinthe called it “The best and most expensive in the world”. It makes strictly according to the special technology, using only manual labor. <br />Red absinthe is a beverage with pomegranate extract giving light red color and unique aftertaste. An excellent example for this type of absinthe is Absinthe Red Tunel.<br />Black absinthe is made, unlike the others, not of leaves, but of the roots of wormwood. Thank to the infusion of black acacia catehu this type of absinthe has dark currant color. Absinthe Red Tunel is good example for illustration of this type. “Absinthe-study-session-3-absinthe-green-color”, (n.d.a). <br />Some famous brands in the country<br />There are only few absinthe-producing countries in the world. The oldest and permanent producers are France, Switzerland and the Czech Republic, where they keep truly ancient and valuable traditions of making the absinthe. Spain, Germany and the U.S.A follow in this list. However, they produce the largest number of today's popular brands of absinthe. Germany produces the strongest absinthe in terms of alcohol concentration, and the Czech Republic is famous for its absinthe with the high tujone concentration. The following are some famous brands of absinthe.<br />Switzerland<br /> Fritz Duval <br />Producer: Fritz Duval, Kuve, Switzerland.<br />Alcohol: 72 Vol. %<br />Color: light amber brown<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.). <br />Kubler<br />Producer:Blackmint (Kübler & Wyss)<br />Alcohol: 53 Vol.%<br />Color: colorless<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.a.) . <br /> La Bleue<br />Alcohol: 68 Vol.%<br />Color: blue<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.b.).<br /> Logan Fils<br />Alcohol: 68 Vol.%<br />Color: dark green<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.c.).<br /> Absinthe CCC<br />Alcohol: 72 Vol.%<br />Color: pale green<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.d.).<br />France<br /> La Fee Absinthe Parisienne<br />Alcohol: 68 Vol.%<br />Color: light blue<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.e.).<br /> DuVallon<br />Alcohol: 53 Vol.%<br />Color: colorless<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.f.).<br /> Francois Guy<br />Producer:Pernod Ricard<br />Alcohol: 68Vol.%<br />Color: clear green<br />“Absinthe – Dealer ” (n.d.).<br /> Oxygénée <br />Alcohol: 55 Vol.%<br />Color: pale green<br />“Absinthe – Dealer ” (n.d.a).<br /> Pernod Fils<br />Alcohol: 68 Vol.%<br />Color: pale green<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.g.)<br />Spain<br /> Xenta<br /> Alcohol: 70 Vol.%<br />“Xenta” (n.d.).<br /> Absenta Tunel Red<br />Alcohol: 80 Vol.%<br />Color: rubin red<br />“Absinthe Tunel Red 80% 20cl” (n.d.).<br /> Jacques Senaux Black<br />Alcohol:70-85 Vol.%<br />Color: currant black<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.h.).<br /> Deva Absenta<br />Alcohol: 55 Vol.%<br />Color: emerald green<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.i.).<br /> Teichenne<br />Alcohol: 70 Vol.%<br />Color: green<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.j.).<br />Italy<br /> Dedo Absinthe<br />Producer: Dedo distillery<br />Alcohol: 75 Vol%<br />Color: light green<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.k.).<br /> Absinthe Caselli<br />http://www.alandia.de/absinthe/index.php/language/en/cat/c45_Italy.html<br />Alcohol: 60 Vol.%<br />Color: blue<br />“Alandia. World of absinthe” (n.d).<br /> Absinthe Leone<br />Alcohol: 72 Vol.%<br />Color: colorless<br />“Alandia. World of absinthe” (n.d.a).<br />Absinthe Parnasse<br />Alcohol: 52 Vol.%<br />Color: bright yellow <br />“Alandia. World of absinthe” (n.d.b).<br /> Cavalin Assenzio 69<br />Alcohol: 69 Vol.%<br />Color: green<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.l.).<br />Germany<br /> Absinthe Eichelberger Blanche 58<br />Alcohol: 58 Vol.%<br />Color: colorless<br />“Alandia. World of absinthe” (n.d.c).<br /> Alandia Epoque<br />Alcohol: 68 Vol.%<br />Color: yellowish green<br />“Alandia. World of absinthe” (n.d.d).<br /> Medusa Absinthe Green label<br />Alcohol: 55 Vol.%<br />Color: green<br />“Alandia. World of absinthe” (n.d.e).<br /> Absinth Ulex Ordinaire<br />Alcohol: 70 Vol.%<br />Color: light yellow<br />“Absinth Ulex Ordinaire Germany” (n.d.).<br /> Fee Verte’s Elixier Absinthe<br />Alcohol: 70 Vol.%<br />Color: green<br />“Absinthe – Dealer ” (n.d.b).<br />United States of America<br /> Herbsaint<br />Alcohol: 45 Vol.%<br />Color: pale green<br />“Absinthe – Dealer ” (n.d.c).<br /> Walton Waters Absinthe Superieur<br />Alcohol: 68 Vol.%<br />Color: green<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.m.).<br /> Leopold Bros. Absinthe Verte<br />Alcohol: 65 Vol.%<br />Color: yellowish green<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.n.). Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/country/usa/<br /> Marteau de la Belle Epoque <br />Alcohol: 68 Vol.%<br />Color: green<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.o.).<br /> Meadow of Love Absinthe Superieure<br />Alcohol: 68 Vol.%<br />Color: green<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.p.).<br />The Czech Republic<br /> Hills Absinth<br />Alcohol: 70 Vol.%<br />Color: light bluemarine<br />“Alandia. World of absinthe” (n.d.f). <br /> Hypnotic Absinthe<br />Alcohol: 70 Vol.%<br />Color: green<br />“Absinthe – Dealer ” (n.d.d).<br /> King of Spirits<br />Alcohol: 70 Vol.%<br />Color: amber brown<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.q.).<br /> King of Spirits Gold.<br />Alcohol: 70 Vol.%<br />Color: amber brown<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.r.). <br /> Prague Absinth<br />Alcohol: 70 Vol.%<br />Color: green<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.s.). <br />Russian Federation<br /> Ван Гог, Van Gogh<br />Alcohol: 60 Vol.%<br />Color: green<br />“Absent” (2008)<br /> Вкус истории.The taste of history.<br />Alcohol: 68 Vol.%<br />Color: green brown<br />“Absent” (2008.a )<br />How to serve and how to drink absinthe<br /> “Kak pravilno pit absent”, (n.d.)<br />Like any strong alcoholic drink absinthe requires a certain respect for itself and the culture of drinking. Procedure for preparing portions of absinthe can be compared with the rituals of serving tequila. Absinthe - a bitter and very strong drink, the alcohol content in it is about 70-80%, taking it in its pure form is not accepted, and for understandable reasons, is difficult. The preparation procedure of absinthe is called the absinth ritual. It basically is an outline on how to serve absinth. Absinth is a concentrate spirit; the essential herbal oils are kept within the bottle because of the high alcohol content. If the level of alcohol is lower than 55 ABV, the essential oils of the herbs will precipitate, and the beverage will lose its taste and other features. <br />It is necessary to have a tall glass, preferably wide open at the pouring end, a special slotted spoon (looks like a cake knife with holes in it), ice cold water and a lump of sugar to serve absinthe.<br /> “Pernod Absinthe Holiday Cocktail Recipes”, (n.d.)<br />Traditionally, absinthe is poured into cold water through a sugar cube, which lies on a special spoon full of holes. The glass should be poured by 1/5 with absinthe. The smell of the anise and tujone will appear immediately. Usually absinthe is bright green colored, but it can vary depending on brand. The spoon should be placed on top of the glass and the lump of sugar on top of the spoon. The cold water should be slowly poured on the sugar. This will slowly dissolve the sugar into the absinth. The process continues until the glass is full. Water dissolves sugar, which is mixed with absinthe. Sweet water helps to hide the bitter taste of absinthe. “Absinthe ritual”, (n.d.) There is a perception that the sweet water is the catalyst of tujone.When water mixes with the absinthe, the drink becomes cloudy and white with iridescent shades of green and yellow. This effect is known as louche. Turbidity is due to the fact that alcohol is diluted with water, not able to hold essential oils contained in absinthe, and they fall out of it. (Grossman, 1983) Among the experienced people, there are several ways to serve absinthe. All of them need skill and a special approach. The most spread ways of drinking absinthe properly are French, Czech and Russian ways. “Absent”, (2010)<br />The French way<br />First, we should pour one part of absinthe into a glass. Then put a special holey spoon on the edge of the glass. A sugar cube is put on this spoon. Now we have to pour three parts of cold water through the sugar on the spoon into the glass. Sugar dissolves in water, and the resulting syrup is mixed with absinthe. “LeNell It All - Absinthe Service”, (2010)<br />Czech way<br />One part of absinthe is poured into a glass. Sugar cube is put on a wet spoon or fork. Spoonful of sugar can also be dipped in absinthe. We can simply pour the absinthe over a spoonful of sugar. Then we need to burn sugar, soaked with alcohol, and blow the whistle on the resulting caramel into absinthe. The resulting mixture is diluted with three parts of water. In this case, the absinthe in the glass can easily catch fire, so it is important to be careful. There is a simple variation: A lump of sugar is put on a heated spoon with holes, which is held over the glass. Then we pour a drink through the spoon. A mixture (melted sugar and gently heated absinthe). “Absent”, (2010)<br />Russian way<br />First, we make sugar syrup separately by mixing sugar with water. Then dilute the absinthe syrup in the correct proportions. This is the most effective and simplest way to mitigate the taste of absinthe. “Absent”, (2010)<br />Cocktails recipes made with absinthe<br />There are lots of cocktails made with absinth and here are just few of them as an example.<br />Cocktail “Brain concussion”<br /> “Cocktail sotryasenie mozga”, (n.d.)<br />Ingredients: Dark gin 20 ml, Rum 20 ml, Absinthe 30 ml, Coca-Cola 30 ml, Lemon juice 30 ml. Rum, gin, absinthe should be poured by layers into a wine-glass for cocktails. It is important to pour Coca-Cola by one hand, and lemon juice – with another hand. Then the cocktail is set on fire, and a pinch of ground cinnamon is to through into the flame. The cocktail is drunk while burning through a tubule. “Cocktail sotryasenie mozga”, (n.d.)<br />Cocktail “Absinthe Fizz”<br /> “Cocktail absent fiz”, (n.d.)<br />Ingredients: Absinthe 30 ml, Cognac (Weinbrand) 30 ml, Garnet syrup Grenadine 10 ml, Lemon juice 20 ml, Orange juice 20 ml, Egg white 1, soda. <br />Tools: a glass for the long drink, and a shaker. All components need to be mixed in a shaker. There is an exception with the soda. It needs to be added in the very end. The blend should be slightly mixed as a final step of preparation. Cocktail absent fiz. (n.d.)<br />Cocktail «Milk of a lioness»<br /> Cocktails. (n.d.)<br />Components for cocktail preparation:<br />Half of banana, Absinthe 30 ml, Milk 50 ml.<br />All components are necessarily for shaking up in a blender. A glass with cocktail can also be decorated with a banana circle. Cocktails. (n.d.)<br />Cocktail “Hiroshima”<br />Ko <br />Koktajl hirosima. (n.d.)<br />Ingredients: “Sambuca” liqueur 20 ml, “Bailey’s” liqueur 15 ml, Absinthe 15 ml, Grenadine syrup 2-3 drops.<br />Inventory: tall glass, matches, lighter.<br />First, it is necessary to pour the Sambuca and Bailey’s accurately layer on layer into the tall glass. Then drop the Grenadine in the middle. Absinthe should be poured on the top and ignited. Cocktail Hiroshima – recipe. (n.d.)<br />Cocktail “The mad Hatter”<br />Was the hatter truly mad? Or was he just absinthe-minded? (n.d.)<br />Ingredients: Absinthe 30 ml, Prosecco wine 180 ml, Maraschino cherry 1 peace and a splash of cherry juice, Midori melon liqueur 2 splashes, Rose’s Lime 1 splash.<br />Absinthe should be poured into the martini glass. Absinthe spoon should be set over the martini glass and the Maraschino cherry atop the spoon. Chilled Prosecco should be poured over the cherry into the glass. The absinthe change color from green to white. Then the spoon should be taken off and cherry goes to the bottom of the glass. Midori and Rose’s Lime are splashed on the top. After receiving the phosphoresce effect a splash of the maraschino cherry juice is added. This juice will create a glowing red flake in the bottom. Was the hatter truly mad? Or was he just absinthe-minded? (n.d.)<br />Conclusion<br /> <br />Reference list<br />Absent. (2010) Retrieved from http://o-spirtnom.org/napitki/absent.html<br />Absinthe - A History in Green. (2010.a.). Retrieved from http://absinthe.com.au/absinthe-history/.<br />Absinthe - A History in Green. (2010.b.). Retrieved from http://absinthe.com.au/absinthe-history/.<br />Absinthe - A History in Green. (2010.c.). Retrieved from http://absinthe.com.au/absinthe-history/.<br />Absinthe Classics: Distillerie Les Fils de Emile Pernot, Pontarlier. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.absintheclassics.com/absinthe_pernot.html<br />Absinthe ritual. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.absinth.com/absinthe/ritual.html<br />Absinthe: FAQ. (2003) Retrieved from http://absinthe.narod.ru/recipes_faq.html#1<br />Alandia: Absinthe Study Session 3 – Absinthe´s Green Color. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.alandia.de/absinthe-community/absinthe-studies/absinthe-study-session-3-absinthe-green-color<br />Baker, P. (2001). The dedalus book of absinthe. Sawtry: Dedalus.<br />Cocktail absent fiz. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://kokteil.com.ua/with-absent/129-koktejl-absent-fiz.html<br />Cocktail Hiroshima - recipe. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://hapyou.webnode.com/news/cocktail-hiroshima-recipe/<br />Cocktail sotryasenie mozga. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://kokteil.com.ua/with-absent/128-koktejl-sotryasenie-mozga.html<br />Cocktails. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.alcobaron.ru/coct/<br />Grossman H.J. (1983). Grossman’s guide to wines, beers, and spirits. New Jersey: Wiley Publishing, Inc.<br />History. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://absinth-spoon.com/hist.html.<br />History. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.absinthebuyersguide.com/history.html. <br />Kak pravilno pit absent. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.dosug26.ru/absent.html<br />Koktajl hirosima. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://kokteil.com.ua/with-absent/5-koktejl-xirosima.html<br />Lascelles, A. (2007, March). A green light for a life of XS. Wine&Spirit, 18.<br />LeNell It All - Absinthe Service. (2010) Retrieved from http://www.slashfood.com/2009/10/28/lenell-it-all-absinthe-service/<br />Lipinski, R. A. & Lipinski K.A. (1989). Professional guide to alcoholic beverages. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.<br />Oxygénée's Absinthe History & FAQ IV. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.oxygenee.com/absinthe-faq/faq4.html.<br />Pernod Absinthe Holiday Cocktail Recipes. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://blisstree.com/feel/pernod-absinthe-holiday-cocktail-recipes/?utm_source=blisstree&utm_medium=web&utm_campaign=b5hubs_migration<br />The shaky history of thujone. (2006.). Retrieved from http://www.wormwoodsociety.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1?splash<br />Was the hatter truly mad? Or was he just absinthe-minded? (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.rookno17.com/2010/06/was-hatter-truly-mad-or-was-he-just.html<br />“Absinthe - How to Make Absinthe” (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/absinthe-how-to-make-absinthe.html<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.absinthebuyersguide.com/Articles/TedBreaux/tedbreaux.html<br />“Absinthe laws”, (2010). Retrieved from http://www.absinthe101.com/laws.html<br />Padosch,S.A., Lachenmeier,D.W., Kroner,L.U., (2006, May). Absinthism: a ficticious 19th century syndrome with present impact. Thujone.info. Retrieved from http://www.thujone.info/thujone-absinthe-4.html<br />“Absinthe_legal” (2006). Retrieved from http://www.greendevil.com/absinthe_legal.html<br />“Absinthe_writings4” (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/absinthe/absinthe_writings4.shtml<br />“History”, (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.alandia.de/historie/history.htm<br />“Absinthe_faq” (n.d.a.). Retrieved from http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/absinthe/absinthe_faq.shtml<br />“Absinthe: the Vilified Spirit”,(n.d.). Retrieved from http://sfgirl-thealiennextdoor.blogspot.com/2010/07/absinthe-vilified-spirit.html<br />“Absinthe law”, (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.allthingsabsinthe.com/absinthelaw.html<br />Absinthe buyers guide. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/historic-absinthe-brands/fritz_duval_extrait_dabsinthe/<br />Absinthe buyers guide. (n.d.a.). Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/country/switzerland/kuebler_53/<br />Absinthe buyers guide. (n.d.b.). http://www.feeverte.net/guide/country/switzerland/clandestine_la_bleue/<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.c.). Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/country/czech-republic/lgan_fils/<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.d.). Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/country/switzerland/<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.e.). Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/country/france/la_fe_absinthe/<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.f.). Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/country/switzerland/duvallon/<br />“Absinthe – Dealer ” (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.absinthe-dealer.com/absinthe/absinthe-from-france/francois-guy-absinthe-05.html<br />“Absinthe – Dealer ” (n.d.a). Retrieved from http://www.absinthe-dealer.com/absinthe/absinthe-from-france/oxygenee-absinthe.html<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.g.). Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/historic-absinthe-brands/pernod_fils_garantie_fabrique/<br />“Xenta” (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.xenta.com/eng/main_engl.html<br />“Absinthe Tunel Red 80% 20cl” (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.absinthe1001.de/absinthe-tunel-red-80-20cl.html<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.h.). Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/country/spain/jaques_senaux_black/<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.i.). Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/country/spain/deva_absenta/<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.j.). Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/country/spain/teichenne/<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.k.). Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/country/italy/absinthe_dedo/<br />“Alandia. World of absinthe” (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.alandia.de/absinthe/product_info.php/language/en/info/p459_Absinthe-Caselli.html<br />“Alandia. World of absinthe” (n.d.a). Retrieved from http://www.alandia.de/absinthe/product_info.php/language/en/info/p226_Absinthe-Leone.html<br />“Alandia. World of absinthe” (n.d.b). Retrieved from http://www.alandia.de/absinthe/product_info.php/language/en/info/p391_Absinthe-Parnasse.html<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.l.). Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/country/italy/cavalin_assenzio_69/#more<br />“Alandia. World of absinthe” (n.d.c). Retrieved from http://www.alandia.de/absinthe/product_info.php/language/en/info/p454_Absinthe-Eichelberger-58-Blanche.html<br />“Alandia. World of absinthe” (n.d.d). Retrieved from http://www.alandia.de/absinthe/product_info.php/language/en/info/p549_Absinthe-ALANDIA--poque.html<br />“Alandia. World of absinthe” (n.d.e). 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Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/country/usa/meadow_of_love_absinthe_superi/<br />“Alandia. World of absinthe” (n.d.f). Retrieved from http://www.alandia.de/absinthe/product_info.php/language/en/info/p43_Absinthe-Hills.html<br />“Absinthe – Dealer ” (n.d.d). Retrieved from http://www.absinthe-dealer.com/absinthe/lor-absinthe-from-czech/hypnotic-absinthe.html<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.q.). Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/country/czech-republic/absinth_king_of_spirits_1/<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.r.) Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/country/czech-republic/king_of_spirits_gold/<br />“Absinthe buyers guide”, (n.d.s.). Retrieved from http://www.feeverte.net/guide/country/czech-republic/prague_absinth/<br />“Absent” (2008) Retrieved from http://www.absent.webitec.net/mark.html<br />“Absent” (2008.a ) Retrieved from http://www.absent.webitec.net/mark.html <br />”Information”, (2010). Retrieved from http://www.eabsinthe.com/i32//information.html<br />“The bohemian”, (2010). Retrieved from http://www.infused-vodka.com/absinthe-dispenser---the-bohemian.aspx<br />“Absinthe-study-session-3-absinthe-green-color”, (n.d.a). Retrieved from http://www.alandia.de/absinthe-community/absinthe-studies/absinthe-study-session-3-absinthe-green-color<br />