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# Approaches in teaching mathematics

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### Approaches in teaching mathematics

1. 1. APPROACHES IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS
2. 2. INQUIRY TEACHING Inquiry Teaching involves providing learners with content-related problems that serve as the foci for class research activities. The teacher provides/presents a problem then the learners identify the problem.
3. 3. THE STEPS IN THE PROCESS OF INQUIRY • Present discrepant event or specific problematic situation. • Encourage observation for developing a statement of research objectives • Ask students for observation and explanation • Encourage the testing of the hypothesis • Develop tentative conclusion and generalization • Debrief the process
4. 4. DEMONSTRATION APPROACH Demonstration Approach is a teaching strategy in which the teacher engages “in a learning task other than just talking about it”.
5. 5. DISCOVERY APPROACH Discovery Learning is “International Learning” . Both the teacher and the learner play active roles in discovery learning depending upon on the role that the teacher plays, this can range from guided discovery (needs strict supervision) to free or pure discovery (very little supervision needed)
6. 6. Steps of lesson planning were adopted as given by Carin and Surd (1981) 1) Statement of the problem. 2) Previous knowledge. 3) Concept to be developed. 4) Specific objectives. 5) Teaching aids. 6) Presentation. 7) Questions of Discussion. 8) Investigative activities of students. 9) Observation table made by the students. 10) Generalization 11) Open questions. 12) Teacher activity.
7. 7. MATH-LAB APPROACH The Mathematics Laboratory Approach is a method of teaching whereby children in small groups work through an assignment/task card, learn and discover mathematics for themselves.
8. 8. PRACTICAL WORK APPROACH (PWA) The learners in this approach, manipulate concrete objects and/or perform activities to arrive at a conceptual understanding of phenomena, situation, or concept. The environment is a laboratory where the natural events/phenomena can be subjects of mathematical or scientific investigations.
9. 9. INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION USING MODULES The application of Individualized Instruction permits the learners to progress by mastering steps through the curriculum at his/her own rate and independently of the progress of other pupils.
10. 10. BRAINSTORMING It is a teaching strategy in which the teacher elicits from the learners as many ideas as possible but refrains from evaluating them until all possible ideas have been generated.
11. 11. BRAINSTORMING USUALLY OCCURS IN 4 PHASES 1) problem identification, 2) idea generation, 3) idea evaluation, and 4) solution implementation and evaluation.
12. 12. PROBLEM-SOLVING Problem-solving can best be defined as a learner-directed strategy in which learners “think patiently and analytically about complex situations in order to find answers to questions”. A problem is defined as a “situation in which you are trying to reach some goal, and must find means for getting there”.
13. 13. COOPERATIVE LEARNING Cooperative learning is helpful in eliminating competition among learners. It encourages them to work together towards common goals. It fosters positive intergroup attitudes in the classroom.
14. 14. INTEGRATIVE TECHNIQUE The Integrated Curriculum Mode (Integrative teaching to some) is both a “method of teaching and a way of organizing the instructional program so that many subject areas and skills provided in the curriculum can be linked to one another”.