BPMN2012 Keynote Slides by Jan Recker

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slides from my keynote address at the BPMN 2012

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BPMN2012 Keynote Slides by Jan Recker

  1. 1. BPMN Research:What we Know and What we Don’t Know Professor Dr Jan Recker Information Systems School Science and Engineering Faculty Queensland University of Technology Q y gy Brisbane, Australia
  2. 2. Main Messages BPMN scholarship has matured, which is why we need to identify truly novel research problems. Research should shift from explaining Knowns to exploring Unknowns. We need to be Boundary Spanners to bridge the different BPMN communities. Community Understanding, Leverage and Engagement are some of the pathways that can aid the further development of this research field. 2
  3. 3. Agenda Looking backward: Reviewing BPMN Research Looking forward: Exploring U g p g Unknown U Unknowns Looking inwards: Researching the “Right Things” Q&A 3
  4. 4. Agenda Looking backward: Reviewing BPMN Research Looking forward: Exploring U g p g Unknown U Unknowns Looking inwards: Researching the “Right Things” Q&A 4
  5. 5. BPMN Research Publications(1000+) Peak Maturity or 2000 of hype 180 Retirement? 1800 mber of publications 160 ns 1600 umber of citation 140 1400 120 1200 100 1000 p f 80 800 Early 600 movers 60 40 NumNu 400 200 20 0 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Citations Number of publications 5
  6. 6. Popular themes in BPMN research How Can CFormal How do we we does it extend scale work? How it? it?F do we e Lin of Maturity make it rical better? Can How Can we should weEmpir ne M under- it be lever- stand used? age it? How is it? it used? alytical How good …Ana is it? The early years We’re up and running! Current efforts 6 2005-2007 2008-2010 2011-...
  7. 7. Which papers have impact? 400 120% 350 332 100% rs ution of Paper 300 80% Zone of Zone ofNumber of Papers 250 Zone of indifference ulative Distribu 200 ignorance impact 60% 181 (41%) 150 (57%) (2%) 40% Cumu 100 105 77 20% 50 43 15 8 0 0% 0 1-3 4-10 11-19 20-49 50-99 100+ Cumulative Distribution Number of Papers Regular power distribution 7
  8. 8. Which papers have impact? Authors Title Year CitationsP Wohed, W Van der On the suitability of BPMN for business processAalst, M Dumas… modelling 2006 181RM Dijkman, M Semantics and analysis of business process models inDumas, C Ouyang BPMN 2008 171 An evaluation of conceptual business process modellingB List, B Korherr languages 2006 141C Ouyang, M Dumas,AHM Ter Hofstede… From BPMN process models to BPEL web services 2006 127M zur Muehlen, How much language is enough? Theoretical andJ Recker practical use of the business process modeling notation 2008 121C Ouyang, WMP VanDer Aalst, M Dumas… Aalst Dumas Translating BPMN to BPEL 2006 109A Ghose, G Koliadis Auditing business process compliance 2007 107 On the translation between BPMN and BPEL: Conceptual mismatch between p p process modelinggJ Recker, J Mendling languages 2006 106A Awad, G Decker, M Efficient compliance checking using BPMN-Q andWeske temporal logic 2008 96J Recker, M Indulska, How good is BPMN really? Insights from t eo y a d ec e , du s a, o s ea y s g ts o theory andM Rosemann, P Green practice 2006 92 8
  9. 9. Work that defined the BPMNresearch community y Analysis of BPMN’s modeling capabilities Formalization of BPMN Semantics BPMN use in practice All well-researched and well-solved by now BPMN-to-BPEL BPMN and Compliance 9
  10. 10. Some tentative conclusions Several key problems are “solved” (at least academically) solved Capabilities in-theory and in-use Translation Semantics Increased maturity of the field increases demand for new research to avoid retirement as a research topic Novel contributions Advanced methodological and th Ad d th d l i l d theoretical rigor ti l i Blue ocean problems and topics? BPMN is becoming a commodity – not only as a standard but also in research Is there time to do something new? And if so, how do we get there? 10
  11. 11. Agenda Looking backward: Reviewing BPMN Research Looking forward: Exploring Unknown Unknowns g p gU U Looking inwards: Researching the “Right Things” Q&A 11
  12. 12. There Are Unknown U kTh A U k Unknowns http://www.youtube.com/watch?v jtkUO8NpI84 http://www youtube com/watch?v=jtkUO8NpI84 12
  13. 13. Implications for BPMN researchI li ti f h Unknown Unknown ion to S ting fromm t Knowns Unknowns exp ation Moving beyond the anati plora research comfort zone expla K Known Shift K Known Knowns e Unknowns 13
  14. 14. BPMN Research Examples- Known Knowns BPMN is used selectively in organizations, and not to its full extent. BPMN can be mapped to executable semantics. There are advantages and disadvantages of BPMN in comparison to other modeling approaches. BPMN is implemented in different ways by process engines. Model t t M d l structure, complexity, size, colour etc i fl l it i l t influence h how well ll participants understand a BPMN model. 14
  15. 15. BPMN Research Examples- Unknown Knowns Organizations use BPMN differently for different projects (redesign, implementation, compliance) implementation compliance). The individual and organizational benefits that flow from BPMN use. g Defining and implementing workflow systems starting with BPMN models. The BPMN usage differences between experts and novices. 15
  16. 16. BPMN Research Examples- Known Unknowns The level of errors in BPMN modeling is still high. How do we change that and what is the true impact? What is the best way to apply BPMN for process modeling? The use of BPMN in cultures with different aptitudes for forms, shapes and symbolic expressions. The process of BPMN development. The impact of new technologies for BPMN modeling. 16
  17. 17. BPMN Research Examples- Unknown Unknowns How do we use BPMN for different, future emerging purposes? What extensions to the standard will be required in the future? Will BPMN have a place in post-process paradigms? How will the BPMN community and its impact evolve? The influence of post-GFC, post-Greece on XXX… 17
  18. 18. How do we shift our thinking? Analysis and selective expansion of three key research resources Choice of method: Diversify: expand portfolio of research approaches Consolidate: analyse the analyses Integrate: connect empirical findings to design, design as theory, theory as design Choice of theory: Create: Build theories germane to the BPMN context Expand: extend reference theories through new constructs, relationships or boundary conditions Critique: assist paradigm shifts through conclusive falsification Choice of expertise: p Select: identify and differentiate different bases of BPMN expertise Enable: include and integrate community members Transfer: allow expertise and knowledge to permeate boundaries of organizations or communities 18
  19. 19. Agenda Looking backward: Reviewing BPMN Research Looking forward: Exploring U g p g Unknown U Unknowns Looking inwards: Researching the “Right Things Things” Q&A 19
  20. 20. What is the “right thing” to g gresearch? “A central mission of scholars is to conduct research that both advances a scientific discipline and enlightens practice in a professional domain.” Herbert Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial Often argued to be a knowledge transfer problem: Academic journals not read and not understood Practitioner magazines too lightweight and ‘fluffy’, lacking credibility My view is that the knowledge transfer lens is misleading; and a boundary spanning perspective potentially more fruitful. Thus, our research community h an obligation t occupy a b Th h it has bli ti to boundary spanning d i role.
  21. 21. What does boundary spanning y p gmean? Boundary spanners are roles in and across communities that perform a variety of important roles such as Sharer of expertise Representor instead of Gatekeeper Advice and trust broker Scout, ambassador, sentry and guardian Illustration by contrast: Academics continuously engage in practices that produce knowledge and new practices of relevance and interest to academia Develops a knowledge-based advantage (the raison d’etre for academics) These traditional practices also continuously reproduce and strengthen the boundaries to other fields Boundary spanning emerges through the identification of a new join t field
  22. 22. Towards Boundary Spanning- Three Pathways with Examples1. Understand the communities Develop an understanding of the topics and phenomena of interest and importance to different stakeholder groups2. Leverage knowledge from the communities Utilize research and insights from other communities in own research3.3 Engage the communities in collaborative work Include communities in participatory research 23
  23. 23. Understand the communities- Delphi study on current Issues (2008) Academics IT/BPM Vendors BPM Practitioners Standardisation Standardisation Training Model-driven Model-driven process Standardisation process execution execution Modelling views g Process discovery y Value of process modelling Flexibility Value of Governance process modelling Compliance Model management Modelling level of detail Methodology Modelling level of detail Model management Indulska, M., Recker, J., Rosemann, M., Green, P. (2009): Business Process Modeling: Current Issues and Future Challenges. In P. van Eck, J. Gordijn, and R. Wieringa (eds.): g j g ( ) Advanced Information Systems Engineering – CAiSE 2009. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 5565. Springer, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 501-514. 24
  24. 24. Understand the communities- Delphi study on future Challenges (by 2013) Academics Vendors Practitioners Model-driven Standardisation Value of process execution process modelling Methodology Value of Training process modelling Compliance Model-driven Buy-in process execution Service integration Training Governance Model integration Model management Adoption Standardisation Service orientation Business-IT-Alignment Indulska, M., Recker, J., Rosemann, M., Green, P. (2009): Business Process Modeling: Current Issues and Future Challenges. In P. van Eck, J. Gordijn, and R. Wieringa (eds.): g j g ( ) Advanced Information Systems Engineering – CAiSE 2009. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 5565. Springer, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 501-514. 25
  25. 25. Current boundary spanning islimited at best Issues Challenges 20 (2) 45 (4) 16 (1) 62 (5)P A V P A V 37 (4) 41 (3) Indulska, M., Recker, J., Rosemann, M., Green, P. (2009): Business Process Modeling: Current Issues and Future Challenges. In P. van Eck, J. Gordijn, and R. Wieringa (eds.): g j g ( ) Advanced Information Systems Engineering – CAiSE 2009. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 5565. Springer, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 501-514. 26
  26. 26. Leverage communities Build research collaborations that include representatives from different communities Example: Apromore Initiative (www.apromore.org) p p ( p g) Combines researchers from 7 universities, from computer science, information systems, management science, and software engineering g g g Sponsored by fed. government AND industry QUT Team: 4 academic f d i faculty lt 1 Post-doc 2 PhD students 2 solution architects In-kind 2 senior developers provision by 1 business analyst y industry partner Various research assistants and graduate students 27
  27. 27. an open‐source highly scalable SaaS platform to open source, manage large (BPMN) process model collectionsApromore variants management / organization merging 80% re-use similarity refactoring search 01000101 Process model 10100101 mining querying repository La Rosa, M., Reijers, H.A., van der Aalst, W.M.P., Dijkman, R.M., Mendling, J., Dumas, M., and Garcia-Banuelos, L. 28 "APROMORE: An Advanced Process Model Repository," Expert Systems with Applications (38:6) 2011, pp 7029-7040.
  28. 28. Case St d S C Study: Suncorp I InsuranceProduct Sales Service Claims 500 Dev p steps Home Motor 30 Commercial variations Liability CTP / WC • Estimated total number of process steps: 15,000 p p , • Total number of models: 3,000+
  29. 29. Engage communities Include different communities directly in the research process p at one or several stages of the research lifecycle Examples Integrate: Research on use AND development of the BPMN standard Communicate: Research on the use of BPMN in practice
  30. 30. Engage Communities g g - through integration Traditional Extended research research model modelRecker, J., Indulska, M., Green, P. (2007): Extending Representational Analysis: BPMN User and Developer Perspectives. In G. Alonso, P.Dadam and M. Rosemann (eds.): Business Process Management – BPM 2007. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 4714. Springer,Brisbane, Australia, pp. 384-399.
  31. 31. Interviewing the BPMN team Proforma Popkin / Telelogic IBM Mega Global 360Recker, J., Indulska, M., Green, P. (2007): Extending Representational Analysis: BPMN User and Developer Perspectives. In G. Alonso, P.Dadam and M. Rosemann (eds.): Business Process Management – BPM 2007. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 4714. Springer,Brisbane, Australia, pp. 384-399.
  32. 32. Research & Findings 33Recker, J., Indulska, M., Green, P. (2007): Extending Representational Analysis: BPMN User and Developer Perspectives. In G. Alonso, P.Dadam and M. Rosemann (eds.): Business Process Management – BPM 2007. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 4714. Springer,Brisbane, Australia, pp. 384-399.
  33. 33. Example Feedback Problems in capturing Business Rules Developer feedback: Voiced strong support that in the future there will be a better Transfer conducted integration between process modelling and business rule specification. Conduct transfer […]Transfercurrently within the OMG, there’s quite a lot of work on and Business Rule Editor (excerpt) Customer logged on to possible Business Rule 1 InternetBanking business rules being done. […] the idea is that certainly, rules will be kind of built better or at least more, made transferAmount BPMN at If to fit into < threshold(country) Then accept Else reject Customer least in terms of the underlying models, the meta models. Exactly specifies Check feasibility where we fit it in on the notational side, that’s something they need transfer Business Rule Library (excerpt) to work on in the future, so, we’re open to this and it seemed a Threshold Country Currency little Germany EUR (€) 12,000 beyond our scope at the time we were doing U.S.A. includeUSD ($) 15,000 Business Rule 1 it to too much on transferAmount business rule side of things. United Kingdom GBP (£) 10,000 Transfer impossible Display error message Error message displayedRecker, J., Indulska, M., Green, P. (2007): Extending Representational Analysis: BPMN User and Developer Perspectives. In G. Alonso, P.Dadam and M. Rosemann (eds.): Business Process Management – BPM 2007. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 4714. Springer,Brisbane, Australia, pp. 384-399.
  34. 34. Engage Communities g g- through result debates Re-frame research in different articulations, reports and formats and invite discussions, critiques and involvement from “the others”. Easily and conveniently achievable: Twitter, Blogs, community magazines Frame for discussion, not for education! Impact effects cannot be neglected: Community interest paper downloads problem definition academic interest citations Example: “How much language is enough?”
  35. 35. BPMN use is not as extensive as we thought it iszur Muehlen, M., and Recker, J. "How Much Language is Enough? Theoretical and Practical Use of the Business Process Modeling Notation,"in: Advanced Information Systems Engineering - CAiSE 2008, M. Léonard and Z. Bellahsène (eds.), Springer, Montpellier, France, 2008, pp.465-479.
  36. 36. Users are making deliberate g trade-offs Number of models that shared the framed constructszur Muehlen, M., and Recker, J. "How Much Language is Enough? Theoretical and Practical Use of the Business Process Modeling Notation,"in: Advanced Information Systems Engineering - CAiSE 2008, M. Léonard and Z. Bellahsène (eds.), Springer, Montpellier, France, 2008, pp.465-479.
  37. 37. Engage Communities g g- through results
  38. 38. Recap: Main Messages We need to identify truly novel research questions to maintain BPMN research momentum and avoid being a fashion wave. Increased maturity also means stronger demands for research rigor and methodological quality. We can achieve this by shifting our research focus from explanation to exploration. This will require a shift in theory, method and expertise utilization. We will maintain relevance and impact by more strongly assuming a role of boundary spanners. 40
  39. 39. Prof. Jan Recker, PhDWoolworths Chair of RetailInnovationInformation Systems SchoolScience and Engineering FacultyQueensland U iQ l d University of T h l it f Technologye j.recker@qut.edu.auw www janrecker com www.janrecker.comt janrecker

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