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- 1. VARIABLES
- 2. A VARIABLE IS ANY ENTITY THAT CAN TAKE ON DIFFERENT VALUES. VARIABLES AREN'T ALWAYS 'QUANTITATIVE' OR NUMERICAL
- 3. AN ATTRIBUTE IS A SPECIFIC VALUE ON A VARIABLE.
- 4. DEPENDENT VARIABLES SHOW THE EFFECT OF MANIPULATING OR INTRODUCING THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLES.
- 5. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES ARE THOSE THAT THE RESEARCHER HAS CONTROL OVER.
- 6. ASSUMPTIONS
- 7. AN ASSUMPTION IS A SELFEVIDENT TRUTH WHICH IS BASED UPON A KNOWN FACT OR PHENOMENON
- 8. EXAMPLES: 1. SPECIFIC QUESTION: HOW QUALIFIED ARE THE TEACHERS HANDLING SCIENCE? UNWRITTEN QUESTION: THERE ARE CERTAIN QUALIFICATIONS THAT ONE SHOULD POSSESS BEFORE HE CAN TEACH SCIENCE.
- 9. 2. SPECIFIC QUESTION: HOW ADEQUATE ARE THE FACILITIES THAT A SCHOOL SHOULD ACQUIRE BEFORE IT CAN OFFER SCIENCE. IMPLICIT ASSUMPTION: THERE ARE CERTAIN REQUIRED FACILITIES THAT A SCHOOL SHOULD ACQUIRE BEFORE IT CAN OFFER SCIENCE AS A SUBJECT.
- 10. 3. SPECIFIC QUESTION: HOW EFFECTIVE ARE THE METHODS USED IN THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE? IMPLICIT ASSUMPTION: THERE ARE CERTAIN METHODS THAT ARE EFFECTIVE IN THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE.
- 11. HYPOTHESES
- 12. A HYPOTHESIS IS A TENTATIVE CONCLUSION OR ANSWER TO A SPECIFIC QUESTION RAISED AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INVESTIGATION.
- 13. A HYPOTHESIS SHOULD BE: * STATED CLEARLY USING APPROPRIATE TERMINOLOGY; *TESTABLE; *A STATEMENT OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VARIABLES; *LIMITED IN SCOPE (FOCUSED).
- 14. PURPOSES, FUNCTIONS, AND IMPORTANCE OF HYPOTHESES OR SPECIFIC QUESTIONS.
- 15. 1. They help the researcher in designing his study. 2. They serve as bases for determining assumptions. 3. They serve as bases for determining the relevance of data. 4. They serve as bases for the explanation or discussion about the data gathered. 5. They help or guide the researcher in consolidating his findings and in formulating his conclusions.
- 16. TWO FORMS OF HYPOTHESES 1.Operational form states that there is a difference between two phenomena. 2. Null form states that there is no difference between the two phenomena.
- 17. EXAMPLE: QUESTION: IS THERE ANY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PERCEPTIONS OF THE TEACHERS AND THOSE OF THE STUDENTS CONCERNING THE DIFFERENT ASPECTS IN THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE?
- 18. OPERATIONAL HYPOTHESIS: THERE IS A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PERCEPTIONS OF THE TEACHERS AND THOSE OF THE STUDENTS CONCERNING THE DIFFERENT ASPECTS IN THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE. NULL HYPOTHESIS: THERE IS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PERCEPTIONS OF THE TEACHERS AND THOSE OF THE STUDENTS CONCERNING THE DIFFERENT ASPECTS IN THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE
- 19. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS ALSO KNOWN AS RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS OR EXPERIMENTAL HYPOTHESIS IS A STATEMENT OF INEQUALITY BETWEEN VARIABLES PREDICTING THAT THERE IS A DIFFERENCE IN CONDITIONS OR THAT THERE IS AN ASSOCIATION BETWEEN VARIABLES (BRACE, KEMP & SNELGAR, 2006).
- 20. INSTRUCTIONS 1 KNOW WHAT YOUR NULL HYPOTHESIS IS BEFOREHAND. FOR EXAMPLE, IN AN EXPERIMENT TESTING THE WHITENING EFFECTS OF A NEW KIND OF TOOTHPASTE, THE NULL HYPOTHESIS WOULD BE "ON AVERAGE, THERE IS NO DIFFERENCE IN WHITENING EFFECT BETWEEN THE NEW TOOTHPASTE AND THE CONTROL WHITENING TOOTHPASTE."
- 21. 2 Gather the facts you already have about the new toothpaste. For example, you may know that the toothpaste contains higher levels of a whitening agent than the control toothpaste, that the control toothpaste does not perform as well as hoped and that the new toothpaste has seemed to be effective in informal testing.
- 22. 3 Compose your alternative hypothesis, using the facts you have gathered to make an informed guess. In this case, it may be, "The new toothpaste is more effective than the control toothpaste for whitening teeth, on average."
- 23. 4 Check your alternative hypothesis to make certain it fulfills the requirements of an experimental hypothesis: Is it a prediction? Is it testable? If not, rewrite it. For example, if your hypothesis is "Will the new toothpaste prove more effective than the control toothpaste?," rewrite it as a prediction instead of a question.
- 24. GUIDELINES IN THE FORMULATION OF EXPLICIT HYPOTHESES 1. They have to be expressed.(experimental investigation) 2. Hypotheses are seldom expressed if not entirely absent.(descriptive and historical investigation) 3. Hypotheses are usually stated in the null form because testing a null hypothesis is easier than in an operational form of hypothesis. 4. Hypotheses are formulated from the specific questions upon which they are based.
- 25. GUIDELINES IN THE USE OF BASIC ASSUMPTIONS 1. You cannot assume the value of your study. 2. You cannot assume the reliability of the instruments you propose to use in your research. 3. You cannot assume the validity of basic data. 4. You cannot assume that your population is typical. 5. An assumption is not tested, neither is it defended nor argued.

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