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No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion
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No 1 Stravinsky Debussy Discussion

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  • Play Maidens- fade out
  • Vic and bassoon solo
  • Play entire Maidens track
  • Play Firebird
  • By many accounts Debussy was a quiet, thoughtful child, often times choosing to observe rather than join in childhood activities. Born in St.-Germain-en-Laye, Debussy’s parents owned a China shop. Debussy’s parents were struggling financially, losing the China shop when Debussy was three, and the family was forced to move to Clichy to find work.
  • As the family continued struggle more financially, young Claude was sent to live with his Aunt, Madame Roustan. It was his Aunt who would take him to concerts, plays and art exhibitions. Debussy proved to be quite talented at the piano, so his Aunt hired Madame de Fleurville, a student of Chopin’s, to teach him. After three years under her tutelage Debussy was accepted into the Paris Conservatory of Music at the age of ten. During his time at the conservatory Debussy excelled at sight singing, piano and composition. While his skill as a composer was apparent, his methods were often considered questionable and even “dangerous”. Debussy is often credited with saying that he preferred composing to “please his own ears” and not following any traditional form, structure or tonality. He often clashed with his professors and was considered a difficult student. Debussy inventiveness was however, very appealing to many. In 1810 he was hired into the service of Madame Nadezhda von Meck, the former patroness of Tchaikovsky. Debussy played with a group of household musicians, taught her daughters piano and even went along on family trips.
  • Debussy continued composing works including the opera Pelleas et Mallisande and La Mer. While in Paris Debussy continued to compose, being influenced throughout this time by poets and painters including Stephane Mallarme, Claude Monet and the American artist JM Whistler. It is during this time that many of his major works were composed. His quartet in G minor was premiered on December 29, 1893 to strong reviews. Debussy died during the 1918 bombardment of Paris. He, like so many artists and musicians of this time, was very disheartened and disillusioned by the effects of World War I. Paris was so preoccupied with the war that the newspapers barely mentioned the passing of this great composer. It was not until years later that his music began to reemerge and thrill audiences around the globe.
  • Debussy is overwhelmingly considered the father of the Impressionist movement in music. The term, however, was first coined by art critic Louis Leroy when referencing Claude Monet’s painting Impression: soleil levant (Impression: Sunrise, Fig. 1 ). It was not meant to be complimentary of Monet’s work, but it suited the style so the term “stuck”.Debussy was heavily influenced by this visual art movement and longed to emulate it tonally. Debussy’s impressionism is said to have parallels with it’s visual counterpart – “finely graded instrumental colors; static, non-climactic melodies, often circling round a single pitch (true of Nuages); harmony conceived as a largely coloristic element; complex textures consisting of elaborate surface figurations, often suffusing whatever melodic material they contain.” (Harvard Dictionary of Music) Much like visual impressionism, musical impressionism is less concerned with the subject, but more greatly centered on how the subject is presented, especially where technical and compositional devices are concerned. Debussy did not desire to be literally programmatic, but rather more dream like, one’s impression of said objects. With his Three Nocturnes he achieves this “dreamlike” imagery.
  • Calude Monet’s Soleil Levant (Sunrise) 1873
  • Composed between the years 1897-1899, Debussy’s are not Nocturnes in the traditional musical sense (i.e. Chopin’s Nocturnes). Debussy borrows the term from a series of paintings by the American artist JM Whistler, who’s Nocturnes depict scenes of night and dusk in the impressionist style (Fig. 2 and 3 ). As stated earlier, Debussy longed not to convey the images literally but more along the lines of fantasias or dreamscapes. Nuages (Clouds), Fetes (Festivals) and Sirenes (The Sirens) are depictions of what we believe those things to be, not what they actually are.
  • Play Debussy track (3) and fade out
  • Perhaps Debussy’s admiration of Indonesian Gamelan Music is the reason for his quest to recreate this same texture in his orchestral Nocturnes . How successful he was remains open for debate. It is generally agreed that with Nuages he comes closest to achieving his goal than with any other previous piece.
  • While whether or not Debussy achieved this “Heterophonic” texture remains debatable, he does achieve the highly variable quality of clouds with the texture of Nuages . The opening statement by the Clarinets and Bassoons (Fig. 4) seems to emulate the thin cirrus clouds just beginning to gently roll across the sky (and seems to achieve the heterophony Debussy was looking for). The entrance of the English Horn at measure five is evocative of the wind gently blowing the clouds across the sky. The repetition of the same theme added by the strings (mm. 22) and other wind instruments adds a thicker layerof clouds to our sky, lazily swirling and mingling together, ultimately building to a densely, cumulonimbus, cloud filled sky by measure twenty-nine. The introduction of a darker melodic figure at measure thirty-three gives us the possibility of a storm, and by measure forty-three the use of pizzicato in the lower strings seems to emulate light rain drops. Debussy is giving us an image of the ever altering sky, whereby toward the end of the piece the English Horn sounds its repeated “wind” figure and seems to blow the storm away, giving way to a thin layer of clouds again.
  • Play Nuages for the class and have them think about the questions and their responses. Ask the students if they think Debussy was successful in his attempt to capture the idea of clouds in his composition.
  • I need some volunteers for this one. Play Entire Debussy Track
  • Ask students to remove their “Music Lenses”* and put on their “whole world lenses”, then ask them what they think texture means. How does it apply to all five of the senses? Can you see texture? Taste it? Smell It? Touch it? Hear it? Using the visual guides and definitions of the different textures in music, now have them refocus back to Music. Using pieces in your own collection have the students listen to each type of Textural structure. Ask if they can hear distinct or subtle differences in the music. Have students draw their own diagrams of the texture based upon what they hear in the music. *Often time when students come into a music room they will immediately focus on the terms used referencing only the music curriculum. So by asking them to remove their “Music Lenses” you are letting them know that any and all responses are valid.
  • Impressionism in the Visual Arts Using the Artists and Paintings provided, and/or adding other images from other impressionist artists, discuss the connection between musical impressionism and visual impressionism. A fantastic resource can be found at www.impressionism.org , a web site that include lesson plans and activities for teaching about impressionism in the visual arts. Characteristics of Visual Impressionism (from impressionism.org) - Everyday themes as opposed to biblical or historic events. Unusual use of composition, framing and cropping subjects with no adherence to traditional compositional techniques. Real life landscapes and depictions of nature that were not idealized. Vibrant, light colors often not mixed prior to placement on the canvas resulting in unusual combinations. Impressionist painters painted quickly in an attempt to capture a fleeting moment, often this was reflected in their broad, visible brush strokes. Characteristics of Musical Impressionism - finely graded instrumental colors static, non-climactic melodies, often circling round a single pitch harmony conceived as a largely coloristic element complex textures consisting of elaborate surface figurations, often suffusing whatever melodic material they contain
  • Transcript

    • 1. North Carolina Symphony Education Program August 14, 2007 Teacher Workshop
      • Education Concert Dates and Programs:
      • Online at www.ncsymphony.org
      • Questionnaires
      • Symphony Store downstairs
      • Open Announcements after Question and Answer period, 2:30 pm.
      • Contact me at [email_address]
      HOLD ON TO YOUR RAFFLE TICKETS!
    • 2. David Hartman, host William H. Curry, Resident Conductor Joan Landry, Assistant Conductor Victor Benedict, Assistant Principal Bassoon Paul Goldsberry, Violin Jacqueline Saed Wolborsky, Assistant Principal Violin II
      • Panel Interview/ Discussion:
    • 3. Texture in the Rite of Spring and The Firebird Igor Stravinsky
    • 4. Stravinsky: A Last Minute Genius
      • Born in 1882 in Russia to a musical family.
      • Parents wanted him to become a lawyer, but he wanted to compose!
      • His inspiration, connection and ticket out of law?
      • Vladimr Rimsky-Korsakov (son of famed Nicolai), with whom he became friendly with at University of St. Petersburg.
      • Soon began studying composition.
      • Sergei Diagheliv
        • Ballet Producer
        • Saw a work of Stravinsky’s
        • Original composer bowed out!
        • Hired Stravinsky to compose Firebird
        • Stravinsky finished it early—a chance of a lifetime!
    • 5. Prolific from the Start
      • Stravinsky was an instant success!
      • Within three years of the Firebird premier, Rite of Spring made him the most famous composer in the entire world.
      • Yet, it wasn’t an easy premiere…..
    • 6. Rite of Spring: A Musical Scandal
      • Music was not quite “spring-like” to the audience on May 29, 1913, at the Théatre des Champs-Elysées in Paris.
      • Shocking choreography, angular music, and dissonant chords!
      • From the very beginning, the music was primitive, pulse-like, loud and uncomfortable!
      • Cat-calls and yelling from the audience.
      • Performers couldn’t hear themselves!
      • Diagheliv flashed the houselights to stop a full-fledged RIOT!
    • 7. Forever Changed
      • The Rite of Spring changed the course of 20th-century music like no other work has done.
      • Issues of national identity and universalism, fundamentally new approaches to melody and rhythm all in a ballet where the conventional plot was replaced by a more abstract subject matter
    • 8. The Story
      • Primitive Russian tribe sacrificing a virgin maiden to the arrival of spring.
      • Series of episodes depicting a wild pagan spring ritual.
      • The Ballet is divided into two sections:
    • 9. Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring
      • Part I: Adoration of the Earth
      • Introduction
      • The Augurs of Spring (Dances of the Young Girls )
      • Ritual of Abduction
      • Spring Rounds (Round Dance)
      • Ritual of the Rival Tribes
      • Procession of the Sage
      • The Sage (Adoration of the Earth)
      • Dance of the Earth
      • Part II: The Sacrifice
      • Introduction
      • Mystic Circles of the Young Girls
      • The Glorification of the Chosen One
      • Evocation of the Ancestors
      • Ritual Action of the Ancestors
      • Sacrificial Dance (the Chosen One;L'Elue)
    • 10. From the Start: The Scandalous “Spring”
      •   From the start---the bassoon begins in such a high register, that it jars the audience and forces them to pay attention!
      • Stravinsky was the first to ever write for bassoon in this register.
      • So primitive in it’s sound, this solo has been described as a “new breed of snake charmer” by conductor Marin Alsop!
    • 11. Texture in The Dance of the Young Maidens
    • 12. Dance of the Young Maidens
      • The celebrants of Spring are seated on hills.
      • They blow dudki [reed pipes]. Youths learn the art of divination from an old woman who knows all the secrets of Nature.
      • Young maidens, costumed and with painted faces, come from the river in single file. They dance the Spring Dance.
    • 13. Texture in Music
      • Monophony – (one sound) – music consisting of a single line or melody without an accompaniment.
      • Homophony – (same sound) – Music concentrated on one voice or part with a secondary accompaniment and/or voice.
      • Polyphony – (many sounds) – Music employing multiple parts each keeping its own distinctiveness.
      • Heterophony – (different sounds) - music that has multiple parts or voices performing different versions of the same melody.
    • 14. Listening Activity for Texture
      • Have students listen to the Dance of the Young Maidens from Rite of Spring.
      • Ask them what they imagined the music to be about and write some ideas on a board.
      • Tell them the story behind the music and have them listen to the music again.
      • Ask students whether their ideas were close to the scene’s description. Why or why not?
      • Would students describe this music as thick or thin? Simple or busy?
      • Have students discuss why the “ thickness” of the music helps set the scene for the ballet.
      • Explain to students that this is called texture in music and it is very important to convey the idea of the music to the listener.
      • For contrast, play Debussy’s Nuages , or Prelude to an Afternoon of a Faun. How does the texture of these pieces differ? How does the composer accomplish that?
    • 15. Performance Activity
      • Pass out various percussion instruments to your class, breaking them into groups of 3 or 4 students. All students should have rhythm sticks along with another type of instrument.
      • Give the students a rhythm to all play together at the same time with the rhythm sticks. Describe this as MONOPHONY.
      • Then, divide the class into two groups, still playing the sticks. Have one play an ostinato rhythm, while the other group plays the original rhythm. This is HOMOPHONY .
      • Next, divide students into their groups of 3 or 4 and ask one group to keep playing the sticks, while the others use their other instruments. Give the original rhythm, the ostinato, as well as as many other rhythms that you may need. This is POLYPHONY.
      • Finally, ask them all to play one of the rhythms together as a group, using the different instruments. This is HETEROPHONY.
    • 16. Probing Questions
      • Have students describe why they think music has and if it needs all these textural aspects. Why do some composers incorporate a lot of texture into their music and others don’t?
      • Can the students find examples of different types of texture in music that they enjoy listening to? Invite them to bring it in and share it with the class.
    • 17. The Firebird Suite
      • Stravinsky Becomes Famous!
    • 18. The Firebird Suite: Infernal Dance
      • Based on an old Russian folk tale.
      • Interesting and exciting tale that will capture the student’s attention!
      • The story of The Firebird Suite is based on a Russian folk tale and is divided into five movements :
    • 19. Firebird
      • I. INTRODUCTION: THE FIREBIRD AND HER DANCE; VARIATION OF THE FIREBIRD II. THE PRINCESSES' ROUND: KHOROVODE III. INFERNAL DANCE OF KING KATSCHEÏ IV. BERCEUSE V. FINALE
    • 20. Telling the story
      • The young prince Ivan finds himself in the terrible kingdom of the ogre, Kaschei. Encounters a beautiful Firebird while wandering in Kashchei's enchanted garden and steals a feather from it.
      • Encounters 13 maidens, one of whom he falls passionately in love with.
      • In the morning, when these imprisoned maidens are forced by Kashchei's magic spell to return to his castle, Ivan is compelled to follow them.
    • 21.
      • Captured by Kashchei's monstrous servants.
      • Firebird tells him about the ogre's secret of immortality: that his soul, in the form of an egg in a coffin, must remain unbroken. Ivan breaks open the coffin and smashes the egg forthwith, whereupon the monster dies and the evil spell which has been cast over his kingdom dissolves and all captives are set free.
      • As expected, the prince's flame, Tsarevna, and he are married.
    • 22. Infernal Dance and Finale
      • INFERNAL DANCE OF KING KATSCHEÏ The Prince is suddenly confronted by Katscheï's horrible servants, and ultimately, the magician himself. Katscheï tries to turn the Prince into stone, but the hero produces the Firebird's magic feather. The Firebird appears and forces Katscheï and his followers into a frenetic dance.
    • 23. The Conclusion
      • FINALE
      • Katscheï and his retinue are destroyed. All of the prisoners are set free, including the Thirteenth Princess, whom the Prince weds. Over string tremolos, a solo horn plays a variation of the theme that was first presented by the flutes in the Princesses' Round. Other members of the orchestra incorporate the melody, as the Finale builds to a grandiose climax.
    • 24. King Katschei Activity
      • Have students listen to the “Infernal Dance” paying careful attention to texture.
      • Listen again, telling the story.
      • Add drama to the story as much as you can by dimming lights, etc.
      • How is the story demonstrated through the music?
      • For younger students:
      • Create masks representing the King’s monsters in his troupe and the sorcerers (lesson plan and list of materials included in Teacher Book)
    • 25. King Katschei Texture Groups
      • For older students:
      • Discuss the 4 main types of musical texture.
      • Divide students into groups representing the 4.
      • Listen again, having small groups figure out when their “texture” takes place.
      • Listen once again, have them stand when they feel as if their type of texture is being represented.
    • 26. “Classical music”---BORING?
      • The next time you hear a student say: “This music puts me to sleep”--play for them Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring or Firebird Suite .
      • See if they believe they can fall asleep while listening to that!!!
    • 27. Claude Achilles Debussy Nocturnes - Nuages
    • 28. Biography
      • Claude Achilles Debussy
      • b. Saint-
      • Germain-en-Laye
      • August 22, 1862
      • d. Paris
      • March 25, 1918
    • 29.
      • Sent to live with his Aunt, Madame Roustan. It was she who would take him to concerts, plays and art exhibitions.
      • He often clashed with his professors and was considered a difficult student.
      • 1810 - Hired into the service of Madame Nadezhda von Meck, the former patroness of Tchaikovsky. Debussy played with a group of household musicians, taught her daughters piano and even went along on family trips.
    • 30.
      • In 1884 wins the Grand Prix de Rome , after two previous attempts, for his cantata L’Enfant prodigue (The Prodigal Son ).
      • In 1894 L’Apres-midi d’un faun (Afternoon of a Fawn ) , a tone poem based upon Mallarme’s work of the same name, premiered establishing him as one of Europe’s important composers.
      • Pelleas et Mellisande , the orchestral work La Mer (The Sea) , and later The Children’s Corner written for his daughter “Chou-Chou”.
      • Debussy died during the 1918 bombardment of Paris.
    • 31. Impressionism
      • Debussy is overwhelmingly considered the father of the Impressionist movement in music.
      • Debussy’s impressionism is said to have parallels with it’s visual counterpart – “finely graded instrumental colors; static, non-climactic melodies, often circling round a single pitch (true of Nuages); harmony conceived as a largely coloristic element; complex textures consisting of elaborate surface figurations, often suffusing whatever melodic material they contain.” (Harvard Dictionary of Music) With his Three Nocturnes he achieves this “dreamlike” imagery.
    • 32. Claude Monet’s Soleil Levant 1873
    • 33. Three Nocturnes
      • Composed between the years 1897-1899, Debussy’s are not Nocturnes in the traditional musical sense (i.e. Chopin’s Nocturnes). Debussy borrows the term from a series of paintings by the American artist JM Whistler, who’s Nocturnes depict scenes of night and dusk in the impressionist style.
    • 34. JM Whistler’s Nocturne: Blue and Gold Old Battersea Bridge 1872-1877
    • 35. JM Whistler’s Nocturne in Black and Gold: “The Falling Rocket”, 1875
    • 36. Nuages: Dream of CLouds
      • Nuages (Clouds) and the Heterophonic Orchestra
      • Texture in Music – The general pattern of sound created by the elements of a work or passage. For example, the texture of a work that is perceived as consisting of the combination of several melodic lines is said to be contrapuntal or polyphonic.
      • The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians.
    • 37.
      • The Four Main Textural Forms
      • Monophony – a single line or melody with no accompaniment;
      • Homophony – one principle voice or part with a subordinate accompaniment;
      • Polyphony – combining several different musical lines, each retaining its own distinct identity;
    • 38.
      • 4. Heterophony . In “ Nuages” Debussy is attempting to create a Heterophonic orchestral texture. Heterophonic texture is rare in Western music, more commonly found in Asian, African and even Native American music. Heterophony is the simultaneous statement of two or more different versions of what is, essentially, the same melody (Harvard Dictionary)..
      Heterophony
    • 39.
      • Fig 4. Nuages – Bassoons 1 and 2
    • 40.
      • In Nuages Debussy achieves the fluctuating nature of clouds, simultaneously revealing and obscuring the sky. The composer continuously reveals and hides the repeated melody with his use of harmony and texture; giving the listener not a literal, “photographic” image of clouds, but more of the cloud filled skies of our memories or dreams.
    • 41.
      • Activities
      • Guided Listening I - Discussion
      • Inform students that this piece is entitled Nuages or Clouds, and that it was composed to give the impression of clouds in the sky. Have students think about times when they have watched the clouds and ask them the following questions (Incorporate the Science related activity for older groups):
      • 1. What do clouds look like?
      • 2. Can they be different shapes?
      • 3. Are there different types of clouds? Thick, thin, tall, wispy, etc.
      • 4. Do the clouds stay the same or do they change?
    • 42.
      • Guided Listening II – Kinesthetic
      • Use the Introduction above, but now inform students that you would like them to move as if they were clouds.
      • Have one or two students be the “wind” gently blowing the clouds around the room. Instruct them to try and have there movements flow with the piece of music. This exercise works really well with scarves.
      • Guided Listening III – Visual
      • Debussy was heavily influenced by the visual artists of his time. Have students draw there own impression of clouds, first without playing the recording and then have them create a second picture attempting to draw on paper what Debussy did with music.
      • Ask students to think about the following:
      • Are there differences in the two drawings and if so what are they?
      • How did the music change your drawing?
      • Did the music help or hinder your creation?
    • 43.
      • Guided Listening IV - Texture
      • The Four Main types of texture:
      • Monophony – (one sound) – music consisting of a single line or melody without an accompaniment.
      • Homophony – (same sound) – Music concentrated on one voice or part with a secondary accompaniment and/or voice.
      • Polyphony – (many sounds) – Music employing multiple parts each keeping its own distinctiveness.
      • Heterophony – (different sounds) - music that has multiple parts or voices performing different versions of the same melody.
    • 44.
      • Monophony Homophony
      • Polyphony Heterophony
    • 45.
      • Activity –
      • Materials –
      • Pieces of cloth – 3 or 4 different types (silk, burlap, cotton, rayon, etc.)
      • Three or Four different types of food – enough to give everyone (or just one student) a small taste. Focus on the texture of the food grainy, smooth, creamy, hard, etc.
      • Photographs of clouds –
              • Cirrus, Stratus, Cumulonimbus.
      • Recordings of Monophonic, Homophonic, Polyphonic Music and a recording of Debussy’s Nuages .
    • 46.
      • Science Related Activity
      • Pictures, Definitions and Word Search
      • Types of Clouds and their Associated Weather Patterns
      • (Kindergarten, Second, Fifth and Seventh Grade Science Curriculum)
      • Types of Clouds
    • 47.
      • Types of Clouds
      • Cirrus Thin and wispy
      • Cirrostratus Sheetlike
      • Altocumulous Parallel bands
      • Cumulus White, fluffy
      • Cumulonimbus Reaching high into the sky.
      • Nimbostratus Low level, dark with precipitation.
    • 48. Cirrus – Thin and Whispy
    • 49. Cirrostratus – sheetlike
    • 50. Altocumulous –parallel bands
    • 51. Cumulus – White, fluffy
    • 52. Cumulonimbus – Reaching high into the sky.
    • 53. Nimbostratus – Low level, dark with precipitation.
    • 54.
      • Visual Arts Connections
      • www.impressionism.org
    • 55.
      • Bibliography
      • Bowmar, Edith M. Portraits of Composers. ND. Belwin, Inc. Miami, Fl.
      • Debussy, Claude. Three Orchestral Works in Full Score. 1983. Dover Publications, Inc.
      • Devoto, Mark. Review: Debussy's Nocturnes. 2001. Tufts University Press. Boston, MA.
      • Hinson, Maurice and Montgomery, June. Meet the Great Composers. 1995. Alfred Publishing Co. Van Nuys, CA.
      • Randel, Don Michael, Ed. The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Musicians. 1996. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts.
      • Cloud Image/Text/Data from the University of Illinois WW2010 Project, "The Cloud Catalog."
    • 56. Discussion
      • Christie Lynch: Department of Public Instruction
      • “ An Overview of Research on Music and Learning”
        • Larry Scripp
    • 57. Feedback from discussions
      • Planning ahead
      • Transfer- direct and indirect
      • Music MUST be integrated- we need to be better PR people- “team players”
      • Music should be integrated AND taught for its own sake
      • Promoting the importance of music on its own- be our best advocates
      • Strong association between music and core subjects
      • Behavior modification
      • Where’s the controversy?
      • Strong positive relationship between arts and core subjects
      • Positive social impact through study of arts
      • Engage our colleagues as advocates as well
      • Music is immature area in field of research
      • Use of curricular board
      • Fear that as we integrate- we become secondary
      • Immeasurable results?
        • New way of developing assessments
        • ESL

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