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Social Entrepreneurship and Personalities

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  • 1. DO YOU HAVE WHAT IT TAKES? SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIPJAN SPRUIJTAVANS UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCESPROFESSORSHIP OF INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIPJUNE 5, 2012
  • 2. AGENDA• Introduction• Personality Indicators • Workshop MBTI and Big 5• Paper 1: • Personalities of entrepreneurs in different stages of organisational growth • Personalities of Social Entrepreneurs• Paper 2: • Empirical findings on experience, skills and intentions of social entrepreneurs• Conclusions
  • 3. THE BEGINNING: GREINER
  • 4. INTRODUCTIONTrends in economy (Greiner & Cummings, 2004)
  • 5. INTRODUCTIONTrends in entrepreneurship (GEM, 2011)
  • 6. INTRODUCTIONTrends in entrepreneurship
  • 7. GOALSPaper 1:- To create propositions for the relation between personalities and different stages of growth- To create a clear-cut definition of social entrepreneurship- To create propositions for the relation between personalities and social entrepreneurshipPaper 2:- To preliminary test the hypotheses drawn from theoretical research
  • 8. AGENDA• Introduction• Personality Indicators • Workshop MBTI and Big 5• Paper 1: • Personalities of entrepreneurs in different stages of organisational growth • Personalities of Social Entrepreneurs• Paper 2: • Empirical findings on experience, skills and intentions of social entrepreneurs• Conclusions
  • 9. PERSONALITY INDICATORS Bateson
  • 10. PERSONALITY INDICATORS• Big 5• MBTI (or: JTI)• …
  • 11. Carl Gustav Jung
  • 12. E-I= Preference of Energy: how someone reloads their batterySN= Mental Instruments Information-gathering and evaluationTF= Decision-making and value systemJ-P= Lifestyle: how someone organizes their life and work
  • 13. E-ISN Note: • It’s not a “sliding scale”, everybody has a certain preference. • Preferences do not change, exceptTF on rare occasions • It doesn’t relate to behaviour: we can adapt our behaviour, we cannot adapt our preferences.J-P
  • 14. E------------ISources of Energy: how someone reloads their batteryE= EXTROVERSIONReloading their batteries when around other peopleI= INTROVERSIONReloading their batteries when alone
  • 15. E------------IFirst do, then think First think, then doRestless when they are alone or Washed-out when they are amongwhen there is no action many other peopleLike to discuss things to other Like to overthink things bypeople themselvesThink effectively when among other Think effectively when on themselvespeople and discussing with them and in restFeel comfortable among other Feel comfortable in 1-to-1 situationspeople
  • 16. S--------------N Information gathering and evaluationS SENSING: using their sense organs; experiencing the here and nowN INTUITION: using their imagination and thoughts;
  • 17. S--------------N Focus on facts and details Focus on broader image Practical and cool Full of imagination and future-oriented Adapt new things when they are Experiment with the unknown proven in practise Communicate clear and transparent Communicate abstract and vague
  • 18. T-----------F Decision-making and value systemTTHINKING: preference for objective view on things and logicF FEELING: preference for own values and opinions
  • 19. T-----------FLook at things from an analytics and Look at things in terms of wrong andcritical viewpoint rightInfluenceable by logic and objective Influenceable by valuable argumentsperspectivesPreference for discussions that are Preference for discussions that takelogical and intelligent subjective opinions into accountDecision-making: logic first, than Decision-making: value first, thanvalues logic
  • 20. J-------------PJ Lifestyle: how someone organizes their life and work JUDGING: preference for structure and organisation; deal result-oriented with problemsP PRECEIVING: preference for flexibility, adaptability and divergency; want to overthink the unexpected and try different methods
  • 21. J-------------PAppearance: result-oriented, Appearence: open, flexible,determined spontanuousFeel good when things are planned Feel good when situations have anand organised open endWant to make decisions, even when Postpone a decision to gather morethere is not enough information to information or try different techniquesmake the decisionWant to get things right as soon as Want to try new things, new paths,possible even when there is no time
  • 22. Your JTI…ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ11.6% 13.8% 1.5% 2.1%ISTP ISFP INFP INTP5.4% 8.8% 4.4% 3.3%ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP4.3% 8.5% 8.1% 3.2%ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ8.7% 12.3% 2.4% 1.8%
  • 23. Beware!
  • 24. BIG 5 Extroversion Agreeableness Emotional stabilityOpenness to Experience Conscientiousness
  • 25. AGENDA• Introduction• Personality Indicators • Workshop MBTI and Big 5• Paper 1: • Personalities of entrepreneurs in different stages of organisational growth • Personalities of Social Entrepreneurs• Paper 2: • Empirical findings on experience, skills and intentions of social entrepreneurs• Conclusions
  • 26. MBTI & BUSINESS
  • 27. MBTI & ENTREPRENEURSHIP
  • 28. BIG 5 & ENTREPRENEURSHIP
  • 29. MBTI & GREINER
  • 30. PROPOSITIONS• Proposition 2a: Entrepreneurs in early-stage organizations score lower on Introversion (MBTI) and higher on Extroversion (Big Five) than entrepreneurs in medium-stage and late-stage organizations.• Proposition 2b: Entrepreneurs in early-stage organizations score lower on Judging (MBTI) and Conscientiousness (Big Five) than entrepreneurs in medium-stage and late-stage organizations.• Proposition 2c: Entrepreneurs in early-stage organizations score higher on Intuition (MBTI) and Openness to Experience (Big Five) than entrepreneurs in medium-stage and late-stage organizations.
  • 31. AGENDA• Introduction• Personality Indicators • Workshop MBTI and Big 5• Paper 1: • Personalities of entrepreneurs in different stages of organisational growth • Personalities of Social Entrepreneurs• Paper 2: • Empirical findings on experience, skills and intentions of social entrepreneurs• Conclusions
  • 32. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS “Social entrepreneurs are not content just to give a fish or teach how to fish. They will not rest until they have revolutionized the fishing industry.” Bill Drayton
  • 33. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSPerspectives:• aiming at not-for-profit initiatives to create social value• a commercial business sector aiming at socially responsible practice• a means to address social problems and accelerate social transformationsOECD:• They deliver service in a participatory nature, engaging in communities – its stakeholders – and pioneering leading towards social cohesion and• Strive for social inclusion through workforce integration of marginalized people eg. long term unemployed, disabled, homeless and/or minorities.
  • 34. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSDefinition:Social entrepreneurship is the process of pursuing opportunitiesto deliver new and innovative products or services leadingtowards social cohesion and social inclusion.
  • 35. MBTI & SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS
  • 36. BIG 5 & SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS
  • 37. DO YOU HAVE WHAT IT TAKES?Social Entrepreneurs vs. Population (total population =100%) ST SF NF NT IJ 57% 64% 205% 181% IP 71% 81% 258% 227% EP 60% 68% 216% 191% EJ 47% 54% 172% 152%
  • 38. Koffi AnnanFAMOUS INFJ/INFP/INTP Socrates Benjamin Franklin John Kerry Barack JK Rowling Obama Isaac Newton Walt Karl Marx Disney Mark Zuckerberg Sean Plato Parker Carl Gustav Jung Albert Einstein Mahatma Gandhi Charles Darwin Nelson Mandela
  • 39. (IN)FAMOUS INFJ/INFP/INTP Heath Ledger Kurt Cobain Vincent van Gogh Che Guevara Osama Bin Laden Robert Mugabe
  • 40. PROPOSITIONS• Proposition 1a: Social entrepreneurs have higher scores on Intuition (MBTI) and Openness to Experience (Big Five) than entrepreneurs in general.• Proposition 1b: Social entrepreneurs have higher scores on Feeling (MBTI) and Agreeableness (Big Five) than entrepreneurs in general.• Proposition 1c: Social entrepreneurs have higher scores on Introversion (MBTI) and lower on Extroversion (Big Five) than entrepreneurs in general.
  • 41. AGENDA• Introduction• Personality Indicators • Workshop MBTI and Big 5• Paper 1: • Personalities of entrepreneurs in different stages of organisational growth • Personalities of Social Entrepreneurs• Paper 2: • Empirical findings on experience, skills and intentions of social entrepreneurs• Conclusions
  • 42. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Experience Skills IntentionsCharacteristics Social Entrepreneurship• H0: there is a correlation between personality types according to the MBTI- scale of the sample group and social entrepreneurship.• H1: H0 is influenced by the rate of experience of social entrepreneurs.• H2: H0 is influenced by the amount of skills of social entrepreneurs.• H3: H0 is influenced by the intentions of social entrepreneurs.
  • 43. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS:SAMPLE SIZE Characteristic Sample Sample size Educational level BSc: 31 N=53 MSc: 15 PhD: 1 Other: 6 Age Average: 23,1 years N=55 Country of residence Spain: 6 N=53 Hungary: 7 Netherlands: 4 France: 10 Italy: 5 Poland: 3 Germany: 7 Belgium: 6 Romania: 5
  • 44. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS Experience Skills Intention Average σ Average σ Average σManagerial factorsManagement 5,7 1,96 7,0 1,37 8,0 1,72Coordination 6,3 1,82 7,1 1,56 8,0 1,52Leadership 6,6 2,03 7,0 1,95 8,0 1,69Communication 7,4 1,62 7,5 1,72 8,7 1,22Problem 7,0 1,76 7,5 1,63 8,8 1,16Totals 6,6 7,2 8,3Entrepreneural factorsEntrepreneurship 5,0 2,16 5,9 1,45 7,4 1,75Impulsiveness 5,4 2,31 5,6 2,20 5,9 1,97Result 6,7 1,92 7,2 1,57 8,1 1,43Networking 7,0 1,82 7,2 1,80 8,3 1,53Totals 6,0 6,5 7,4Innovative factorsVisionary 5,5 1,99 6,3 1,92 7,6 1,58Creativeness 6,6 2,20 6,9 1,93 8,3 1,43Innovativeness 6,0 2,13 6,7 1,77 8,1 1,31Totals 6,0 6,6 8,0Commercial factorsCommerciality 6,0 1,98 6,9 1,65 7,7 1,60Social 6,5 2,13 6,8 1,84 7,8 1,62Collaboration 7,6 1,52 7,4 1,57 8,5 1,46Totals 6,7 7,0 8,0
  • 45. SKILLS - MBTI E-I S-N T-F J-P R р R р R р R рManagerial factorsManagement 0,22 0,113 0,34 0,012Coordination 0,21 0,129Leadership 0,23 0,096Problem-solving -0,21 0,127 0,34 0,01Entrepreneurial factorsResult-oriented 0,23 0,084 0,24 0,078Networking 0,26 0,056Innovative factorsVisionary -0,20 0,146Innovativeness 0,22 0,104Commercial factorsCollaboration 0,42 0,002 0,20 0,142Commerciality 0,26 0,052
  • 46. INTENTIONS - MBTI E-I S-N T-F J-P R р R р R р R рManagerial factorsManagement 0,20 0,137 0,28 0,04Leadership -0,21 0,132Communication -0,18 0,197Entrepreneurial factorsEntrepreneurship 0,24 0,081 -0,18 0,184Result-oriented 0,344 0,01Networking 0,25 0,066Innovative factorsVisionary -0,32 0,019 -0,26 0,054Innovativeness 0,22 0,103 0,21 0,13 -0,28 0,039Creativeness -0,21 0,123 -0,19 0,154Commercial factorsSocially-oriented -0,20 0,144Commerciality 0,26 0,055
  • 47. CONCLUSIONS• H0: there is a correlation between personality types according to the MBTI- scale of the sample group and social entrepreneurship. • Accepted, except for the Judging-Perceiving factor• H1: H0 is influenced by the rate of experience of social entrepreneurs. • Withdrawn due to factor analysis. Only a few significant correlations found• H2: H0 is influenced by the amount of skills of social entrepreneurs. • Accepted, most significantly for “managerial skills” and “commercial skills”• H3: H0 is influenced by the intentions of social entrepreneurs. • Accepted, most significantly for “entrepreneurial intentions” and “innovative intentions” A gap that education/training could fill
  • 48. THE END….• Questions?Ir. Jan Spruijtjp.spruijt@avans.nlTwitter: @janspruijtLinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/janspruijt